« AnteriorContinuar »
it seem for an instant to be imagined that the harmony of the establishment can be interrupted by any discord on this subject. When will our countrymen learn to separate the essentials of truth from less important doctrines, and be taught to have real toleration for the opinions of each other?
The Gymnasium of Bonn is conducted by twelve teachers, who give instruction in Latin and Greek, Natural History, Mathematics, French, Hebrew, History, and Geography. The school is divided into six classes; the average age at which pupils enter is from eight to nine years. The course of instruction pursued at the Gymnasium of Bonn, drawn from the account published last September, is the following:
I. Religion. In the three lower classes the Catholic pupils are taught the first principles of religious belief, and of moral duty and biblical history, as far as the Prophets. The catechisms used are Annegarn, Achterfeld, and Ontrup. Written exercises are required from the more advanced pupils.
In Tertia, the pupils are instructed on revelation, the nature of God, the relation in which the world, and more particularly man, stands to God, primitive state of man, fall and redemption. In Secunda, doctrine of redemption and salvation of man; illustration of the doctrines contained in the Epistle to the Romans, more particularly in reference to the doctrine of justification; conditions of mercy; means of grace. In Prima (highest class), general doctrines of religion and of moral duty; illustration of the Epistle to the Hebrews in reference to the priesthood and crucifixion of Christ.
In the three lower classes, the Protestant pupils are taught the History of the Old and New Testament, being instructed at the same time in the great duties of morality.
In Tertia, the pupils are taught the principles of religious belief and moral duties, illustrated by reference to the Epistle to the Corinthians, and the first Epistle of John; general introduction to the Holy Scriptures, with a complete development of the means of salvation there laid down. In Secunda, the life of a Christian is illustrated in the Epistle to Timothy.
In Prima, development of the doctrines of religion and of justification by faith; reading of the first Epistle of John in the original. The pupils are also required to furnish written exercises regularly.
II. Latin Language.—(Grammars; Lucas and Zumpt.) In Sexta, the rudiments of the language are learnt as far as the conjugation of the regular verbs; the pupils commit to memory at the same time a vocabulary of words, and short sentences
with written and oral exercises. In Quinta, continuation of the elements of the language with the principal rules of syntax, and written and oral exercises. In Quarta, translation and grammatical illustration of passages selected from Jacobs' and Döring's Latin Delectus (Elementarbuch); written exercises in translating from German into Latin and from Latin into German. In Tertia, select passages from Ovid's Metamorphoses, and Cornelius Nepos; the pupils are now practised in Zumpt's larger grammar as far as the Syntaxis Ornata, with Prosody, and towards the end of the session read Cæsar's Gallic War, Book I.-III., and V., with oral and written exercises from German into Latin. In Secunda, the pupils read Livy, Virgil, some letters of Cicero, and some of his Orations, with the Syntaxis Ornata of Zumpt; essays and exercises in the Latin language. In Prima; the Epistles and Odes of Horace, Tusculan Questions of Cicero, the Germania of Tacitus, with exercises from the German into Latin.
III. Greek Language.-(Grammar; Buttmann's School Grammar.) It is taught only in the four upper classes of the School. In Quarta, the etymological part of the language is taught, and written exercises on it are required; at the same time the first part of Jacobs' Elementary work is read. In Tertia, the syntax of the language is acquired, and the second part of Jacobs' work is read, with oral and written exercises in translation from German. In Secunda, Homer's Odyssey, and parts of Herodotus are read; Buttman's Grammar, with translations from German into Greek, and Greek into Latin. In Prima, Xenophon, Homer's Iliad, and the Hecuba of Euripides.
IV. Hebrew Language.—(Grammar; Gesenius.) It is taught in the two upper classes for the sake of those pupils who intend to study theology after they have left the school.
V. German Language.—In the three lower classes the etymology and syntax of the language are taught; oral and written exercises are prescribed. In the three higher, select passages from the classic authors of Germany are read and illustrated. In Prima, the pupils are made acquainted with the history of the German language and literature, from the earliest period to the present time.
VI. French Language.-It is taught only in the three higher classes, and the pupils read a part of Barthelemy's Anarcharsis, Voltaire's Henriade, and Montesquieu's Grandeur et Décadence des Romains.
VII. Mathematics.-The mathematical instruction in the
two lower classes is confined to the elements of arithmetic. In Tertia, equations of the first degree, and plane geometry are taught. In Secunda, Logarithms, the Progressions, Equations of the second degree, and Plane Trigonometry. In Prima, theory of equations, binomial theory; application of Trigonometry to geometrical problems.
VIII. History and Geography.-In Sexta, the pupils are taught the geography of Europe, and particularly of Germany and Prussia, with the biographies of illustrious men. In Quinta, the geography of the world and the political geography of Europe in particular, with an account of the manners and customs of the people. In Quarta, their geographical studies are continued, and the principal events of general history are taught, from Noah down to the Saxon emperors. Tertia, the principal events of history from Noah down to our own times. In Secunda, ancient history down to Alexander. In Prima, the history of the middle ages, down to Rudolph of Hapsburg.
IX. Natural History.-In Sexta, the pupils are taught a short general view of the three kingdoms of nature; with a more detailed history of animals, according to Schubert's Manual of Natural History. In Quinta, description of plants in general, and some of the most remarkable and useful, with an inspection of dried specimens. In Quarta, short recapitulations of the former course; introduction to mineralogy, and description of the most remarkable fossils, according to Stein's short sketch of Natural History.
X. Natural Philosophy (Physics). It is taught in the three higher classes of the school. In Tertia, the pupils are taught the general laws of physics. In Secunda, the laws of motion, the properties of elastic bodies, and the laws of sound. In Prima, a general view of the most remarkable and simple laws of nature.
XI. Singing is taught four hours weekly, to pupils who have a taste for it, and they are divided into three classes. XII. Calligraphy (writing) is taught three hours weekly, in the two lower classes.
XIII. Drawing is taught two hours weekly in the four lower classes.
The number of hours in which the pupils are engaged during the week may be seen from the following table:
The following is a list of the number of pupils in each class, during the last year, 1833 :
The session, or school year, begins on the 15th of October with an examination of new pupils, for the purpose of determining in what class they ought to be placed; and it ends on the 12th of September of the following year.
The following regulations have been issued by the proper authorities to regulate matters connected with the gymnasia; and though we are inclined to think that they are carrying these matters of detail too far in the Prussian system of education, there can be no doubt that it is done with the very best intention.
The Minister of Public Instruction has issued the following ordinance (25th January, 1833), with the view of securing a proper control over those pupils whose parents or relations do not reside on the spot where they are taught.
1. Those pupils only can be admitted into Gymnasia, and such places of instruction, who are immediately under the eye of their parents, their relations, or of persons whose attention is devoted to the education of the young. Pupils who are not under proper superintendence cannot be admitted.
2. On the admission of boys, whose parents or relations do not reside on the spot, the directors of the Gymnasia must make themselves acquainted with the manner in which their conduct is to be superintended; and if the arrange
ments do not appear satisfactory, they must communicate with the parents or relations, and not admit the pupil till they are perfectly satisfied.
3. No pupil is allowed to be removed from one person's care to that of another, without the knowledge of the Di
4. The Director is empowered and bound to make himself acquainted with the conduct of out-door pupils, either by personal inquiry, or by the assistance of the masters of the gymnasium; if any irregularity be discovered, it is his duty to put an immediate stop to it.
5. The masters also, without being particularly commissioned by the Director, are bound to visit from time to time in their residence the out-door pupils who attend their classes.
6. If it be found that the superintendence, under which the out-door pupils are placed, is insufficient, or that the relations in which they are placed are prejudicial to their morals, the Director is authorized and bound to demand a change from the parents or relations, which must take place within a certain time, to be fixed according to circumstances.
7. The parents and relations are bound to attend to these notices, and to make the superintendents of their children acquainted with them. It remains for the parents or guardians, in case the institution should require a discontinuance of the relationship between the pupil and his superintendent, to make the necessary arrangements with the superintendent of their children or wards.
ON GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL KNOWLEDGE. STATISTICS, a term first introduced by the German writers, was defined by Achenwall, of Göttingen, to be the exposition of the effective components of any political society. This definition may perhaps be objected to by some, and indeed German writers are not yet very well agreed among themselves as to the definition of the term Statistics. Our object in this article is not to determine the exact limits of statistics, but simply to show the kind of information which is absolutely necessary for understanding the social and political condition of a country or nation; and having this object in view, we think that the term 'political geography' expresses more nearly than any other that kind of knowledge of which it is our present purpose to speak. Political geography is the foundation of all political science, for unless we know the present