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Alteration of the course of Study pursued in Public Schools.-A new system, so far as the education of pupils is concerned, has been lately introduced into the Royal Colleges in the French metropolis. The junior classes, from the sixth to the third, go through a course of natural history, elementary mathematics, and geometry. But when they quit the third class, they have the choice of one of two distinct courses of study. The youth to whom languages and literature are an object, enters into the second, and thence into the rhetorical class; whilst a course of special instruction in the higher mathematics and natural sciences is open for the youth who is not intended for what is termed a professional career.
Literary Men on the Pension List-One of the French papers has published a list of literary men and females who receive an annual allowance out of the secret service money at the disposal of the government. The number of these pensioners amounts to eight and thirty. The smallest amount of allowance is forty, and the greatest, one hundred and twenty pounds. Amongst those who enjoy the latter, is the widow of Abel Rémusat. We observe also the following well-known names on the list; Sonnet, forty pounds; Charles Nodier, seventy-two; Andrieux, eighty; Méry, sixty; Barthélemy, sixty; and Champollion Figeac, forty-eight pounds.
The Royal Library, on the 1st January, 1833, contained 1,985,000 volumes, including the MSS., engravings, and numismatical works. In the course of the present month (January, 1834) the number of volumes will be two millions or upwards, since nearly twenty thousand volumes have been added to the library during the twelve intervening months.
National Education in France.-The bill for regulating primary instruction in France, introduced into the Chamber of Deputies by M. Guizot, and passed into a law on the 28th of June, provides for the establishment of schools of the following descriptions.
Every commune is bound to provide, either by itself or conjointly with one or more neighbouring communes, one primary school of
the lowest order. In this school, moral instruction is to be given to the children; reading, writing, the principles of the French language, ciphering, the elements of geography and history, and an acquaintance with the authorized system of weights and measures, are to be taught. The master of this establishment is to be furnished by the commune with a suitable house, surrounded with a field, and he is to have a fixed salary, the minimum of which is to be 200 franes (8l. 6s. 8d. ;) in addition to which he is to receive, from such of the parents of the children as can afford it, certain fees. The fees are to be exacted not by the master himself, but by a public officer delegated by a council of commune on his
Courty-towns having a population exceeding 6000 souls are bound, individually or conjointly, to maintain a school of the second class (secondary schools), in which, in addition to the instruction given in the first or lower order of schools, the children are taught the elements of geometry, with its ordinary application, particularly to linear drawing and land-measuring; the elements of the physical sciences and of natural history, as they are applicable to the common uses of life; singing, the elements of history and geography, and foreign languages. The wishes of the parents must always be consulted and complied with as to their children's participation in the religious instruction given. As this second class of schools are designed for the children of parents above meant, there is no gratuitous admission, except in the case of extraordinary talents in the poor scholar of the lower class, who receives the advantage of a higher education as a reward; but in order that the rate of payment may be very moderate, the master is to receive a fixed salary, of which the minimum is 400 francs (167. 13s. 4d.), in addition to the fees. In this class of schools, as well as in the former, the fixed salary of the master is to be paid wholly by the parish, if possible; or, if not, partly by the department or county; and the state itself is to come in aid as un dernier ressort.
The third class of schools, styled normal, are for the training of masters. The Royal Council, in their regulations of the 19th of July last, which relate to diplomas of capacity and boards for examining teachers, direct that the candidates for such diplomas of the lower class shall be required to pass an examination in the following subjects, and in the rotation of subjects hereunder designated; namely
LEGAL SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, AND CONVERSION OF OLD MEASURES
THE ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY.
The candidates for diplomas of capacity of the higher class are to be examined in the following subjects, according to the order of succession here laid down; namely,—
1. In all the subjects comprehended in the preceding enumeration, which relates to pure elementary instruction; and, in addition, a fuller development of Moral and Religious Instruction; together with Arithmetical Proportion, and the Rules of Three, and Partnership.
2. ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY; angles, perpendiculars, parallels ; surfaces of triangles, polygons, and the circle; volumes of the simplest bodies. Linear Design.
Usual applications of GEOMETRY. - Mensuration, surveying, drawing plans.
Such Elements of the PHYSICAL SCIENCES and NATURAL HISTORY, as are applicable to the common purposes of life, including the definitions of the simplest machines.
Elements of GEOGRAPHY and GENERAL HISTORY, and the Geography and History of France.
Elements of the Mechanism of the Globes.
SINGING.-Theory and practice of Music and Vocalism.
A statement of the details of the examination is to be drawn up and signed by all the examiners, as well as by the candidate. principal town in each department is to have a distinct board of examiners. Every individual, who shall have completed his eighteenth year, is authorized, on producing his baptismal certificate, to present himself at the Board of Elementary Instruction for the purpose of undergoing examination as to his capacity. The examinations are to be public, and to be held in a hall, which is attached to some public establishment; and public notice of such examinations is to be given by the rector of the academy (or local branch of the university of France). A three years' diploma may be given to such candidates as have not passed a successful examination with regard to their qualification in singing.
Oriental Languages.-The lectures annually delivered in the Royal School for the living Eastern languages, at Paris, are dis
tributed as follows for the academical year 1833-1834. Arabic, Baron Silvestre de Sacy; Vulgar Arabic, M. Causin de Perceval, fils; Persian, M. Quatremère; Turkish, Le Chevalier Am. Jaubert; Armenian, M. Le Vaillaut de Florian; Modern Greek and Greek Palæography, M. Hase; Hindoustani, M. Garcin de Tassy; and Archæology, M. Raoul Rachette. Each of these courses is continued three times a week during the season.
Corporal Punishment in Schools.-The Abbé Loison, head of an establishment for education at Boulogne-sur-Mer, appeared before the tribunal of this town, under the charge of having inflicted blows with a whip on the young Alexis, aged ten years. The President asked the accused what was the form of the whip which he had used. He replied that it consisted of seven thin strings, with small knots. On the President observing, that the schoolfellows of Alexis, who were called as witnesses, had declared that the strings were as thick as a quill, and the knots as large as gooseberries, the accused replied, that the witnesses, being at a considerable distance from him, could not see well, and that fear must doubtless have magnified the objects to their eyes. To settle the question, the Procureur du Roi required the whip to be produced; but the accused made no reply to this demand. The tribunal, after ten minutes' deliberation, pronounced sentence, by which, on the ground that the Abbé Loison had struck the young Alexis without having any right to do so, he was condemned to pay 100 francs, to undergo 20 days' imprisonment, and to pay costs, according to article 311 of the Code Pénal.-Journal des Débats, 23d December, 1832.
The minister of Public Instruction has addressed a circular to the prefects of the departments, requiring returns of catalogues of all the books in the several communal libraries within their districts. The object of this is to arrange, with the consent of the Communal Councils, for exchanges of books, so that those which, according to the pursuits and extent of the education of the inhabitants, are uninteresting or useless in one commune, may be transferred to another, where they may be serviceable. The prefects are also required to cause an examination to be made into the several public collections of books within their respective departments, in order to discover any scientific or literary works fallen into obscurity, but which may contain matter that may be useful and instructive to the people at large, particularly recommending a minute inspection of all manuscript copies of Greek and Latin classics, pointing out those of Terence, Quintilian, Suetonius, Livy, Cicero, Greek glossaries, and others. Manuscripts relating to the history of France are also recommended to peculiar attention. There are but few departments which do not possess some volumes, or at least some unpublished documents, illustrative of their local history, either as to the towns, families, or remarkable persons. 'But the labour,' the minister adds, will be imperfect if it be confined only to the public libraries, and not extended to
other deposits, such as the archives of several departments and communes which are, perhaps, still more rich in documents of this nature. Nothing is more desirable than a complete investigation of the whole of these archives. I know, indeed, that there are not fifteen towns in France in which this investigation has been made, even in the slightest manner. I am aware, also, that to render these searches complete and effectual, not only some expense will be incurred, but several years must elapse. Be this as it may, it is nevertheless important that they should be immediately commenced, and followed up with perseverance and diligence.-Galignani's Messenger.
The Spanish government appear to mistrust the spirit which may be manifested in the national universities; at least the opening of that of Segobia has been officially postponed, and a similar measure is said to be in contemplation with regard to the remainder. Madrid, 9th November.
Morning Meetings.-The Spaniards have a species of public amusement (though it deserves a far better name), which consists in the superior class of the male inhabitants collecting, between ten and eleven in the forenoon, in some public promenade or open space. In Madrid the favourite place of meeting is the Puerta del Sol; in Toledo, the Zocodover; in Seville, the Plaza de Santo Domingo ; and in Granada, the Plaza de Vivarrambla and the Zacatin. These assemblages bear a striking resemblance to the ancient forum and ȧyopa: the subjects discussed at them are not merely private concerns, but the leading topics of the day; and the groups who take part in the latter, handle the matter in debate with a degree of talent and ardour, as well as unsparing freedom, which, however incredible it may seem, are rarely to be found under any other sky. These morning meetings are so dearly prized by the Spaniard, that I have heard many declare,-and they were men who had visited the gayest capitals in Europe and were otherwise overpartial, as I conceived, in their estimate of the superiority of foreign countries, that all the recreations and enjoyments which London, Vienna, and Paris afforded, could not make amends for the loss of the brief matin-hour which they had been accustomed to while away at the Puerta del Sol. But these assemblages carry, intrinsically, far greater weight with them than what appears upon the surface. Any person capable of appreciating the character and bias of the ever-changing crowds which collect, and disperse to collect again, at the Puerta, needs no other key to the course which public affairs are likely to take, and will find himself seldom at fault in his conjectures.-Huber's Sketches.
VALENCIA.In the year 1831, this town, together with the lands belonging to it, possessed a population of 118,952 souls; amongst whom, however, about 4000 individuals, consisting of the garrison