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motives of self-interest to prescribe their discharge. A general feeling of sympathy also as to the distresses of others, which is in fact little more than an instance of the natural association of painful ideas derived from our selfish experience, will naturally prompt us to desire the happiness rather than the misery of those about us. Nor will I at all deny the common existence of an easy and kind temper,-of an amiable, although I fear imperfect, principle of benevolence. It is the alienation and perversion of a moral constitution originally designed pure and good, that the Scriptures assure us of, -of powers enfeebled, and passions misdirected and aggravated,—not of the utter extinction of every good feeling,—not of the substitution of principles simply evil; but, if we estimate our duties aright, we shall assuredly feel that these social duties, important as they are, are yet a single branch only, and that an inferior branch, of our moral obligations. Higher, infinitely higher, must be those which arise from the relations which creatures owe to their Creator, the source of being and of every good. What can so properly claim the highest affections and supreme regard of moral agents, as the contemplation of that Being whose very essence is abstract goodness ? Reason unites with Revelation in pronouncing that the first and great command of moral obligation is, and must be, “ Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.” But who can for a moment compare the actual state of his affections and feelings with a rule like this,-a rule, notwithstanding, which the full conviction of his reason approves, --and not become deeply conscious how lamentably imperfect in this highest relation those feelings and affections remain? What an incapacity is there in our minds to fix themselves on the contemplation of Deity! What coldness and deadness of affections towards Him! What torpor as to spiritual objects! What distaste and disinclination for spiritual services. This is, as we all experience, a state of feeling perfectly distinct from unbelief of those objects ; for we are sensible of it, even while most firmly persuaded of the truth of those objects. But yet, how such a state of feeling can be coexistent with a belief in these things would surely seem unaccountable, did not our own experience assure us of the fact. Yet even when our reason has been most deeply impressed with the proofs which the exquisite frame and provisions of nature bear to the incom: prehensible perfections of the almighty Author of nature,—even when we have accepted, with the conviction of faith, the revelation of the still greater riches of his grace,--still, how often does it seem that these most powerful considerations are insufficient to excite any warm and lively affection : how little does our spirit feel of that thirst for Himself, even the living God, which yet we admit to be the genuine character of true devotion! What, then, can account for such lamentable imperfection, such complete failure in that which forms the very highest branch of all moral obligations, the first source of all moral affections, unless we ascribe it to a fearful depravation of our moral constitution from its original state? If we could strip ourselves of our own experience, if in imagination we could for a moment place ourselves in the condition of any other order of moral intelligences, and suppose those intelligences to speculate à priori as to what would be the feelings which would arise in the minds of moral agents endowed with reason, and capable through that reason of arriving at the knowledge of the Deity, and of all their obligations to Him their view of the Deity forming, indeed, the very crown and perfection of their reason ;-if, I say, we could conceive any other order of spiritual intelligences speculating à priori on the feelings with which beings thus constituted must regard the Deity ;-can we for a moment suppose, that they would believe to be possible such a languor of affections as we experience? Is it not, then, clear that this languor, this alicnation and estrangement of the soul from her God, implies, that her original constitution has undergone a fatal change? But if the source of our whole moral duties be thus polluted in its very

first springs, is it at all probable that the stream can flow onwards pure and undefiled ? I have already admitted indeed, and accounted for on obvious principles, our superior discharge of the social duties of the second table. But even here we shall find, that the love of our fellow creatures, in order to be pure and consistent, must proceed from that love to the Creator, in which we have seen ourselves to be so deficient. Natural kindness of temper may indeed carry us far, but may still stop short when most needed. The question is not, how we perform our social duties when they happen to be agreeable to our inclinations, but, how we discharge them when they exact severe sacrifices, and impose painful self-denial,- how far the narrow spirit of selfishness is extinguished in us,-how far we regard every man, not his own things, but the things of others, in interest, as in honour, preferring one another. Who is there that can read over that most lively picture which St. Paul has drawn of Christian charity, and flatter himself that he is reading a description of his own natural character ?

· I have thus endeavoured to impress on you the primary importance of forming a just estimate of the actual moral condition of our nature; since it is only when thus sensible of an existing evil, that we can seek or appreciate the means of restoration, which it is the great object of our religion, as a remedial dispensation, to propose.'

pp. 147-151. The brief observations which follow, on the Scriptural explanation of the cause of this moral depravation as connected with the fall of our first parents, are characterized by the true modesty of philosophy, and are well adapted to satisfy the candid inquirer.

This specimen may perhaps be sufficient as a recommendation of the volume; but we cannot dismiss it without adverting to the erudite and valuable essay on the grammatical principles of the Aramean languages. This must, however, form the subject of a distinct article; and we shall then more particularly examine, how far the Author's scheme of Theology can be considered as comprehending all the cardinal doctrines of the Christian Faith.

Art. II. Du Ministère Evangélique dans ses Rapports avec l'Etat

Actuel des Eglises Réformées de France. Sermon prononcé à Montvilliers, le 16 Sept. 1832, pour la Consécration de M. Jean Sohier; par M. G. de Félice, Pasteur de l'Eglise Réformée de Bolbec. [On the Ministry of the Gospel, in its various Relations to the Present Condition of the ed Churches of France ; a Sermon, including the Charge, at the Ordination of the Rev. John Sohier, at Montvilliers, Sept. 16, 1832. By the Rev. George de Félice, Past. Ref. Ch. Bolbec, Lower Seine.] 8vo, pp. 68. Paris, 1832.

IT T is to our regret that we have not till just now obtained this

pamphlet. As a discourse, if we refer to its qualities in style, reasoning, solidity of judgement, pathos, and scriptural piety, it would deserve much more than an ordinary encomium ; but, as an indication of causes and tendencies which are now in vigorous operation, and as an expression of the character which belongs to a happily increasing party among the French Protestants, it possesses extraordinary value. With that body of Christians, in the sixteenth century, the Church of Scotland stood in intimate relations: and the interest which belongs to it is deeply participated by the friends of Evangelical truth in England and Ireland, both of the Establishment and of the Dissenting body. What feeling mind can help cherishing such an interest; or would wish to be exempted from it? The most exact research seems to shew, that no country upon earth has produced so many martyrs for the truth of Christ, as France and its frontier regions. The murderous horrors of two centuries, and the banishment or flight of the thousands who escaped the edge of the sword, could not extirpate Protestantism from the soil of France. At the peril of life, its sons and daughters maintained their profession, and frequently held large assemblies for religious worship in dells, deserts, woods, and rocks. Lewis XVI., in 1787, gave them political existence; for till then, during more than a century, they had breathed by sufferance; they could legally hold no property, their marriages were invalid, and their children were held 'illegitimate. The presumption of law was, that no Frenchman was a Protestant, and no Protestant a Frenchman ; yet, the Protestant population of France was about a million. By the Revolution, that terrific earthquake, they were introduced to equal rights with all their countrymen. The attempts of the restored Bourbons to destroy those rights, was one of the means by which those ungrateful and insane persons sapped their own throne. But the infidel frenzy of the Republic, and the military mania of the Empire, seemed to have becn fatal to the religion of the Protestants. Yet the spark, though buried deep, was inextinguishable. The providence of God guarded it ; and his Spirit has quickened it to a flame. Within the last fifteen years, throughout the whole range of the Protestant churches of France, there has been a delightful revival of the spirit, purity, and power of scriptural godliness; and, though the decisive impression is as yet upon a minority, that minority is increasing ; it is found almost every where; it is huinble, lively, full of holy sensibility, active in its efforts, yet prudent and cautious, and abounding in prayer. The advantage and duty of liberation from state-connexion are openly professed ; and churches are, in several places, to be found totally disengaged from that connexion. Their presses aid their pulpits. Many excellent books on the topics of Scriptural faith and practice, in different modes of composition, are constantly issuing; partly republications of old works, (Calvin, Beza, Nardin, Saurin, &c.,) partly by new and signally able authors, and partly translations from the English and the German. Bunyan, Mason, (“on selfknowledge,”) Watts, Adam, of Wintringham, Newton, Scott, Wilberforce, Milner, Burder, Grace Kennedy, Mrs. Sherwood, Chalmers, Henry Blunt, Bickersteth, Abbott, (“Young Christian”.), &c. &c., are among the British authors recently clothed with a French dress. Our language is assiduously cultivated by ministers, pious students, and young persons extensively, that they may be able to unlock our theological and religious treasures. Two or more periodical works are published at Paris, in the spirit of candid but pure and consistent orthodoxy ; the " Archives of Christianity” every fortnight; the “ Sower, (Sémeur,) or Journal of Religion, Politics, Philosophy, and Literature,” every week ; the “ Missionary Accounts," we think, monthly. There is a goodly number of Societies founded on principles of Evangelical Christianity, which hold their annual meetings in one week of the month of April. The recital of those last held will not be unwelcome to our readers.

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• 1834, Monday, April 14. Meeting for special Prayer, to implore the blessing of God upon all the public engagements of the week.

• Tuesday. Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for diffusing Religious Knowledge by Tracts. During the year past, its issues had averaged 900 Tracts for each day.

· Wednesday, noon. Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Protestant Bible Society.

evening. The Evangelical Society of France, for diffusing the knowledge and practice of scriptural religion, by Bibles, Tracts, Schools, and Preaching the Gospel, wherever an opportunity can be found.

Thursday, noon. Society for Evangelical Missions to non-christian nations. It has six missionaries in different parts of the heathen world; and three students are preparing for the work in the Missionary. Institution belonging to the Society, which is conducted upon an

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admirable plan. The study of the English language is a part of the course, in order that the future missionaries may be able to read British and American authors.

Friday, noon. The French and Foreign Bible Society ; a new institution, not the rival but the friendly offspring of the older society, and comprehending a wider range than that conceives itself authorized to attempt.

* All the preceding meetings were begun and concluded with prayer, and the larger number of them also with singing the praises of the Redeemer.

• Thursday evening. The Swiss Beneficent Society.

• Saturday morning. The Society for the Encouragement of Elementary Education among the Protestants of France: begun and ended with prayer.

Monday, April 21. The Society for the Promotion of Practical Christianity. [La Société de la Morale Chrétienne.] The President, the Marquis de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt, expressed himself strongly in favour of evangelical principles, “the anchor of salvation," as those

upon which alone sound morality could rest. • Tuesday evening. A general meeting for Prayer and Thanksgiving.

* A considerable portion of five mornings, during this hallowed week, was devoted to “ Pastoral Conferences," in which more than thirty ministers, from different parts of France, deliberated upon the means the most proper to be pursued for the advancement of religion in their own country.'

Another fact we cannot refrain from mentioning. Among the Roman Catholics themselves, by their own efforts, the circulation of the Bible is greatly encouraged. An elegant edition of De Sacy's Translation (a very excellent one) of the whole Bible is publishing in parts, and one hundred thousand copies are printed. In a similar manner, an edition of De Genoude's Version is begun, under the patronage of the Archbishop of Paris.-And this where, twenty years ago, one might have traversed all the book-shops and stalls in the metropolis of France, and scarcely have been able to find a single French Bible ! In saying all this, we are by no means insensible to the

general infidelity and wickedness of the French population. But things are to be judged of by comparison. Look' back but half a generation ! Surely these are forerunners of “the Lord whom we seek!" Surely these are “ voices crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord:--the kingdom of heaven is at hand; repent and believe the gospel!"

We have been led into this long wandering from our point, -M. De Félice's admirable Discourse. The text is 1 Tim.iv. 16. “ Persevere in these things,” &c. M. de F. affirms, that the master evils which, in the present day, oppose the progress of real religion in France, are, Infidelity, Indifference to all religion, and Pharisaical Formality under the name of religion. On each of

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