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tively laid down and demanding an obedience, becomes a school of discipline from which the rich may gather prudence, and must occasionally learn forbearance. But from a variety of circumstances incidental to poverty the social check is less in action; the peasant labouring for his daily bread feels himself dependent but on himself for his subsistence-all that he receives from society is unperceived-the word itself, perhaps, serves only to convey to his mind that class of people which is richer than himself, and instead of being conscious that it is a whole of which he forms a part, he looks upon it as his greatest enemy.
Unless we wish to make the poor an instrument in the hand of every knave to the filling up the measure of their own misery, and to the keeping the social fabric continually tottering to its base, it is absolutely necessary to join a knowledge of their duties and their true condition to the other branches of the education of the poor.
Four trades are taught in the school at Menars: that of cartwright, saddler, joiner, and blacksmith. The choice of each depends on the parents, and the expenses incident to each are different; but to all is given a uniform instruction in arithmetic, geometry, and mechanics. As to the mode in which these are taught, it is sufficient to remark that the method laid down by M. Dupin is the one pursued. The director of the Arts and Trades is M. Aurioust Mestivier, formerly captain in the artillery, and of the Polytechnic School, who, as well as the teachers under his direction, are persons of distinguished ability.
Of the four years' course the first is employed in acquiring a knowledge of the elements of the trade selected, and in learning reading, writing, and arithmetic; the second year comprises (besides the trade, which of course is a principal consideration throughout the whole term) drawing, particularly with regard to decoration, and geometry. The third year includes some notion of mechanics, descriptive geometry, and linear drawing; and in the fourth year the results of the whole are examined with a view to their perfection.
It has been already said that the expense incident to the different trades is different, and this arises from the following arrangement. The annual charge of each is 147.; but by attention and industry on the boy's part this may be considerably reduced. Whenever the pupil has acquired sufficient skill to give his work any value, this work will be sold for his advantage, after the charge for materials furnished him shall have been deducted. A calculation has been made of the returns of such work, and they are proved by experience
to be such as to diminish the yearly expense very considerably. The estimated average for the four years is, for the cartwright, 57. 4s. 2d.; for the joiner, 67. 15s. 73d.; for the blacksmith, 77. Ss. 1d.; and for the saddler 71. 17s. 11d. And in order to ensure the continuance of a boy for the full time, the premature withdrawal of any one will subject the parents to a fine equal to the charge of a half year's schooling. A written contract to this effect is made between the parties at the boy's admission, and the efficiency of this contract is secured by its being cognizable by the legal tribunals. The dress of the Arts and Trades is, like that of the Prytaneuni, uniform. For working days a complete suit, coloured neckcloth, and cap; for Sundays and festivals a round jacket of a certain form, blue trowsers for winter, white for summer, and a black stock; a round glazed hat, two white shirts, two coloured, four coloured handkerchiefs, four pair of drawers, three cotton caps, three towels, two pair of laced boots, fork, spoon, &c., two pair of sheets, iron bed. A register is likewise required to be provided by each boy, that he may keep an exact account of the produce of his own labour as well as the amount of the materials which have been furnished by him.
The interior regulations are in no way behind those of the Prytaneum; the dormitory, different of course in the quality of the furniture, is similar in its neatness and wholesomeness. The dinners are equally well arranged; the food excellent and abundant; all that can be suggested for the health and well-being of its inmates has been anxiously provided. In case of illness the medical advice in attendance at the Prytaneum is gratuitously afforded.
A medal is annually bestowed upon the best workman in each department, and all the creditable specimens which have been executed are sent every spring to the fair at Blois. This indeed is the chief opportunity which occurs for the sale of their labours.
Such is the institution of Menars all that we would add are a few words on its resources and its author. The conception and execution of the plan are to be entirely attributed to the Prince Joseph of Chimay, a Belgian by birth, of the family of Caraman, but now residing in France, at the château of Menars, an estate of the family. Independently of the valuable uses to which the domain at present contributes, the spot is not without some interest as one chosen by the celebrated Pompadour for her abode, for whom her royal lover dismantled part of the château of Blois, and built the mansion which now stands. There, at Menars, the Prince,
with his family, forming a strange contrast with the first possessors, passes the greatest part of the year, and devotes himself to the superintendence and upholding of that which his munificence and benevolence have created.
Before the Belgian revolution this nobleman was attached to the Dutch embassy at London, and whilst here he employed himself in accurately observing all those outward elements of our wealth, and much more in studying carefully the inner and more complicated nature of our moral and intellectual existence. It seems that immediately on his settling in France he commenced the undertaking now accomplished, the value of which must depend upon the want that is felt for it; and this want is sufficiently proved by the exertions which the French government have been and are making, with the aid of M. Cousin, to the same purpose. To all friends of France who feel the deficiencies of education in that country, its future prospects must be most cheering; and it is to be fervently hoped that the exertions of the ministry and those of private individuals will soon be the cause of sound and ennobling principles taking root in a soil which has been so laboriously prepared for them.
The Prytaneum has been erected at the sole expense and under the single superintendence of the individual we have mentioned; and so far from speculation on the future prospect of interest entering into his plan, the annual receipts do not yet meet the outgoings, nor until the numbers be considerably increased will this be the case. But even then, an increase of pupils will be likewise a source of increased expense, for additional buildings will be required, and whatever may conduce to the advantage of so many students will be added; as an instance of which we may mention the probable erection of a riding-school. The Prytaneum stands close adjoining to the gate of the château; and as the only play-ground beyond the walls of the Prytaneum is the park, and the only entrance to the park through the courts of the château, the two establishments may in some respects be said to be connected by the same domestic ties-for nothing can conduce more to the encouragement of such domestic associations, than the enjoyment of the same spot for the purpose of recreation aad amusement.
There is no day that the Prince is not among the pupils ; few that the Princess is not there likewise. The terms of confidence and regard which exist on both sides are highly striking; and this desirable feeling, which improves the moral character of both superior and inferior, exists not only between the Prince and the pupils, but equally between them
and the director and professors. A sensible and a rational discipline is invariably exerted; and this combination of discipline and confidence is that in which we, in most of our systems of education, must acknowledge our deficiency: the distance which is so often kept up between teacher and pupil produces restraint on the one side, reserve on the other, and frequently mutual dislike. But at Menars there is no such separation; the two parties seem unconscious that they could have separate interests or separate privileges, of which they could be mutually jealous; the repulsive power is no way in force. In the park, during play hours, the presence of any, either of the family or of the teachers, throws no check on what is going forward. We have witnessed this with the highest interest. In fact, with respect to this institution, it is the spirit visible whether in school or out of it, this cheerful spirit of well being, which persuaded us, more than all its rules and regulations, that a true system of education had been put into operation as an illustration, in some degree, of this may be mentioned an observation of one of the boys to us, that if any of them were not happy there it would be difficult to know where they could be happy; 'for,' he added, the Prince and M. Sauriac (the director) do all they can to make us so.'
We do not often see a man of that situation and age of life-for the Prince is not twenty-six-who has so thoroughly extricated himself from the temptations incident to such a condition (and that he had done so while living in the midst of the dissipation of London, Brussels, &c. is evident, by his mind being sufficiently matured to put such a plan into execution immediately on his having the opportunity), as to live so truly using the world but not abusing it; for he is no recluse of whom we are speaking, but one always living in the world, of domestic and active habits, performing all the duties of relation and neighbour; one who is following the steps of the highest philosophy, although he would be the last person to consider himself entitled to such a character.
Our conviction of the utility of the Prince of Chimay's labours, and our admiration of the motives which have induced him to conceive, as well as the intelligence which has enabled him to execute such a plan, appear to us sufficient reasons for presenting this slight sketch to the public.
EDUCATION OF NATIVES IN INDIA *.
Ir appears that, from an early period in the history of British India, the Protestant mission, conducted successively by Messrs. Zeigenbald, Gericke, Kiernander, and Schwartz, under the patronage of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, had schools at Madras, Cuddalore, Tanjore, and Trichinopoly, in which they instructed the natives, and in aid of which they obtained occasional grants of money from the local governments. Permission to receive, free of freight, from the Society in England, various supplies in aid of these undertakings, was always given by the Court of Directors of the East India Company.
A permanent annual grant was authorized by the Directors in 1787, towards the support of three schools, which had previously been established with the sanction of the respective rajahs at Tanjore, Ramenedaperam, and Shevagunga. Each of these grants amounted to 250 pagodas (1007. sterling), and the schools were placed under the direction of Mr. Schwartz. By a further direction of the Court, an allowance of equal amount was authorized in favour of any other schools that might be opened for the same purpose.
In the beginning of 1812, a Sunday-school was established at the suggestion of the military chaplain, and supported by means of the contributions of several European residents at the presidency of Madras. The object of this school was to afford elementary instruction to the half-caste and native children of the military and others resident there. The object being approved by the government, an endowment of 300 pagodas (1201. sterling) per annum was granted for the support of the school. The mode of tuition adopted was that known in England as the Bell or Lancasterian system, but which originated on the Malabar coast more than two centuries ago.
The English chaplain at Palamcottah having established two free schools, one at Palamcottah, and the other at Tinnevelly, under the auspices of the Madras corresponding Committee of the Church Missionary Society, solicited pecuniary aid from the government for their support. This application did not meet with a favourable consideration by the authorities of Madras, in consequence of the plan of instruction which had been adopted being thought likely to offend the prejudices of the natives. It does not appear that this apprehension was well founded, since the schools were attended by children of all castes, without any alarm being
*Continued from No. XII.