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afterwards by predictions of still increasing clearness; till, at the last, he spake openly to his disciples. Well knowing the malice of his enemies, the bitterness of that death which he was about to taste for the sin of the whole world, and the inconceivable horrors which he should endure in those hours of darkness, he yet spake and acted with all the serenity of a composed mind. The near approach of his sufferings diminished in no respect the consistent firmness, which had marked his earlier conduct.

The feast of the passover drew nigh: and Jesus came to Jerusalem. The discourses, which he there delivered, had all a reference to his death, and the important issues depending upon it. He foretold the destruction of the holy city: and declared, with even greater precision than before, “Ye know, that after two days, is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.” Twice, during the week preceding his passion, had our Lord been anointed with precious ointment; and, on each occasion, he reminded those who witnessed with indignation this costly demonstration of respect, that she who performed the office had done it for his burial.a

“ Then

c Matt. xxvi. 2. d Matt. xxvi. 6... 19. Mark xiv. 3...9. John xii. 3...7.

came the day of unleavened bread, when the passover must be killed." And Jesus sent Peter and John, to make ready the passover; discovering in the minuteness of his regulations, his perfect knowledge of every future contingency. “And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer; for, I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God;" until that, which is foreshadowed by the significant emblem of the paschal lamb, be fulfilled by the sacrifice of the true “ Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world ;” until the Gospel dispensation be established, and that heavenly kingdom be appointed, in which "ye may eat and drink at my table.”h These words of Christ contain a distinct allusion to the typical nature of the paschal lamb. The precise mode, in which the type was to be “fulfilled in the kingdom of God,” is not, indeed, for the present pointed out. But enough was said to excite the attention of the disciples, and to enable them to understand, and to call to remembrance, when a fuller revelation of the


e Luke xxii. 7.
8 John i. 29.

of Luke xxii. 14, 15,
h Luke xxii. 30.

Divine counsels should be made to them, that their Lord had told them before it came to


Accordingly, in the allusion which St. Paul makes to the typical character of the Jewish passover, he introduces the fact, as one well known to his Corinthian converts, of which they require rather to be reminded than informed. He is commanding them to put away from among them an incestuous person; and he urges his injunction, by an unforced reference to the Jewish feast of unleavened bread, which was probably near, at the time his epistle was written. “ Know ye not,” says the Apostle, adopting a proverbial expression, " that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out, therefore, the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ, our passover, is sacrificed for us : therefore let us keep the feast, not with the old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.”! This assertion of the Apostle implies, that the passover, in all its circumstances, bore a designed and acknowledged reference to the death of Christ.

The same intimation of the typical nature of the paschal lamb is also supplied by the


1 Cor. xvi. 8.

k Gal. v. 9.

11 Cor. v. 6, 7, 8.

interpretation of the Old Testament, given by the evangelist St. John. He saw, and bare record, that after the crucifixion of our Lord, the soldiers came, and brake the legs of those who were crucified with him; “but when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs.” And he declares, that “these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.”m Now there are three passages in the Old Testament, to which it has been supposed that reference is here made. The first two are the commands given with respect to the paschal lamb, in which the Israelites were forbidden to “ break a bone thereof:n and the third is that assertion of David, “ Many are the afflictions of the righteous; but the Lord delivereth him out of them all. He keepeth all his bones; not one of them is broken." But the close correspondence, between the form of words adopted by the evangelist, and those which were originally spoken of the paschal lamb, shows clearly, that his immediate intention was to quote the passages which describe the insti- . tution of the passover. But there is no contradiction in supposing, that an allusion was also intended to the words of David, who, being a prophet, in asserting the general care of the Almighty over the righteous, might be guided by the Spirit of God, to speak of him who was peculiarly “the Holy One, and the Just.”P He might use words, which bore reference to the preceding type, while they prophetically indicated the corresponding circumstances, which the Divine Providence should accomplish in the future antitype.


1 Exod. xii. 46. Numb. ix. 12.

m John xix. 32, 33, 36.

Psalm xxxiv. 19, 20.

St. John, therefore, writing, as we believe, by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, applies to the person of Christ, passages in the Old Testament, which have a direct reference to the paschal lamb. This could not be, unless he regarded the one as foreshewing the other : unless he considered the passover of the Jews as a figure of those things which were to be “ fulfilled in the kingdom of God,” by the death and passion of our Saviour Christ.

The prediction, then, of our Lord, and the words of his apostles, teach us to regard the paschal lamb as typical of the death of Christ. And upon referring to other passages of Scripture, the suggested correspondence, in every particular, is found to be wonderfully exact.

The animal sacrificed at the passover, was to be a lamb without blemish.' Christ is styled

p Acts iii. 14.

4 Exod. xii. 5.

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