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over a country in which the Arab language and race have been long predominant from the time of the Caliphs; while the Ottoman's direct dominion on that side extends chiefly over countries where the Turkish and Turcoman races who came from Tartary are become indigenous. It is, therefore, a clearly marked ethnographic, as well as geographic division, and, as such, likely to prove permanent.

We have now briefly stated the various branches of geographical information, which are necessary in order to constitute a man thoroughly acquainted with the actual condition of any given country. We do not mean to say that they can all be attained in every instance, and we do not intend to discourage our readers, if they should find that in many cases much of this information is beyond their reach; let them endeavour to obtain as much as they can of the information above specified; the more they collect, the better qualified they will be to form an opinion. But to imagine that, without taking pains, without making any of the inquiries alluded to, by means of mere vague information gathered from indiscriminate reading, from conversational hearsay, from scraps of newspapers and travellers' sketch-books, a man can be enabled to talk pertinently about a foreign country, and pass his judgment on the people, is a fallacy which strikes us as most palpably absurd.

With regard to the sources from which geographical and political information may be derived, we may remark that professed statistical works, which are now fast multiplying in most European countries, and which give the various heads that we have noticed, ought to be consulted in preference to mere desultory and general descriptions which are deficient in classification. For each particular country, statistical works by natives of the same, where such can be obtained, ought to be preferred. And on this occasion we cannot too much recommend the study of foreign languages, as a most useful medium of correct information on foreign matters. It is almost impossible to ascertain many facts without applying to native authorities. We may point out perhaps, in some future Numbers, the best works to be consulted on several particular countries of Europe. Maps are another indispensable auxiliary for obtaining correct geographical knowledge. There has been, till lately, a great deficiency in this respect; maps were generally bad and dear. There are now very good maps published in France, Italy, Germany, &c., of the various divisions of those countries; but they are difficult to be obtained in England, and they are expensive. The maps published by the Society of Useful Knowledge have been constructed on the best existing authorities, and their extreme cheapness makes them accessible to almost every one.

We would now, in conclusion, address ourselves more particularly to writers on foreign countries, whether geographers, travellers, essayists, novelists, or contributors to periodicals. We would impress upon them the propriety, the necessity of discriminating and ascertaining facts before they put forth their statements, of making use of the art of a critic in examining their authorities; of avoiding generalities and the use of superlatives; and of such hackneyed epithets as 'barbarous, slavish, fanatical, bigoted, lazy, cowardly,' which are seldom applicable to whole nations, at least within Europe; of stating facts before opinions, and, when they have no facts to state, of not dealing in surmises and hazarded inferences. We have already exemplified our remarks on this subject in speaking of Italy *; we may do it again with regard to other countries, for we think it is our duty to combat error under whatever shape it may show itself. No national or political partiality ought to stand in the way of truth, for error can never be a good auxiliary even in a good cause. We would impress upon all writers a due sense of the responsibility which they incur by propagating erroneous or hasty judgments and opinions. Men should be even more cautious about what they write than about what they speak; but we fear the reverse is most commonly the case. What is said in conversation is often unheeded, and generally forgotten; while everything that goes forth in print is sure to attract the attention of many, perhaps of thousands, and to be remembered by some. Hence the mass of prejudices, already, one would think, sufficiently great, is daily increasing. And that prejudice will bring forth practical mischief, who can doubt? In these times, when most people read something, the danger becomes much greater. In countries where a great proportion of the people take a part in political questions, and have a voice, although indirect, in the legislature, who can calculate the consequences of erroneous impressions spread among them concerning other countries? It is not the first time that nations have waged destructive wars against each other, through irrational prejudices which they had imbibed from their parents or teachers. At all events, war has ever been carried on in a deeper spirit of atrocity when one or each of the parties looked upon the other as barbarians, slaves, or infidels. Witness the wars of Rome, those of the Turks, and others which we might mention. Men feel little compunction in tormenting and exterminating those whom they consider as a degraded race.

*See Nos. IV. and VIII. of this Journal.

SOCIETY FOR SUPPRESSION OF JUVENILE VAGRANCY. THERE is an unfortunate class of our fellow-countrymen who live in small lodgings, tier above tier, in every dark alley of this vast metropolis. There is one narrow staircase common to all the inhabitants of each house, and the partitions are so thin that they can scarcely be said to ensure domestic privacy. Thus each individual has not only the inconveniences incident to his own immediate family to put up with, but the screams of all the ill-fed and worse-managed children of every family in the house. He hears the jangling of each unhappy couple, the brutality of each drunken husband; in short, every painful and disagreeable circumstance that can arise in such a disjointed, unnatural association, is immediately made known to him.

There can be no peace, no quiet, no comfort, in such a home as this. The husband, ill brought up perhaps himself, and with little principle to regulate his conduct, avoids it as much as he can. It was perhaps no very exalted sentiment that linked him to a female, and it is only, therefore, for the purpose of selfish gratification that he resorts to her society; it is to the gin-shop that he looks for enjoyment: while she, not more restrained than her husband, and wounded perhaps in her feelings by the brutal neglect, if not more violent ill treatment of the man who ought to protect and cherish her, scruples but little as to the indulgences she permits herself; and licentiousness, with all its horrid accompaniments of disease, heartlessness, and misery, is, we fear, of too frequent occurrence under such circumstances.

Uncertainty as to parentage thus produced, aggravating the evil, falls with redoubled weight upon the heads of the unfortunate children, who are ill-used, spurned, and deserted. These unprotected beings, nurtured in vice, habituated to witness the most revolting profligacy from their cradles, and permitted, nay, often urged to commit crimes by the very persons who ought to be the natural guardians of their innocence —these poor fatherless, motherless children, who are ready to flood society with a race of beings opposed to its very existence; whose hands would be against every man, and every man's hand against them, have become the objects of earnest solicitude to a number of benevolent individuals, who have associated themselves for the sake of rescuing them from destruction; of preventing society from being injured by their crimes, and of benefiting our colonies by sending out to them youths who have first become acquainted with the nature

of moral obligation, the consolation of religion, and have acquired some skill in manual employments. To children of the above description the society appears at first to have confined itself; but as its views became more extended, upon discovering the demand for juvenile labour in our colonies, the children of respectable parents, who are disabled by misfortune from supporting their families, orphans, children chargeable upon parishes, all, in fact, who are found to be supernumerary in this country, or may themselves be desirous of emigrating, have been included in their scheme.

The plan which the society has adopted and pursued is as follows:-A fit master having been in the first instance sought out, a number of children were collected in certain premises, with a portion of land attached to them, at Hackney Wick, in the immediate neighbourhood of London. These children

have had not only the advantage of all the instruction usually given at the national schools, but pains have been taken to habituate them to patient and intelligent labour: they are taught to mend their own clothes and shoes, cook their own victuals, rear their own vegetables and other produce of the land; and, in fact, not only to perform every service of whatever kind for themselves, but to do whatever else is likely to render them useful and intelligent members of an infant community. To what advantage the labour of the boys has been employed upon the land we do not know; but we feel convinced that active boys, employed under good direction upon the soil, should, particularly in the neighbourhood of the metropolis, earn a very considerable proportion of the expenses of their maintenance.

To give a perfect education, extending as it must do through a long period of time, was by no means the object of this establishment; it was for the purpose of receiving children either standing on the verge of crime, or already imbued with vicious. habits, and of educating them to such a point that their former bias might be counteracted, and that when placed, according to the intention of the society, in a sphere of activity and usefulness, the only one in which virtue can thrive, hope might with good reason be entertained of them for the future.

In order that the discipline of the school might not depend upon the amount of active interest taken in its well being by the Committee of Management, which, of course, must be influenced by a variety of circumstances, a well-considered code of laws for the regulation of the little colony has been framed, which we doubt not will much assist in keeping the school up to the standard so necessary for the success of the undertaking. We here extract a few of the regulations.

JAN.-APRIL, 1834.


2. Each boy, after medical examination, and on admission to the school, to be well washed in a warm bath, under the direction of the medical gentleman who examines him, and to have his hair cut



3. The boys to be numbered from No. 1 upwards, and entered upon a roll; the name, the age, size, previous mode of life, and extent of acquirements on admission to be noted.


6. Each division to be placed by the master under the charge of a boy, selected by him for good conduct, to be called a monitor. 8. The master has supreme authority in the school, obedience to him is the first duty of every boy.


10. Each boy to have a separate hammock.

11. Nightly inspection at irregular hours of the boys' dormitory, to secure decent and orderly conduct.


12. Morning, the boys' names to be called; wash, personal cleanliness to be very strictly enforced; a place for everything, and everything in its place.


13. When the weather is unfavourable for field labour, the boys to be employed in learning some useful trade, such as the committee may from time to time approve. They should be taught also to grind their own corn in hand-mills, make their own bread, cook their own meat.

18. Any boy guilty of falsehood, to be placed in solitary confinement for three hours, and for every repetition of the offence an hour additional. If a monitor, to be reduced, and not again appointed until after long probation; the punishment for every oath or bad language to be the same as above.


20. Flogging or blows are strictly forbidden; and no task to be given from Scripture as a punishment.'

In addition to these regulations, there are also certain printed instructions for the direction of the master, of which the following are some extracts :

1. The master is placed directly under the orders of the School Committee, who will hold him strictly responsible for the correct, active, and vigilant discharge of his duties.

3. The master must enforce strict discipline, prompt obedience, and perfect regularity among the boys entrusted to his care; in so doing he will, however, constantly bear in mind, that gentleness and kind treatment must be the rule, and severity the exception.


4. A weekly progress rule must be kept by the master, and sent to the committee on its days of meeting. In this document, the character, conduct, and progress of each boy is to be carefully noted, with such other observations as the master may think proper to bring under the notice of the committee. A registry of punishment to be annexed.

5. The master will also prepare a monthly return of boys fit for home or colonial situations. This return to be sent regularly to the secretary for the information of the committee.

6. The master must make himself intimately acquainted with

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