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average of about 3000l. to 6635l., the amount of grants voted during each of the last two years. Meanwhile, the manufacturing and mining districts in the north, more particularly in Lancashire and Durham, as well as the poorer inhabitants of Wales, with many other more remote and necessitous places in the kingdom, are still looking to the Society for a share in that bounty, of which, from a variety of causes, they have not been able to avail themselves. From the collections recently made under the authority of the king's letters, 22,3621. had been received at the time of making up the Report. It is apprehended that the total amount of the collections, when ascertained, will fall short of that in 1823; but with such contributions as have been actually received, the committee find themselves possessed of ample means for carrying on at present the designs of the Society. Much has already been accomplished: the sum of 5939l. 14s. has been granted during the past year towards the erection of school rooms in 109 places, one-half of which contain a population of above 1000 souls. Of these 109 grants, 30 have been appropriated to manufacturing places, and 10 to the poor parishes in Wales, the wants of which interesting portion of the kingdom has been pressed on the attention of the committee by her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent in a letter accompanied by the munificent donation of 100l. to the funds of the institution. On the whole, 157 new school-rooms are erecting, capable of accommodating 14,600 children; by means of which, many schools already subsisting will be more suitably accommodated, and an addition made to the total number of poor children receiving education to the amount of 10,600. Much, however, remains to be done; and the committee, in prosecuting their former plans, have determined to circulate a letter to all places having a population of 1000 souls, and not having schools in union, to invite the resident gentry, through the clergymen, to connect their schools with the Society, wherever they have been formed, or to establish such as are needful, if none already exist.
The Society has been enabled, during the past year, to remove its central school from Baldwin's Gardens to the more convenient and central premises which it has received as a gift from the managers of the late Westminster National School, and which have been secured to the National Society in its corporate capacity. But it is stated, with satisfaction, that the former school is likely still to be carried on in an efficient state for the benefit of the poor parishioners of St. Andrew's, Holborn.
The Appendix, No. 9, to the Report, exhibits the results of an inquiry concerning works of industry connected with national schools. The objections to such a connexion are thus in substance stated and answered.
Object. 1.-Children leave school too soon to learn perfectly any art or trade; on an average, perhaps, few scholars remain after attaining their eleventh or twelfth year.
Ans. They leave so early because they have then generally learnt all that is taught. If there were employment going on which delayed their progress in this, they would probably remain longer.
Object. 2.-Not necessary, as the children are generally engaged by their parents in works of industry and habits of diligence at home.
Ans. This is true; but many children will take readily to work, who dislike learning, and whose parents indulge their humour, and suffer them to leave the school altogether.
Object. 3.-The expense of establishing such works: the little profit to be expected from them.
Ans.-The objection only shows that caution is requisite; that the plan should be proceeded with gradually, and nothing undertaken but upon a clear estimate of the cost to be incurred. Two items only are to be covered by the produce of the work: first, the bare expense of carrying it on; second, some little reward to the children employed.
Object. 4.-The danger of overstocking any branch of trade beyond the average demand for the article produced; and of exciting jealousy by apparent competition.
Ans. Occupations likely to produce such feelings may be avoided. What evil at all commensurate to the good has resulted from the employment of the girls in the schools at needlework?
Object. 5.-The difficulty of finding employment for the children. Ans. Difficulty admitted often to be great; but instances are quoted to show that it has been and may be surmounted.
Object. 6.-Few of the children would retain in after-life the trade thus learned.
Ans. The least important objection. The formation of a habit of industry is the great object considered.
NATIONAL EDUCATION.-In pursuance of are solution passed by the House of Commons, the Secretary of State for the Home Department has addressed a circular to the overseers of the poor in every parish throughout the kingdom, requesting them to answer the questions contained in the aforesaid resolution, which is as follows:- That there be laid before this house a return of the number of schools in each town, chapelry, or extra-parochial place; which return, after stating the amount of the population of the said town or place according to the last census, shall specify-1. Whether the said schools are infant, daily, or Sunday schools. 2. Whether they are confined, either nominally or virtually, to the use of children of the Established Church, or of any other religious denomination. 3. Whether they are endowed or unendowed. 4. By what funds they are supported; if unendowed, whether by payments from the scholars, or otherwise. 5. The number and sexes of the scholars in each school. 6. The ages at which the children generally enter, and at which they generally quit the school. 7. The salaries and other emoluments allowed to the masters and mistresses in each school; and shall also distinguish-8. Those schools which have been established since 1818-and 9. Those schools to which a lending library is attached.'
The overseers or overseer of the poor of every parish or place in England and Wales is requested to use his best endeavours to
obtain satisfactory answers to the above questions, and to give such answers (in so far as they are applicable to each parish or place) in the manner pointed out in the circular; or in case there should be no school whatever in the parish or place, to return the circular forthwith, with an answer to that effect, signed by such overseers or overseer; but if there be any school or schools, the particulars of which are known to them or him, to insert answers to the questions applicable to such schools; or if there be schools, the particulars of which are unknown to them or him, to send a printed copy of the address to each schoolmaster or schoolmistress in turn, requesting written information from them severally; and, in any case the overseers or overseer will return such answers, or their own answer or answers (as the case may be), with the circular; on the outside of which a proper direction is printed for duly returning it to the Home-office.
The schoolmaster or schoolmistress to whom this order is delivered by the overseer will be so good as to answer the printed questions (as follows), in so far as they are applicable to his or her school :
Infant Schools.-Specifying the number of infants in each school? And of what sex? At what age they do usually enter, and at what age do they usually quit the school?
Daily Schools.-Specifying the number of scholars in each school? And of what sex? At what age do they usually enter, and at what age do they usually quit school?
Sunday Schools.-Specifying the number of scholars in each school? And of what sex? At what age do they usually enter, and at what age do they usually quit school?
Endowed and other Schools. Whether endowed school or schools? If not endowed, by what funds supported-that is, whether by payments from the scholars or otherwise? If by salaries, or other allowed emoluments, be pleased to specify particulars.
Religion. Is any school confined (nominally or virtually) to the established church? Or to any other denomination or religious persuasion? If any of the above schools established since the year 1818, be pleased to specify the date when they severally commenced. Is any lending library of books attached to any of these schools?
Be pleased to insert any observations which occur to you relative to the above questions, or any of them. 1833. Schoolmaster at Schoolmistress at
The Right Hon. C. P. Thomson, also at a public dinner given to him at Manchester on Dec. 18, in the course of his speech took occasion to express himself on the subject of public education as follows: There is also, gentlemen, the great question of national education. Amongst those whom I see around me, I know that many feel a deep interest in this question. How can it be other
wise, when I, who am but a casual observer here, and who have so few opportunities during the short space in which I am present among you (a space of time rendered shorter by your kindness and hospitality) when I cannot but be struck with almost astonishment when I see how little, in comparison with your wishes, has been effected in this great purpose. Private benevolence-private industry-private exertion can undoubtedly effect much; but the system should be a national one. It is an object worthy-ay, the most worthy of the attention of the nation. If before-if under any circumstances it were so-permit me to say that under the circumstances of this country, it is become more than in any place im. portant. Power has been confided to hands that knew it not before. Glad I am that it has, on all accounts, but on one I am particularly so; inasmuch as I think it must force upon every reflecting mind the necessity of seeing that means are provided in order that that power shall be properly wielded-r -means which can only be found in the education of the people.'
BANBURY.-The Banbury National Schools for the education of boys and girls have been established sixteen years. There was an old endowment for clothing and educating a limited number of children, and the trustees under that endowment clothe sixteen boys and twelve girls, and pay 30l. per annum towards the expenses of the National Schools, in which the children elected under the trust are educated. But the far greater part of the expenses of the National Schools is defrayed by public contributions. In 1832 the amount of subscription was 88l. 9s. 3d. The average number of children in the schools during the present year has been one hundred and twenty boys and seventy-five girls.
Besides the National Schools, there are three large and efficient Sunday and Evening Schools. Originally there was but one established, in 1802, at the old dissenting or Presbyterian Chapel; but for several years a division has taken place, and the children have been educated at the school-rooms of the different chapels.
The school kept at the Independent Chapel educates at present 208 children. They are instructed by forty teachers on Sundays, and also on two or three evenings in the week. Connected with this school are two libraries; one for the teachers, containing books of a miscellaneous character; and one for the children, chiefly composed of works of a religious nature, or on subjects of general elementary knowledge.
The Methodist School is attended by 120 boys and 135 girls, who meet on Sundays. On two week-day evenings about 40 of the oldest of the children attend to learn writing and accounts. The number of male and female teachers is 38, the writing master (only) being paid a small salary. There is here also a small library.
The Presbyterian School educates at the present time 52 boys and 54 girls, who are instructed by 12 teachers.
Hence it appears that between 700 and 800 children are receiving a regular education in Banbury by public charity; out of a popula
tion consisting of 6427 persons.-From a Statement presented to the Corporation Commissioners at Banbury.
DURHAM SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY.-At Durham, during the present year, an institution called the "Durham School of Industry" has been formed for the purpose of instructing young females, not only in the usual branches of what is called education, but in the domestic duties usually allotted to females, such as washing, ironing, cleaning furniture, &c., &c. The morals and general conduct of the children are carefully attended to, the object being to form them into useful and respectable female servants. The short trial hitherto given to the plan has proved perfectly satisfactory, and the committee are only prevented by a want of funds, which are supplied by donations and subscriptions, from extending their operations, and have therefore appealed to the public in behalf of the institution.
Yorkshire Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. -In the year 1829 it was determined at a public meeting held at Doncaster, to establish an institution for the instruction of the deaf and dumb children of the poor in the county of York, it having been ascertained that these unfortunate objects were more numerous in that part of the country than had previously been imagined. It had been at first intended to appeal to the public for donations to furnish means for the erection of a suitable building; and several noblemen and gentlemen subscribed most handsomely for that especial object; but the urgent calls made, about that time, upon the liberality of the country, for the repair of York Minster, induced the Committee to content themselves with commencing their undertaking in hired premises. The public, however, answered so liberally the call of the benevolent individuals who interested themselves in the object, that they were enabled, in 1831, to effect the purchase of the hired premises, called Eastfield House, which, with some alterations, were capable of containing 100 children, with every accommodation for the master, as well as for those children of the more opulent who might be admitted afterwards, on the payment of a larger sum than was usually required.
The first annual report of the Institution exhibited the receipts of the year as 5677., and the expenditure as 5617., with 20 male pupils in the establishment. The last report shows the receipts to be 16847., the expenditure 14037., with 27 male, and 23 female pupils. It was originally intended to limit the benefits of the institution to Yorkshire; but all the Yorkshire candidates having been admitted, and many applications having been received from the neighbouring counties, it was determined to leave the institution open to such applications at an increased rate of payment, provided that ample accommodation be always retained for the deaf and dumb children of the county of York. Although essentially a charitable institution, the friends of the pupils are required to provide them with clothing, and to contribute something towards their support. This is generally 61. a year for each