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• Higher schools.

'Government provides all citizens with the means of cultivating the useful arts and sciences according to their own choice.

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To this end it establishes a canton school above the common national schools, and a high school (Hochschule) or university. The canton school is divided into a gymnasium and a technical school (Industrieschule).

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The gymnasium is a preparatory school for those who wish to devote themselves to the learned professions.

The subjects of instruction in the lower gymnasium (for pupils from twelve to sixteen years of age) are: religion, Latin (from its rudiments), Greek, mathematics, geography, history, singing, instruction in drawing, calligraphy.

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In the upper gymnasium (for pupils from sixteen to nineteen years of age):

First (lowest) class,

'Religion, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, German language and literature, mathematics, natural history, and geography. Second class,

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Latin, Greek language and literature, Hebrew language, German language and literature, history, mathematics, physics.

Third (upper) class,

The same, mathematical geography; introduction to the philosophical studies.

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For all classes, singing.

There are two public examinations in the year.

• Technical school.

This school is for all those who follow technical professions, and the different trades. It is divided into two parts.

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The lower technical school is for pupils from twelve to fifteen years of age, and either prepares them for the upper, or finishes their education for any of the common trades.

The subjects of instruction are, religion, mathematics, natural history, and physics; geometrical and common drawing; German aud French languages; history and geography; practical arithmetic; singing, calligraphy.

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In the upper technical school it is left to the choice of every student to take what lessons he pleases, but if once entered he must attend them. Many of the students are engaged in business during the greater part of the day.

The subjects of the lectures are, mathematics, natural philosophy; geometrical and common drawing; commercial arithmetic, and book-keeping; the German, French, Italian, and English languages; calligraphy.

In the lower technical school there is one public examination every year.'

For the whole canton school there are lessons in gymnastics, swimming, and fencing.

The rectors of the gymnasium and the technical school are

chosen for two years by, and from among, the different.

masters.

Every pupil, on entering the canton school, pays 4 franks (=5s.); and according to the number of his lessons he pays to the school from 16 to 40 franks a-year. Part of the salary of the masters depends on the number of pupils in their classes. Several higher' schools, called district schools, have been newly established in the country (corresponding to the lower part of the gymnasium, and of the technical school at Zürich), which are chiefly intended to diffuse a greater amount of sound knowledge and useful accomplishments among the middle classes of society, who consist, in this canton, of tradespeople and farmers.

'The University.

• The object of the university is partly to cultivate and to extend the general province of all science, partly to improve church and state, by bestowing a superior education for the learned professions.'

In almost all respects the new university at Zürich resembles the German universities; and in all probability it will soon be superior to many of them, both in the number of students and the facilities which it affords for the study of all the different sciences, especially for the study of medicine and philosophy. Although many German states have issued a regulation, in consequence of which a German student incurs very great disadvantages by frequenting it, yet the number of students in this second half-year is increased by about forty. It is to be hoped that several of the German princes will soon repeal that regulation, the more so, as the present government of Zürich seems likely, by a closer connexion with Germany, to raise the cultivation of the whole state to a level with that of its neighbours; to which indeed they may well feel themselves entitled, by numbering among their former citizens so many great and able men, such as Zuinglius, Gesner, Lavater, Pestalozzi, and many others.

The university and canton school have many advantages over similar establishments in Germany. The situation of the professors and teachers is more independent both on account of their greater privileges and of the greater political toleration. For instance, the government has no power to remove any master from his situation without allowing him a pension; to which, however, the master is not forced to consent, except he be found guilty in a court of justice of something which renders him unfit to continue in his situation. Upon the whole, the university and canton school bid fair to fulfil the expectations of their founders. Among the students there seems to exist a particular taste for natural history and natural philosophy, which the situation

and nature of the country certainly favour and encourage very much. The neighbourhood of the Alps offers the most ample scope for the practical study of mineralogy, botany, and geology. Many students are attracted by Professors Oken and Schönlein, the latter of whom is considered in Germany as one of the first pathologists of the present day*. The catalogue of lectures already surpasses in number and variety of subjects those of some of the smaller universities in Germany.

We add several regulations and remarks extracted from the report of the council of education on the law of public instruction.

'Form and geometry (" Formen- und Grössenlehre," being a preparation for Euclid, and the subject of Euclid treated on Pestalozzian principles) are introduced as new subjects of instruction into the elementary and practical courses in the common national schools. These two subjects have proved to be as excellent for cultivating the mind, as they are of practical use to the future tradesman, manufacturer, mechanic, and artist.

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The Council of Education was less inclined to prescribe the introduction of a particular method, as in this very point the prin ciple of freedom is to be fully acknowledged. There is no one only true method. For these reasons the council was contented with pointing out the general features of a good method.

With respect to religious instruction, the Council of Education distinguishes the religious instruction given at school from that belonging to the church; the former is the business of the schoolmaster, the latter of the minister. No pupil of a common national school is to have religious instruction of the church, which instruction properly begins with the fifteenth year, and is continued till confirmation.

Only once in the year new pupils are to enter school after the upper divisions have left. By receiving them twice in the year the number of classes is doubled, and teaching is rendered much more laborious. It would be a great disadvantage to the public schools, and cause the greatest trouble to the masters, if it were left to the choice of parents when to send their children to school; all children therefore who have passed their sixth year at the beginning of the summer half-year, (at Easter,) are to enter school at that time.

'The majority of the council decided, that in future no difference should be made as to the instruction of boys or girls in the common national schools.

With respect to the salary of masters, it is remarked:

"Without good schools, there is no welfare of the nation; without good masters, there are no good schools; without sufficient income, no good masters.

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In a large school, where there is only one master, the pupils of *See p. 156.

one of the upper classes are obliged, by turns, to assist the master according to his own arrangement.

The cultivation of science and of the useful arts is not, by any means, to cause a division of caste between their respective students, who are therefore united in the one canton school at Zürich. They have gymnastics together, which besides the inestimable advantages they afford to physical development and the preservation of innocence, lead them to consider one another as common pupils, indebted for the benefits of their education to the same state*. Pupils of riper years may take advantage of both divisions of the canton school, especially in the study of ancient and modern languages. They may finally, after passing the prescribed examination, proceed from one division into the other.

'Excepting the rare cases of extraordinary talent combined with physical strength, no youth can enter the university with advantage before his nineteenth year. The life at college requires such strength of mind and character, such an insight into the object aimed at during such a life, into the nature and the proper study of science, that entering it too precipitately is always followed by the most serious consequences, such as squandering away the most precious time for study; adopting the master's opinions without any judgment of one's own; fickleness, and a superficial acquaintance with all necessary information.

'From a knowledge of what the present state of civilization requires, the school (gymnasium) is to acquaint the pupil, by a wellgrounded study of the languages of the two principal nations of antiquity, with the forms of their republican institutions, with the grandeur of their public life-freed as it was from the shackles of outward authority-with the wonderful productions of their poetry, eloquence, and philosophy-and through these to inspire the susceptible youth with noble emulation. However, the instruction in the ancient languages must never again preponderate to the neglect of other no less important subjects; neither must it be carried on so as to pay attention merely to the formal part, and little or none to the real contents; but, by cultivating through the ancient languages the formal part of understanding, a sense for the beautiful and for truth is to be awakened at the same time.

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History presents the most appropriate matter for various exercises in the mother tongue.

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In the last class of the upper gymnasium the pupil sufficiently prepared by this time is to be introduced to philosophical studies. The subjects are logic, philosophy of the mind, and the proper arrangement of academical studies.

The study of the Hebrew language is required from those who prepare themselves for the study of divinity.

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Students who have left the upper technical school may attend university lectures.'

This friendly feeling among pupils of different schools in the same or in different places, has always attended the practice of gymnastics in Germany, wherever they have been carried to any degree of perfection.

With respect to the uniting of three separate colleges (which till lately existed at Zürich), namely, one of law, one of divinity, and one of medicine, it is said in the report:

'Numerous facts, principally in the Catholic states of Germany, and in France, prove, without leaving any doubt, that all such special colleges do not answer the purpose; indeed, they cannot follow the general progress of science. Not only are young men of the same country too early estranged from each other by different interests, but they take with them, and establish in society, their limited views, and a spirit of caste; and what is the worst, their studies, instead of being enlivened and directed by the noble desire for the inquiry after truth, become mechanical, and are directed by motives of gain. For they always are in want of that common link of all sciences, which philosophy (as this term is understood by all nations of German stock) offers to the three faculties, of divinity, law, and medicine.

It will be indispensable for the future divine to make himself thoroughly acquainted with the science and art of education, if he wishes fully to satisfy the duties of his calling, and, as a true teacher, to further the welfare of his fellow-creatures.'

The number of professors at the university is twentyfive.

Besides these there are many private lecturers (PrivatDocenten), many of whom are at the same time teachers at the canton school.

The university counts at present about 200 students, a considerable number under the present circumstances.

In the canton school there are altogether 31 masters and 300 pupils.

The number of common national schools is
Schoolmasters engaged in them

Secondary (higher) schools

450

500

50

(Many of these are yet being established.)

30,000

Pupils above 12 and below 17

20,000

50,000

Pupils below 12 years of age

or, nearly one-fourth of the whole population (220,000).

The state pays yearly for schools 80,000 Swiss francs, or 50001. English money.

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