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Sunday schools, chiefly destined for boys employed as appren tices during the week; and in 623 private schools, of which 211 are for boys, and 412 for girls. The total number of schools, and of public as well as private institutions for education, affording the means of obtaining elementary instruction, amount to 4479. The number of masters and mistresses belonging to the public schools, and that of the children respectively attending, are shown in the following table.

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This gives a total of 166,767 children of both sexes. besides 4566 more attending the gratuitous Sunday Schools; 702 boys, and 732 girls, educated in other public institutions; 721 boys, and 1641 girls receiving instruction in private houses for education; and 5119 boys and 8631 girls attending private elementary schools. So that, for the year 1832, we have in Lombardy the immense number of 188,879 children from six to twelve years of age, receiving elementary instruction.

Comparing these statistical tables with those for the year 1822, we obtain this cheering result: that, during the last ten years, the number of public schools has increased by one-third; whilst the number of children visiting these schools has augmented by more than two-fifths. These favourable results are, in a great measure, owing to the laudable zeal exhibited by all the public authorities for the good direction of elementary instruction. And this encouragement has been admirably seconded by the local magistrates, and by philanthropic individuals, who have contributed by their pecuniary means and by their personal exertions to the diffusion of institutions so conducive to the civilization of the people. In the various villages of Lombardy we count no less than 473 charitable persons, who have gratuitously lent their houses, or other buildings belonging to them, for the purpose of establishing in them public elementary schools: 208 public masters offered to instruct gratuitously, in Sunday schools, those children who are not at liberty during the week. In various cities, evening schools have been opened during the winter season, designed to give instruction, free of expense, to boys belonging to shops, or to young workmen. Besides which, various masters of superior schools have volunteered to devote their leisure hours to the instructon of mechanics.

At Cremona, the zealous director of that school, Professor

Ferrante Aporti, has continued to forward the prosperity of the charity schools founded by him, namely, that for the deaf and dumb, and the infant school instituted by him in the year 1831. In this the children of the poor, from three to six years of age, are daily admitted from eight o'clock in the morning until evening; and here they are likewise fed at the expense of private individuals, aided by a sum contributed by the public institution for the relief of the poor. The immense utility of such infant asylums will soon be felt in other cities of Lombardy, where some generous imitators of Aporti are about to spread the blessing of infant education*.

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At Lodi, the excellent Mrs. Cosway, on the 7th of June, 1833, rendered perpetual, by means of a legal act, the foundation of the House of Education, which she has for many years so ably directed; and to this purpose she has made a full donation of the buildings and the necessary furniture, together with a considerable annual revenue. This house will take the name of English Ladies' Institution; and the municipal corporation of Lodi, in order to show to the founder a sense of their gratitude for her noble determination, have given to her some grounds adjacent to the garden of the school, which will adorn it with a hill planted with fruit-trees, from which a beautiful prospect is enjoyed. Supported by the zeal of so many benevolent persons, and by funds derived from so many public and private sources, elementary instruction may be said to have attained in Lombardy to that high object, to which were directed the wise provisions of those who gifted these provinces with such useful institutions.--(Drawn from Official Reports.)


An Election.-(Extract from a private letter.)—' Before I quitted Athens, I had the opportunity of witnessing the ceremony of a popular assembly, called together for the purpose of electing new Demogerontes. About three hundred Greeks met on a grassplot, in front of a church in the middle of the town; what are called the Archons or Plutocrats, who came into consequence during the days of Turkish sway, placed themselves and their eagle-eyes in the centre of the meeting. After discussing the question, whether the naturalized citizens, or owners of lands and houses who have migrated to this spot from Europe, and other parts of Greece, should be admitted to vote, and deciding it in the negative, they proceeded to debate upon the subject of allowing such citizens and any other strangers to be present on the occasion: and this was determined in the affirmative. A general cry of "Xáμov, xáμov!" next warned the multitude to lay themselves down on the ground, in order that the successive speakers should be distinctly seen and heard from the post which was assigned to them in the centre of the assembly. One of the citizens then recited an oath, to which every one qualified to vote made solemn response; it was to the effect, that they repu

*We understand that similar asylums have been established at Leghorn and Pisa under the superintendence of a committee of ladies.


diated the influence of all ties of kindred, bribery, and every other corrupt motive, and pledged themselves that no other consideration should weigh with them in giving their votes, but the public interest. This done, the archons submitted the names of eight or ten candidates, out of whom three were to be elected Demogerontes; and the assembly, as each name was proclaimed, said Content," by shouting, "Kaλós! eiuos! agios!" or "Non-content," by shouting repeatedly" Oxi! oxi!" Where the votes were dubious, the question was decided by show of hands. But the business did not end without a split; for some of the archons, who were disappointed in carrying the election in favour of their own friends, withdrew in anger from the meeting, and were followed by their adherents. The remainder of the electors, however, went on with the list of candidates until a final choice was made, and then proceeded to the business of voting. Instead of vases, they made use of common glasses, over which a piece of paper with an aperture in it, bearing the candidate's name, had been fastened. These glasses were placed upon a table in the middle of the church, under the safe-keeping of three priests; each citizen went into the church singly, had his name recorded in a register, and received three beans, which he deposited in three of the glasses. The latter were ultimately opened, and the beans of each candidate counted; the result being determined by relative majority. By the time that all this had been transacted, afternoon was at hand, and the assembly had dwindled down to one fourth of its original numbers. You must not be surprised at the injustice, which was done to the paroiks, or strangers, who form by far the most affluent and welleducated portion of the present inhabitants of Athens, by excluding them from all participation in such proceedings as these. It was the besetting sin of the ancient Greeks, and has descended with increased virulence to the modern, for every one to prefer his native town and its local interests to the welfare not only of any neighbouring town or province, but of his native country.'


Of late years, but more particularly since these Principalities have been under the protection of Russia, it is remarkable with what vigour the higher classes of natives have set about improving their national dialect, and promoting the interests of literature and general civilization. They have adopted Modern Greek as their chief model in the former respect, but not without endeavouring to make it harmonize, as much as is practicable, with the classical languages of the ancient Hellenic and less ancient Roman; indeed it appears highly probable, that it will ultimately be rendered much nearer akin to the latter, than even the Italian. The Principalities have a political, as well as a literary, journal, both of which are ably conducted; they have a printing-house at Bucharest, which is in active requisition, several excellent schools of the higher class, and a number of booksellers' shops, stored with Greek, Latin, French, Italian, and German publications. Walachian pens are

constantly engaged in translating the leading foreign works, as well as in writing original ones; and the profitable sale, which they find for both, is no little proof of the interest which the public takes in literary pursuits. Many of the Bojars send their sons for education to Vienna, Paris, and other places on the Continent; and the general attention, which learning and science have awakened, has had the effect of rousing even the Transylvanian from his lethargy. "Erdélyick, Erdélyick!" exclaims a native, in a remonstrance inserted in Pethe's "Nemzet Társalkodó" (The National Companion), “vígyazzatok, mert az Oláh nemzet ma holnáp selgül kerchedik a' tudományos mivelődésben." Transylvanians, Transylvanians! look well to it; for, either to-day or to-morrow, the Walachian nation will raise themselves higher than yourselves in science and learning." (Extract of a letter from Dr. R. at Gran.)



The Arab and Israelite in Egypt.-Alexandria, as well as Cairo, is grown into a complete rookery for the Hebrew race, who have almost monopolized the trade of the town, and consequently put on airs of self-complacency and importance, which are frequently carried to the most ridiculous of lengths. Knowing that, as Jews, they would find but little favour in the eyes of Arab or Turk, they carefully identify themselves with the Christians, under the generic name of Franks; and pass current for such among their infidel neighbours. It is allowable for any European to adopt the Turkish costume, and appear with arms by his side; the Jew has not omitted to profit by the license, and many of them being employed as Dedshims or dragomans, translators, and apothecaries in the Pasha's service, you will see them strutting about in Turkish habiliments, richly embroidered in gold, with enormous mustachios, and a tremendous scymitar dangling from their girdles. In this way they escape the degrading epithet, "Jehudi!" (or Jew), which, with Arab and Ottoman, is but another word for the most sovereign contempt which his lips can express. Yet both Jew and Arab are Semitic descendants from the same stock; the one, God's chosen people, sprung from the loins of Abraham and Sarah's second-born; the other, a race, in every physical respect, their superiors, fickle and volatile, intellectual and enterprising, sons of the desert, tracing their descent from Ishmael, the first-born. The external similarity of their language, however the written character may disguise it, bears testimony to their kindred origin; and the enmity which subsists between them to this day furnishes another proof in favour of it; for the modern Arab, like his Coptic neighbour, who is the indisputable representative of the ancient Egyptian, bears a traditional hatred towards the Jew, at whose hands he firmly believes both himself and his forefathers to have received the brand of servitude. And if you would have ocular evidence of its miseries, walk out of Alexandria through the southern gate, and the first object which meets your eye in that direction is a multitude of low, miserable cabins, three feet high, built with the broken stones collected from

the ruins of this quarter of the town when it glowed with life and splendour under the sceptre of the Ptolemies; mud is their only cement; the walls are covered with lumps of camel's dung, hung up to dry; the ceiling is formed of twigs of the date, laid crosswise, and closed with a mat made of the leaves of the same tree; and both are overlaid with a compôt of filth and mud. Such is the Arab's present home; and here and there, if he chance to be wealthy enough to indulge in such a luxury, you may detect a corner with a sorry mat in it; this is his only couch. And when he lies down upon it, he draws his tattered garment over his head, and rolls himself up like a hedgehog. Do not ask me to draw the picture of his wife and daughters. Fancy human beings in the last stage of degradation—and they stand before you. The Arab race, in short, under the tender rule of Mehemed Ali, are, in habits, morals, and civilization, whole centuries behind even the lazzaroni of the Riva de' Schiavoni, or the Esquimaux of the Polar seas.-C.


Seminaries, &c.-These establishments now comprise a Christian school, which is attended by 80 boys, 2 Christian schools in which are 34 girls, 26 Mohammedan schools with 315 boys, 17 Jewish schools for 430 boys, and a school for instructing Jews in French. Over and above these 47 seminaries and their 899 pupils, considerable progres has been made towards opening a large school for teaching French. The population of the town, for whose benefit all these establishments have been erected, consisted on the 1st of January, 1833, of 25,226 souls, amongst whom were 5226 Europeans; namely 571 subjects of the British crown, almost exclusively from Gibraltar and Malta, 925 Spaniards, mostly from the Balearic islands, 405 Italians, and 3325 Frenchmen. The remaining inhabitants of Algiers consist of 12,000 Moors, 2000 Beduins and Negroes, and 6000 Jews.

It appears, from Rozet's recent "Journey through the Regency of Algiers," that, as yet, the French possess so limited a tenure of the soil as scarcely to have extended their dominion beyond the spots in the immediate occupation of their military garrisons. Any European, who may venture beyond reach of their guns, does so at the peril of seeing the Moor or Berber's spear and sabre brandished over his head. Every inch, which is not occupied by the military, is foeman's ground. Two-thirds of the Algerine territory, extending from the coast to the foot of the lesser Atlas, are covered with bushes; they require nothing but the plough to provide bread for thousands; but in the present state of things, the plough must travel hand in hand with the musket. Rozet says, that the climate is healthy, with the exception of that which prevails along the low marshy ground near the banks of rivers, where the miasma is productive of extremely dangerous fevers. He fixes the mean temperature of Algiers at 17° (or 70° of Fahrenheit), and observes that the thermometer never descends below zero; though, owing probably to the want of proper precautions, the cold is very piercing. In

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