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and the pilgrim has the satisfaction of believing that they are the petrified grain of the Creator, left on earth to remind him of his creation. They now form a monopoly and source of profit to the priests of Tatta.'
32–31. We do not clearly understand the latter part of the story; but Ram Chunder, we presume to be no other than Krishna, the Apollo and Dionysius of the Hindoo pantheon, whose worship appears to have prevailed all along this coast. Dwaraca, in the savage district of Okamundel, the land's end of Gujerat, is another famous place to which pilgrimages are made from all parts of India; but there, Runchor, the name given to the same deity, has a magnificent pagoda erected to his honour, with numerous subordinate temples, bearing on their flags representations of the sun and moon. What is most remarkable about the sacred spring of Hinglaj is, that it should have no temple erected over it. It derives, most probably, its original sanctity from its importance as a caravan station in the route to Kerman. Superstition has sometimes been the protector of commerce.
Lieut.-Col. Pottinger's work has made us acquainted with the geography of this part of the country; and we therefore pass over the Author's description of Sinde, and his interview with the Ameer of Hyderabad, the sovereign of Southern or Lower Sinde. Northern Sinde is subject to the Khan of Khyrpoor, by whom Lieut. Burnes was received with much hospitality and all due honour. He holds the important insular fortress of Bukkur, which commands the navigation of the Indus on the Sinde frontier, as also the fertile territory of Shikarpoor, wrested from the Afghans. The country to the south-east of Hyderabad, is in possession of a third independent Ameer, who resides at Meerpoor. All three chiefs are branches of the Belooche tribe of Talpoor. The subversion of the Cabool monarchy, which has freed them from the payment of a yearly tribute, has greatly raised the importance of this principality, which comprises, altogether, an area of 100,000 square miles, with a population of about a million.
About 100 miles above Hyderabad, near the base of the Lukkee mountains, which there close upon the river, is Sehwun or Sewistan; a place of some importance in ancient days, and supposed by Lieut. Burnes to be the capital of the Sambus Raja of Arrian. The ruined mosques and towers which surround it, proclaim its wealth in the days of Mogul splendour, when it was the residence of a governor. In the centre of the town, stands the mausoleum of Lal Shah Baz, a Mussulman saint who was interred there about six centuries ago, and the odour of whose sanctity still survives. • The miracles of Lal Shah Baz are endless, if you believe the
people. The Indus is subject to his commands, and no vessel dares to pass his shrine without making a propitiatory offering at his tomb. Thousands of pilgrims flock to the consecrated spot, and the monarchs of Cabool and India have often visited the sanctuary. The drums which proclaim the majesty of the saint, are a gift from the renowned persecutor, Alla-o-deen, who reigned A.D. 1242; and the gate, which is of silver, attests the homage and devotion of a deceased Ameer of Sinde. The needy are daily supplied with food from the charity of the stranger; but the universal bounty has corrupted the manners of the inhabitants, who are a worthless and indolent set of men. The Hindoo joins with the Mahommedan in his veneration of the saint ; and artfully insinuates Lal to be a Hindoo name, and that the Mahommedans have associated with the faith of their prophet the god of an infidel creed. A tiger, once the tenant of the neighbouring hills, partakes of the general bounty in a cage near the tomb.
By far the most singular building at Sehwun, and perhaps on the Indus, is the ruined castle which overlooks the town, and is in all bability as old as the age of the Greeks. It consists of a mound of earth 60 feet high, and surrounded from the very ground by a brick wall. The shape of the castle is oval, about 1200 feet long by 70 in diameter. The interior presents a heap of ruins, and is strewed with broken pieces of pottery and brick. The gateway is on the town side, and has been arched : a section through it proves the whole mound to be artificial. At a distance, this castle resembles the drawings of the Mujilebe tower at Babylon, described by Mr. Rich in his interesting Memoir. The natives afford no satisfactory account of this ruin, attributing it to the age of Budur-ool-Jamal, a fairy, whose agency is referred to in every thing ancient or wonderful in Sinde. It is to be observed, that the Arul river passes close to the castle; and we are informed by Quintus Curtius, that, in the territories of Sabus Raja, (which I imagine refers to Sehwun,) Alexander took the strongest city by a tunnel formed by his miners. A ruin of such magnitude, therefore, standing on such a site, would authorize our fixing on it as the very city "where the barbarians, untaught in engineering, were confounded when their enemies appeared, almost in the middle of the city, rising from a subterraneous passage, of which no trace was previously seen.” So strong a position would not, in all probability, be neglected in after times; and in the reign of the Emperor Humaioon, A.D. 1541, we find that monarch unable to capture Sehwun, from which he fled on his disastrous journey to Omercote. His son Acbar also invested Sehwun for seven months, and, after its capture, seems to have dismantled it. There are many coins found in the castle of Sehwun; but among thirty, I could find no trace of the Greek alphabet. They were Mohammedan coins of the sovereigns of Delhi.'
Vol. III. pp. 56, 58. A voyage of nine days from Sehwun, brought the Mission to Bukkur, (the ancient Munsoora,) a distance, by the river, of 160 miles. This singular fortress occupies an insulated rock of flint, about 800 yards in length, and 300 in diameter, dividing the Indus into two streams, cach about 400 yards wide; and the waters lash the rocks which confine them, with noise and violence. The fortified island is a beautiful object, its towers being shaded by lofty trees, and the tall date-palm droops its foliage on the mosques and walls. Over against it, on the left bank, the town of Roree is built on a precipitous flinty rock, and on the opposite shore stands the town of Sukkur: both towns have been considerable, owing their position to the insular fortress. A precious relic, a lock of Mohammed's hair, enclosed in a golden box, attracts the Mussulman pilgrim to Bukkur, though the inhabitants are chiefly Hindoos. There are several other islets near it, on one of which stands the shrine of Khaju Khizr, a Mussulman saint, under a dome, that contributes to the beauty of the scene. About four miles to the s.E. of Bukkur, a small hamlet, with ruined tombs, and a bridge of three arches thrown across the deserted channel of a branch of the Indus,-attest the existence and ancient importance of Alore, the capital of a Brahmin kingdom which is said to have extended from Cashmeer to the ocean, and from Candahar to Kanouj. It sank under the arms of Mohammedan invaders so early as the seventh century; and Lieut. Burnes thinks, that it may be identified with the kingdom of Musicanus, which Alexander found to be governed by Brahmins, and the richest and most populous in India. Larkhanu, on the opposite side of the Indus, the capital of the pergunna of Chandkoh, and the rallying point of the Ameers of Sinde on their north-west frontier, is supposed to mark the country of Oxycanus. Alexander is stated to have despatched his superannuated soldiers thence, by the country of the Archoti and Drangi, to Carmania ; and the great road westward branches off from Larkhanu, crossing the mountains by the pass of Bolan, to Kelat and Kerman.
A hundred and twenty miles above Bukkur, Lieut. Burnes passed out of the territory of the Ameer of Khyrpoor, and entered the country of Bhawul Khan, the chief of the Daoodpootras (or Davidsons), who possesses a strip of land on the left bank of the Indus, extending southward to lat. 28° 33'. The district immediately below this chieftain's territory is named Oobaro, and is inhabited by aboriginal Sindees, called the Duhrs and Muhrs. On the right bank, the Sinde territory stretches higher up, to within fifteen miles of Mittunkote, where (in lat. 28° 55') the waters of the Punjaub, in one united stream, fall into the Indus, which there spreads to the magnificent width of 2000 yards. At that place, taking a farewell of its waters, Lieut. Burnes entered the Punjnood, or Chenaub, and ascended it to Ooch, the capital of Bhawul Khan. This town, situated near the junction of the Garra (as the joint streams of the Beyah and Sutlej are called) with the Chenaub, is a place of considerable traffic, with a population of 20,000 persons. On the second day after leaving Ooch, pursuing the navigation of the Chenaub, our Traveller passed into the Seik territory, where he was met by a mihmandar from the Maharaja, attended by a large retinue. In three days more, he came in sight of the domes of Mooltan. The Author's description of this ancient capital will, we think, interest our readers.
• The city of Mooltan is upwards of three miles in circumference, surrounded by a dilapidated wall, and overlooked on the north by a fortress of strength. It contains a population of 60,000 souls, one third of whom may be Hindoos : the rest of the population is Mohammedan, for, though it is subject to the Seiks, their number is confined to the garrison, which does not exceed 500 men. The Afghans have left the country since they ceased to govern. Many of the houses evidently stand on the ruins of others: they are built of burnt brick, and have flat roofs ; they sometimes rise to the height of six stories, and their loftiness gives a gloomy appearance to the narrow streets. The inhabitants are chiefly weavers and dyers of cloth... The tombs of Mooltan are celebrated. One of them, that of Bawul Huq, who flourished upwards of 500 years ago, and was a contemporary of Sadee, the Persian poet, is considered very holy ; but its architecture is surpassed by that of his grandson, Rookn-i-allum, who reposes under a massy
dome sixty feet in height, which was erected in the
year 1323 by the emperor Tooghluk, as his own tomb. There is also, (in the interior of the fort,) a Hindoo temple of high antiquity, called Pyladpooree; mentioned by Thevenot. ... It is a low building, supported by wooden pillars, with the idols Hooneeman and Guneesa as guardians to its portal. It is the only place of Hindoo worship in Mooltan: we were denied entrance to it.' Vol. III. pp. 110–12, 116.
Mooltan is one of the most ancient cities in India ; and Lieut. Burnes thinks, there is no reason to doubt that it occupies the site of the capital of the ancient Malli, which Major Rennell would place higher up, and nearer the banks of the Ravee. Mooltan may be considered, he admits, to answer in some degree to the description of the Brahmin city and its castle which Alexander captured before attacking the capital of the Malli ; but there are no ruins near Tolumba, (the site pointed out by Rennell,) to justify fixing upon that place as the capital.
The manufactures of Mooltan and Bhawulpoor, the kais and loongee (silks) seem to assist in fixing the country of the Malli ; for Quintus Curtius informs us, that the ambassadors of the Malli and Oxydracæ (Mooltan and Ooch) wore garments of cotton, lawn, or muslin (lineæ vestes) interwoven with gold and adorned with purple; and we may safely translate lineæ vestes into the stuffs of Mooltan and Bhawulpoor, which are interwoven with gold, and most frequently of a purple colour.' Vol. III. p. 115.
Above Mooltan, a desert stretches from the Chenaub to the Indus; and a greater part of Bhawul Khan's territory is a barren waste of sand hills. Bhawulpoor stands on the left bank of the Sutlej, and contains a population of 20,000. The Rajpoot principality of Bicaneer bounds the territory on the east, and that of Jessulmeer on the south ; the Garra forms in part the northern frontier ; but at Bhawulpoor, the boundary crosses that river, running westward to Julalpoor.
On the fourth day after re-embarking at Mooltan, Lieut. Burnes quitted the Chenaub, and entered on the navigation of the Ravee or Hydraotes, 'still called by the natives, Träotee.? The Bedusta, or Hydaspes, a smaller stream, falls into the Chenaub about forty-five miles to the northward. The timber of which the boats of the Punjaub are constructed, is chiefly floated down by the Hydaspes from the Indian Caucasus; a fact which, our Author remarks, satisfactorily explains the selection of its banks by Alexander, as the site of a naval arsenal, in preference to the other rivers, by any of which he might have reached the Indus without a retrograde movement. About equidistant from the Ravee and the Bedusta, stands the town of Shorkote, near which are found ruins resembling those at Sehwun, but much more extensive; and the brick wall surrounding the mound is so high as to be seen at the distance of from six to eight miles. Lieut. Burnes visited this site, which he fixes on as the place where Alexander received his wound in pursuing the Malli; and he had the good fortune to procure some coins there, two of which have proved to be of Bactrian monarchs, and the Greek word Bazileos may be read. At length, on the 17th of July, (three months and five days after embarking at Tatta,) he came in sight of the minarets of the ancient capital of the Mogul empire, the termination of his protracted voyage; and, as the sun set, saw for the first time the masses of mountain which encircle Cashmere, clothed in their mantle of snow.
Lahore presents nothing very remarkable, and we shall not be tempted to dwell on the Author's presentation to the Maharaja, and the ceremonial of the Seik court. It is more interesting to learn, that to the s.E. of that capital are to be seen remains of a city, with a lake in the vicinity, answering to the ancient Singala.
On taking leave of Maharaja Runjeet Sing, Lieut. Burnes proceeded to Umritsir, the holy city of the Seiks, and the emporium of commerce between India and Cabool; - distant from Lahore thirty miles. He then crossed the Sutlej to Lodiana, where he met the two ex-kings of Cabool, now pensioners of the British Government, Shah Zuman, and Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk. From this place he proceeded to Simla, in the mountains, a journey of 100 miles, to lay before the Governor-General the results of his mission.
We now proceed to take up the Author's narrative of his subsequent travels, as given in the first two volumes. It being