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and to teach it, it will become the science of sciences, and then, properly speaking, it will no longer be a science-but sensation, the prompt and lively sentiment of human nature. Then it would be madness to form it into a science; we should immediately fee writing upon writing, dispute upon dispute, courses of physiognomy opened, and thence forward it would cease to be, what it ought to be—the first science of humanity.
On what then shall I resolve? Shall I treat phyfiognomy scientifically? Yes, and no: sometimes I shall present oblervations the moft determinate-at other times I shall communicate simple sensations only, leaving it to the observer to investigate the characters of them, and to the philosopher to fix the determinations.--On many occasions I fall only invite the eye to see, and the heart to feel; and sometimes, addressing myself to an indolent spectator, shall say, that I may not appear altogether a fimpleton in his eyes, shall say to him in a whisper, · Here is something suited to your level; and this may lead you to conjecture that, in these matters, others may have more discernment than yourself.'
• Allow me to conclude this fragment by applying to my subject some ideas of a great man, who, to fingular and profound erudition, had fuperadded the gift of discerning spirits; a gift which he poffessed to such a degree that, by the external look only, he decided whether a fick man, whom all the skill of the physician could not relieve, had nevertheless faith to be healed.
• Now we know but in part, and our explanations, our commentaries are nothing but fragments; but when perfection is come, these feeble essays shall be abolished. For they are hitherto only the ill'articulated language of a child; and these fame ideas, these efforts fhall appear childish to me, when I arrive at maturity. Now we see the glory of man darkly as through a veil ; we shall ere long behold face to face. Now we know but imperfectly, but I shall foon know, as I myself have been known, of Him who is the principle, the prime mover, and the end of all things! To him be honour and glory to all eternity! Amen,'
· The reader will undoubtedly expect that I should endeavour to prove, by some instances, that it is posīble to reduce physiognomy to a science. I mean to produce only a few preliminary examples; as my chief aim is to encourage the reader himself to engage in the career of obfervation.-Besides, my work will furnish continual proofs of what I advance, though I am very far from believing that the age we live in is deftined to produce a scientific system on physionomies, and much less that I am the person to whom the world is to owe the obli. gation. Let us begin only by collecting a sufficient number of ob. Tervations, and endeavouring to characterise them with all the precision, all the accuracy of which we are capable. As to myself, my
atmost ambition is to prepare materials for the next age; to leave me. moirs, relative to my great object, to some man poffefred of ten times more leisure, and of talents and philosophic genius far superior to mine; and bequeath to him, if I may so express myself, this truth, " A system of phyfiognomy is a possibility.'
1 he principal point in question is to discover what is evidently determined in the features, and to fix the characteristic signs, the exe pression of which is generally acknowledged. All I ask, therefore, at present is, whether or not the small head below be scientifically determinable from the outline of the forehead and eyebrows? whether this forehead and these eyebrows do not announce a character entirely different from what it would be, did the contour of the forehead form a straight line, or if the eyebrows were raised in the form of an arch? I ak no more.'
We have already, in two former Reviews *, taken notice of the French original, and have only to add here that we dare say the public will receive the translation with pleasure. It will afford amusement to the idle, and, as announcing a new science, will occupy the attention of the thinking mind. And though the philosopher will not meet with a regular and correct theory of physiognomy, which the author does not promise, nor indeed was to be expected from the labours of one man, yet he will admire the ingenuity, acuteness, and various knowledge, of the writer, will be astonished at his ardour and energy of mind, and pay that just tribute to his benevolence of heart which it so highly deserves. Nor will he rise up without improvement from the perusal of the work; for though, like the alchymists in former days, he may not succeed in his main object, viz. in difcovering an unerring criterion to determine the qualities of the heart and mind from the outward form, yet the search will reward him with much useful knowledge. To the amateur this publication must be a real acquisition, as, according to the present value of engravings, the prints alone it contains are fully equivalent to the price he pays for the whole work, and the letter-press may be considered as given gratis.
Every one acquainted with works of this kind, where so many artists are employed, must know that unexpected delays are únavoidable; we cannot therefore join in some complaints which we have heard against the proprietors for dilatoriness in the publication. We are rather surprised that they have been able to do so much, than angry at their having done too little; and we dare say that gratitude for the encouragement they have met with, as well as their own intereft, will keep their best exertions awake, that they may meet the ardour, and merit the further approbation of the public.,.
* Nov. and Dec, 1786.
ART. II. The Scotch Preacher; or, A Collection of Sermons, by
Some of the most eminent Clergymen of the Church of Scotland, Vol. IV. 12mo.' 35. 'sewed. Dickson, Edinburgh; Elliot and Kay, London, 1789. '
THE public have had for some time before them two works
1 in divinity, the one entitled " 'The English Preacher,' the other "The Scotch Preacher.' The first is a judicious compilation from the most celebrated English authors, and forms a very useful body of practical divinity.
The Scotch preacher, now in its fourth volume, is an original work, being a publication of discourses by fundry Scotch divines of the present day, and uniting in its plan both variety and novelty.
Considering this volume as a joint effort of a community, it lays claim to more of our attention than any single volume published by an individual, where one quotation would serve to point out a general manner, and where remarks on the style of one fermon would be applicable to all the rest. We shall therefore be more minute and discriminating in our examination of "The Scotch Preacher;' and shall first call the attention of our readers to the ift, 2d, and 8th sermons of the work before us; which appear to be the production of men of superior parts, and are at the same time written in that splendid manner on which the public seem most willing to bestow their approbation.
Let the following description of our Saviour's resurrection bear testimony to our opinion:
* Twice had the fun gone down upon the earth, and all as yet was quiet at the sepulchre ; death held his sceptre over the Son of God; still and filent the hours passed on; the guards stood by their poft, the rays of the midnight moon gleamed on their helmets, and on their spears; the enemies of Christ exulted in their success; the hearts of his friends were sunk in despondency and in sorrow; the fpirits of glory waited in anxious suspense to behold the event, and wondered at the depth of the ways of God. At length the morningftar arising in the east announced the approach of light; the third day began to dawn upon the world, when on a sudden the earth trembled to its centre, and the powers of heaven were shaken; an angel of God descended, the guards shrunk back from the terror of his presence, and fell proftrate on the ground; ., his countenance was like lightning, and his raiment was white as snow :' he rolled away the stone from the door of the sepulchre, and sat upon it. But who is this that cometh forth from the tomb, with dyed - garments from the bed of death ? He that is glorious in his appearance, walking. in the greatness of his strength! It is thy prince, Ö Zion! Christian, it is your Lord. He hath trodden the wine-press alone; he hath :
stained his raiment with blood; but now, as the first-born from the womb of nature, he meets the morning of his resurrection. He arises a conqueror from the grave; he returns with blessings from the world of spirits; he brings salvation to the fons of men. Never did the returning sun usher in a day so glorious! it was the jubilee of the universe. The morning-stars sung together, and all the sons of God shouted aloud for joy; the Father of Mercies looked down from his throne in the heavens; with complacency he beheld his world re. stored; he saw his work that it was good. Then did the desert rejoice; the face of nature was gladdened before him, when the bles. sings of the Eternal descended as the dew of heaven for the refreshing of the nations.'
In this happy effort on a difficult topic it is with reluctance we object to the introduction of the poslible or probable circumstance of the moon shining on the armour of the guard. In an enumeration of the circumstances and truths connected with the cardinal doctrine of Christianity, nothing should have been admitted which had not an immediate foundation in scripture record.
From the 2d sermon we give the following extract, as an instance of animated reasoning, and of good composition. The preacher is recommending to his hearers attendance upon public worship from the consideration of the regard they owe to their brethren; the audience seems to have been composed of the higher ranks of life :
« Think of the condition of those who are beneath you, your de. pendents, your brethren, to whose virtue and happiness some regard is due. Think of the condition of your humbler brethren-toiling to procure a scanty subsistance, with hardly a sufficient interval of repose to recruit their spirits for the renewal of their labours, they are left with minds uncultivated by education, to encounter the temptations of want and wretchedness, while no leisure is afforded them to review their conduct, or to think of the purpose for which they are placed on the earth. From persons thus circumstanced what could we expect? how barren and defolate would their minds be! how grovelling their views! how precarious their virtue! were it not for the regular return of those institutions of the gospel by which they are raised to the knowledge of God and of their duty. To them is it not of the mercies of heaven' that a day is consecrated in which they are permitted to repose from the cares of life, in which they are invited to approach the temple of the Lord, to pour out their souls before Him who made them, and to indulge their trust in that gracious Providence, which careth for the happiness of every creature that lives? Is it not of the mercies of heaven' that a day is consecrated, in which they are called upon, by men appointed to the task,' to consider the things that belong to their peace ;' in which they are warned of the snares and temptations of life; in which they are infructed in the duties which God hath required of them, and folaced
with the hopes which the gospel opens to sweeten their existence, and, to animate their virtue ?
And will you, whom God hath blessed with so many other means of instruction and comfort, will you teach your less fortunate brethren to despise the most precious advantages of their condition? will you declare to them that there is no truth in the doctrines which religion reveals ; that there is no obligation to the duties which it enjoins; that there is no reality in the consolations which it admi. niiters, confolations which are open alike to the rich and to the poor, and which can gladden the hearts of those who are strangers to every other joy? Such, however, is the language of your conduct, when you omit to assemble yourselves in the lioule of God.
- There may, indeed, be a secret respect for religion in the hearts of fome, who mingle not in its outward institutions. But the ignorant, whom your behaviour must influence, are incapable of making the distinction; they regard your forsaking the sanctuary as a public declaration on your part that you have abandoned the religious character, and they are led, by their imitation of you, to renounce that faith in God which is the firmest guardian of their bappiness and their virtue.
Let me exhort you, then, to respect the institutions of the gospel, were it only for the sake of those to whom you cannot but acknow- ledge that they are necessary. Go before them in the path to hea
ven, and lead them, by the light of your example, to the fear and the love of that God on whom all alike depend. It is no unreasonable service in which we exhort you to mingle. If you were called, as in the days of pagan darkness, to bow before the shrines of ima. ginary deities, whose characters were stained by folly and vice, and whose praises were to be celebrated by a thousand idle ceremonies, in which reason and virtue might blush to share; if this were the worship in which we exhorted you to join, you might contemplate with horror the impious scene, and imagine that you were contributing to the best interests of your brethren while you were labouring to break the bands of a superftition so dishonourable to God, and so debasing to man.
• But it is a pure religion which is established in our land. It hath evidences of its truth which we trust will be sufficient to convince the candid; and it is the least that can be said of it, even by its enemies themselves, that it is a system adapted to the best principles of the human mind, neither tainted by any mixture of those gross fuperftitions which for so many ages prevailed in the earth, nor disgraced by those barbarous and unhallowed rites by which the blinded nations paid their homage to their gods. It prescribes a re. fined and rational worship, the worship of the understanding and the heart,' offered to one God, the creator of the world, through · one Mediator between God and man.' It inculcates on its professors a pure morality, fitted to lead them to all that is excellent in conduct, and opens to them hopes that are congenial to their nature, and which every virtuous mind will rejoice to cherish. " This is that true light which the nations desired to behold, and which the prophets saw from afar, and were glad. Rejoice that on us who