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belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life;" it is evident that God speaks concerning that serpent that was a beast of the field. And yet it is also evident by the Old Testament, that he has respect to something pertaining to the state of the devil, that should be brought to pass by the Messiah; as by Isai. lxv. 25. "The wolf and the lamb shall feed together; and the lion shall eat straw like the bullock, and dust shall be the serpent's meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain;" compared with Isai. xi. 1-9, together with Isai. xxvii. 1, and Zech. iii. 1, 2, &c. Thus the very first thing that was ordered and established in this world after the fall, was a type of the Messiah, and was ordered as such: which argues that typifying of the Messiah is one principal way of God's foreshowing him. And as types and prophecies of the Messiah began together, so there is reason to think that they have kept pace one with another ever since.
It is more credible, that not only some particular events that came to pass among the Jews, or things appointed to be done among them, should be typical, but that the state or constitution of the nation, and their way of living in many things, was typical, because we have an instance of an appointment of a way of living in a particular family or race, to continue from generation to generation, in the chief and more important things appertaining to the outward state and way of life, requiring that which was very diverse from the manner of living of all others, and that which was very self-denying, in order to typify something spiritual The instance I mean is that of the posterity of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, who was required by the command of Jonadab, commanding them by the spirit of prophecy to drink no wine, nor build any house, nor sow seed, nor plant vineyard.
It is a great argument, that the ancient state of the nation of Israel, and both things that appertained to their religious constitution, and God's providential disposal of them, were typical of the Messiah; that the Jews themselves anciently thus understood the matter. The ancient Jewish rabbies (as Mr. Basnage, in his history of the Jews, observes, p. 36S,) judged that all things happened to their fathers as types and figures of the Messiah. See also Bp. Kidder's Demn. of the Messiah, part 2, p. 40, and part 1, p. 73, 74. Ibid. p. 111, 112. Ibid. 150, and part 2, p. 67, 71. 77, 78, and 106.
As to the Historical events of the Old Testament, it is an argument that many of them were types of things appertaining to the Messiah's kingdom and salvation, that these things are often in the Old Testament expressly spoken of as represented or resembled by those historical events. And those events are sometimes not only mentioned as resemblances, but as signs and pledges of those
great things of the Messiah. In Isaiah xli. Abraham's great victory over the kings and nations of the east, is spoken of as a resemblance of the victory of the Messiah and his people over their enemies. Abraham is here called the righteous man, verse 2; as the Messiah in the same discourse: in the beginning of the next chapter, the Messiah is called God's servant, that shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles, and bring forth judgment unto truth, and set judgment in the earth. God is said, xli. 2, to call Abraham to his foot. Chap. xlii. 6, it is said of the Messiah, "I have called thee in righteousness." Of Abraham it is said chap. xli. 2, "That God gave the nations before him, as the dust to his sword, and as the driven stubble to his bow:" And this is spoken of for the encouragement of God's people, as a resemblance and pledge of what he would do for them in the days of the Messiah, when he would cause their enemies before them to be ashamed and confounded, to be as nothing and to perish; so that they shall seek them, and should not find them, and they that war against them shall be as nothing, and as a thing of nought; and they should thresh the mountains and beat them small, and make the hills as chaff; so that the wind should carry them away, and the whirlwind should scatter them. Verses 11, 12. 15, 16.
The church or spouse of the Messiah is spoken of, in Cant. vi. 13, as being represented by the company of Mahanaim, that we have an account of Gen. xxxii. at the beginning, made up of Jacob's family and the heavenly host that joined them.
The redemption out of Egypt is very often in the Old Testament spoken of as a resemblance of the redemption by the Messiah. Num. xxiii. 22, 23. "God brought them out of Egypt, he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn. Surely there is no enchantment against Jacob, neither is there any divination against Israel. According to this time shall it be said of Jacob and of Israel what hath God wrought?" Mic. vii. 15. "According to the days of thy coming out of the land of Egypt, will I show unto him marvellous things." Isaiah xiv. 1. 3, 4. Oh that thou wouldest rend the heavens; that that thou wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow down at thy presence! When thou didst terrible things that we look not for, the mountains flowed down at thy presence. For since the beginning of the world, men have not heard nor perceived by the ear," &c. Isaiah xi. 11. "And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time, to recover the remnant of his people which shall be left from Assyria, and from Egypt;" together with verses 15, 16. This redemption out of Egypt, is evidently spoken of as a resemblance of the redemption of the Messiah. In Psalm lxviii. 6. "God bringeth out those that were bound
with chains." Verse 13. "Though ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow gold;" in which there is an evident reference to the people's hands being delivered from the pots in Egypt. Ps. lxxxi. 6, and the context, makes this evident. And the drift and design of the psalm shows this to be a promise of the Messiah's redemption. God's dividing the Red sea and the Jordan, and leading the people through them, are often spoken of as resemblances of what God shall accomplish for his people in the days of the Messiah. Isai. xi. 11. "And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people that shall be left-from Egypt." Ver. 15, 16." And the Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea, and shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and cause men to go over dry shod. And there shall be an high way for the remnant of his people, which shall be left from Assyria, like as it was to Israel, in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt." Isai. xliii. 2, 3. “When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee-for I-gave Egypt for thy ransom ;" ver. 16, 17, 18, 19. "Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters, which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise: they are extinct, they are quenched as tow. Remember not former things-Behold, I will do a new thing." Chap. xxvii. 12. “And it shall come to pass at that day, that the Lord shall beat off from the channel of the river under the stream of Egypt," (or the Lord shall strike off, or smite away both the channel of the river and the stream of Egypt,) " and ye shall be gathered one by one, O ye children of Israel." Chap. li. 10, 11. "Art not thou it which hath dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed of the Lord to pass over? Therefore, the redeemed of the Lord shall return and come with singing unto Zion," &c. Ver. 15. "But I am the Lord thy God, that divided the sea," &c. Chap. lxiii. 11, 12, 13. " Then he remembered the days of old, Moses and his people, saying, Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? Where is he that put his Holy Spirit within him? That led them by the right hand of Moses, with his glorious arm, dividing the water before them, to make himself an everlasting name? That led them through the deep as an horse in the wilderness?" Psa. lxviii. 22. "I will bring my people again from the depths of the sea." Zech. x. 10, 11. "I will bring them again also out of the land of Egypt and he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite the waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river
shall dry up, and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away."
The destruction of Pharaoh and his host in the Red sea, is spoken of as a resemblance of the destruction of the enemies of God's people by the Messiah. Isai. xliii. 16, 17. "Thus saith the Lord, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters; which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise." And particularly Pharaoh's destruction in the Red sea, is spoken of as a type of the Messiah's bruising the head of the old serpent or dragon. Isai. li. 9, 10. " Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O arm of the Lord. Art not thou it that hath cut Rahab and wounded the dragon? Art not thou it which hath dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep, that hath made the depths of the sea a way for the ransomed to pass over? Therefore, the redeemed of the Lord shall return, and come with singing unto Zion," &c. Pharaoh is called leviathan and the dragon in Psalm lxxiv. 13, 14, as the devil is in a like destruction in the Messiah's time, Isai. xxvii. 1. That Pharaoh is intended in those forementioned places by the dragon and leviathan, is very manifest from Ezek. xxix. 3, and xxxii. 2.
The joy and songs of the children of Israel at their redemption out of Egypt, and their great deliverance from the Egyptians at the Red sea, are spoken of as a resemblance of the joy God's people shall have in the redemption of the Messiah. Hos. ii. 15. "And she shall sing there as in the days of her youth; and as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." The Spirit of God seems to have reference to the manner of his leading and guarding the people when they went up out of Egypt, in going before them to lead them, and behind to keep the Egyptians from hurting them; and to compare what he would do in the Messiah's days thereto. Isai. lii. 12. "For ye shall not go out with haste, nor go by flight: for the Lord will go before you; the God of Israel will be your rereward;" the God of Israel, that God that thus led Israel out of Egypt, when he entered into covenant with them, and became the God of that people. Here see Pool's Synopsis on Exod. xii. 14. God's leading the people through the wilderness, is spoken of as a resemblance of what should be accomplished towards God's people in the Messiah's times. Isaiah lxiii. 13. "That led them through the deep as an horse in the wilderness." Psalm lxviii. 8. "O God, when thou wentest before thy people; when thou didst march through the wilderness;" compared with the rest of the psalm. Hos. ii. 14, 15. "I will allure her, and bring her into the wilderness, and speak comfortably to her, and she shall sing as in the days of her youth; as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." Ezek. xx. 3437. "And I will bring you out from the people, and gather you
out of the countries wherein ye are scattered, with a mighty hand and with a stretched out arm, and with fury poured out," (plainly alluding to God's manner of redeeming the people out of Egypt.) "And I will bring you into the wilderness of the people, and there will I plead with you face to face; like as I pleaded with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so will I plead with you, saith the Lord God. And I will cause you to pass under the rod, and will bring you into the bond of the covenant." Where we may also observe that God's speaking with the people face to face, and entering into covenant with them, and making them his covenant people when he brought them out of Egypt, is spoken of as a resemblance of God's revealing himself to his people in the days of the Messiah, and bringing them into a covenant relation to himself by him. God's appearing with the children of Israel in a pillar of cloud and fire, is spoken of as a resemblance of what God would do for his people in the days of the Messiah. Isai. iv. "And the Lord will create upon every dwelling-place of mount Sion, and upon her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flame of fire by night. For upon all the glory shall be a defence." The quaking of the earth and of mount Sinai, at the time of the giving of the law, is spoken of as a resemblance of what should be in the Messiah's days. Ps. lxviii. 8. "The earth shook-even Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel.” So the great effect of God's presence on the mountains, and especially mount Sinai's being all enkindled by so great and dreadful a fire, is plainly spoken of as a resemblance of what should be in the days of the Messiah. Isai. lxiv. 1-4. "Oh that thou wouldst rend the heavens, that thou wouldst come down, that the mountains might flow down at thy presence, as when the melting fire burneth-When thou didst terrible things which we looked not for, thou comest down; the mountains flowed down at thy presence. For since the beginning of the world men have not heard," &c. So the rain that descended on the people, at the time of the thunder and lightning at mount Sinai, or at the time of the great hailstones that God sent on the Amorites, Psalm lxviii. 7, 8, 9. “O God, when thou wentest forth before thy people; when thou didst march through the wilderness, the earth shook, the heavens dropped at the presence of God. Thou, O Lord, didst send a plentiful rain, whereby thou didst refresh thine inheritance when it was weary." These things do abundantly confirm, that the redemption out of Egypt, and the circumstances and events that attended it, were intended by the great disposer of all things to be types of the redemption of God's people by the Messiah, and of things appertaining to that redemption.