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they were soon injured by the weather it.” I replied, “Experience proves daily and the white-ants, so that we found it the contrary of what you say; as we see, necessary to rebuild it, and to make it

every day, men, guided by nature and larger and more substantial.

reason, widely differing with each other It was a great disappointment to me and in their ideas of God, and sometimes, on to our Congregation, that, on account of this point, quite opposite to each other," illness, the Archdeacon was prevented from of which I gave instances.

“If a written preaching this morning in our new little Revelation be necessary to know God,' Church: his place was kindly supplied by he said, how can we make out which the Rev. F. Spring, Chaplain at Poona- is the true one ? You Christians have one; mallee, who preached by an Interpreter we have another; and the Moormen have to our Native Congregation. In the after a different one still.” “

You can easily asnoon, I preached in Tamul; and after I certain,” I said, “by external and inhad ended, three of our Catechists spoke ternal evidences, whether the Book which on some texts of Scripture, and were makes a claim to Divine Revelation be heard with pleasure by the people pre true: if there be any lie or error in it, sent: the Church was crowded with peo- it cannot be true; and if it be not true, we ple. After the Service, I baptized 4 aged cannot suppose it to be the Word of God. persons, widows of Pensioners, who had Judge of your Vedam by this rule:

-Your been under instruction for a long time, Vedam supposes the blue sky to be a under Mr. Sawyer.

sea of milk; but it is well ascertained, June 17, 1829– In the evening, held a by sound astronomy, and it may even be meeting in one of our Schools, at which seen by the help of telescopes, that this some Native Christians and a great number blue is nothing but the vacuum of space. of Heathen were present. I endeavoured Your Vedam also speaks of some cointo shew them, that only true faith in Jesus tries and islands which never existed. It the God and Saviour of Men could make also encourages vices and crimes, by the us happy for time and eternity. After precepts which it recommends, and by the meeting, some Heathen expressed the example of your gods which it relates, their desire to hear more of these things, calculated to make men unhappy. Can and were consequently invited to come this Vedam have been given by Godto Church at Perambore and Black Town. by a God who, by His natural and moral

June 19—Two very interesting Native laws, we see continually endeavouring to Youths, who, when children, attended Mr. promote the welfare and happiness of Sawyer's School at Chingleput, came on His creatures ? If you study what we call purpose from that place to see me, and our Vedam, I am bound to say, that requested a New Testament and some you will never find such errors and conTracts. They told me that they had a tradictions in it: moreover, you will read great desire to become Christians, as they in it of Prophecies accomplished, and of had the firm conviction that the Christian Miracles wrought, all well attested by Religion is the right one. I gave them a historical evidences; which prove that Gospel in Tamul, and some Tracts, which what we call our Vedam is the True Word I accompanied with instruction. If these of God, and has been written under the young men are sincere, which I have no influence of His Spirit.” I conversed reason to doubt, they afford fresh evi. and disputed for more than an hour with dence that the Christian Instruction given this Brahmin. He confessed that our Rein our Schools to the Heathen is not lost. ligion rested on a more sure basis than

June 21-Preached, and administered any Religion he had known before. I the Sacrament at Perambore Chapel. , fear this is the only fruit of my long dis

June 23_Had a long dispute on Re putation: if the Holy Spirit does not conligion with a learned Shastry employed vince the mind and convert the heart, in the College as a Sanscrit Moonshee. all human reason is in vain. In this He believes the existence of a God, but kind of disputation I feel my great dedoes not seem to credit that He has given ficiency in the Tamul Language. any written Revelation, respecting His July 1_We visited all the people Nature and His Will, to men.

of our Pulicat Congregation, at their he says, “is left entirely to the direction houses. The greater part of them are of nature and his own reason, to find out fishermen and palanquin-bearers, and are Dne Truth; and these two guides are very poor and wretched: more so now suthcient to lead men in the knowledge than when Br. Kindlinger was with them. of it, as far as God wants them to know I gave some relief, according to my means,

Man,"

Families.

Souls.

to the most distressed. The moral state know the Truth ; such as, the Choleraof the adults is most lamentable: many of deaths by it, notwithstanding the people's them live in adultery and every kind of sacrifices to their Idols — the food in vice : indeed, in unconverted people, po 1827—difficulties attending the Procesverty is often the source of every de sions of the Idol Cars at their Feastsscription of moral misery and degrada- temples being robbed of their Idols by the tion. In the afternoon I paid the School Heathen themselves — Tracts published masters, rewarding some, and reducing the on those occasions-success attending our pay of others : being present with them labours in the town of Tinnevelly itself, only once a month, this is the only means by the rise of a Congregation, and the I have of making them attentive to their building of a Church in the midst of it, duty. This evening, all our Schoolmasters, the steadfastness of those Congregations and some of our Pulicat Christians,were in which had been most persecuted-the corporated in our Native Association ; to daily more-apparent impotency of the which some subscribed three or four annas Idol gods to do any thing in their demonthly, and some less, according to their fence: these and similar circumstances circumstances and inclinations. My aim, operated most favourably on all classes, in proposing to this people to unite them and the Congregations began again to selves to our Native Association, is chiefly increase. Thus there were, at the end of to accustom them to contribute for chari

June 1827, in 106 villages, 756 or 2557 table purposes, to which they all readily

Dec. 1827, in 109 villages, 954...3505 assented. I explained to them the Rules

July 1828, in 146 villages, 1250...4305 and Object of this Association, and endea Dec. 1828, in 167 villages, 1408...5225 voured to make them feel how happy it June 1829, in 205 villages, 1855...6243 is to do something for the benefit of our The Schools also increased, nearly in the fellow-creatures. Spoke with a little same way: there were at the end of Girl who is very desirous to be baptized; 1827, 15 Schools, with 380 Scholars; at and in the evening set off for Madras. the end of September 1828, 30 Schools,

with 631 Scholars ; December 1828, 43 TINNEVELLY.

Schools, with 859 Scholars; June 1829, Summary View of the Mission. 46 Schools, with 970 Scholars : and seOur Readers have been already then Inhabitants, remain still to be esta

veral more Schools, applied for by Heareferred to the Appendix of the So- blished. ciety's Twenty-sixth Report, for an We may, therefore, fairly conclude account of this Mission, from its that the views and feelings of the people commencement to the year 1825: in general, with regard to Missionary the Missionaries have since trans- Operations, are decidedly in favour of mitted the following Summary View

them. And this is the case, not only with

the common people, but also with many of its progress, from that time to the of greater respectability, and with Brahend of June in last year.

mins too ; for, in the course of last year, Near the close of our last statement, even Brahmin Proprietors have solicited we mentioned our apprehensions of an

Christian Schools for their Villages; and increase of persecution. This was the Brahmins themselves have, without hesicase, in several parts; and, in the course tation, become Schoolmasters, teaching of the following year, the number of our Christian Books; whereas, some those who had enlisted as Candidates for years ago, they scorned the very idea. Baptism decreased. The persecution was, The Christian village, Asirvadapuram, in one instance, attended with murder. consists of a piece of land presented to Hypocritical Professors had also be the Mission by a party of Brahmins of gun to multiply so much, that a check Peykullam; and, a few months ago, the was highly requisite. The decrease of other party of Brahmins of the same vilthe Congregations was, however, only lage, who were formerly hostile to our temporary : those who stood firm were people and burnt down the Chapel, have more and more edified ; and the Word of enlarged the ground for the settlement of God and the nature of Christianity be Native Christians at Asirvadapuram, by came better understood among Christians the free grant of an additional piece of and Heathens. Various Providential ground. Just now, an aged, childless Circumstances aided the spread of know. Proprietor, a Heathen Sooira, has made ledge, or rather the increase of desire to us a present of a part of his village ; de

siring particularly to have a School esta taken measures to hinder the work, and a blished there, and his Slaves taught the combat is commencing in that quarter; but Christian Religion, some of whom have we are encouraged to say that the Great requested instruction. Another rich Na- Captain of our Salvation, the Lord of tive, near the coast, was not only instru Light and Righteousness, will cast down mental in getting a School established there also the heights of Darkness. The in one place, but interceded with us, propitiousness of our prospects, and the in writing, for some cultivators of his assurance of victory, somehow or other, own or his neighbour's village to be re by our Heavenly King and Master, make ceived into the Congregation, as they all adverse appearances, all opposition, wished to become Christians. We will to shrink into nothing: they excite us, not say that these things are done from rather, to buckle on our spiritual armour the purest motives, but such are the the more closely, and go forth to the comfacts; and we cannot but ascribe the pre bat more cheerfully than ever; knowing sent cheering aspect of the Christian that fresh trophies will be gained for Him Cause here to the special favour of God, that gave His soul to death for these Hinmore especially when we consider the doos. He has most wisely and wonderopposition of many Natives to the growth fully directed all our circumstances; and of the Divine Kingdom nearly in every has taught us and the Natives, that all part of the District : for there are Na success is from Him, that all the glory of tive Enemies, particularly some of the it belongs to Him, and that we ought rich people, who would gladly send us wholly to depend on Him and His guidance. all to the bottom of the sea, if they could, Should He hereafter, in His wisdom, perand who strive much to excite the enmity mit the work to stand still, we are ready of other people against us. But the to say, It is the Lord's will ; let Him do Lord restrains them, and all their exer-, as seemeth good in His sight ; and we are tions to oppose and overthrow us have sure that that also will be for good. hitherto proved fruitless: God is evi If we are now asked, what we want; dently for us; and this the Heathen them. we reply—LABOURERS,and MONEY to supselves, even Brahmins, have openly de- port them. As for Labourers, the Lord clared. At the beginning of this year, has been, and is still, giving them into our a sharp persecution against the Native hands. We have often wondered at the Christians in the neighbouring Mission gracious providence of God in this partiof South Travancore arose, aided by the cular. Natives, young and old, have been Heathen Government there, with some stirred up to lend themselves to the work. success. We feared that our District would To be cautious, we will not say that partake of the storm; but, with the ex there was no mixture of a tempora! nature ception of a few instances, it seems to die in their motives; but we may affirm withaway. Thus we, and our Christians, out hesitation, that, on the whole, they are and our Christian Schoolmasters, go on truly enlightened, and fitted for the work, preaching, teaching, distributing Tracts though in different degrees. And when and the Scriptures, praying, confiding in we consider that their salary is very small, the Promises, and persevering in the smaller than that of many house-servants, blessed work. We are, indeed, continu and that they have to undergo not a few ally fighting with the Spirit of darkness: deprivations in respect to their families it is often hard, and we sometimes fear &c., we cannot but think that a real dethat darkness will prevail; but we are as sire to serve the Lord is prominent among often made ashamed of our unbelief. The their motives; and, comparatively, but few Lord hears our prayers : Idolatry greatly have been discharged for bad conduct. diminishes : Roman Catholics shake off Hitherto we have been enabled to prothe yoke of Popery; and, latterly, even vide Teachers according to the wants of the Mahomedans begin to receive the the people, though with difficulty ; but light of Truth. Our prospects are there now our money begins to fail. If that fore propitious : we see Satan nearly stops, our ability to provide Teachers will everywhere yielding, and Christ's Reign stop also. But we must not allow Unbeextending on all sides.

lief to make us afraid. We would trust The North also of this District is now that the Lord of the Harvest will still procalled upon to give up. Several Congre- vide, and that England's and India's gations are growing there; and, lately, a' Christians will not be slack to come to the new one has sprung up in the Zeminda- help of the Lord. He tells them to send ry of Ettiyapuram. T'he Zemindar has money to the Missionaries in Palamcottah,

to support Catechists and Schoolmasters. Books in his house ; and that if he would Let them refuse who can. If they refuse, send them away, he would again be faHe can provide His cause with other aid ; vourable to his house. The man replied, but they will lose their reward.

that formerly he had done him no good, Besides Teachers, we require also and neither could he do him any good means to assist the people in building hereafter, and that he would not send Places of Worship and School-houses. these books away: and so the Swamy, has Those who first declare themselves for left him. This has spread even among the Christianity in a Village are usually Heathen, who (even those who cannot but few; they are not able to defray read) ask for books, for the purpose of such expenses alone ; they must have keeping the Devil out of their houses. Of aid, or no Chapel or School-Room will course, I strongly advised the Catechists to be erected. But the very erection warn the people against a superstitious of such Buildings is the signal, and use of the Tracts, and to refuse them to an encouragement, to others to come all who cannot read. forward. We really believe that the April 9-There are two Idol-Feasts in present enlargement of the Church in these days; one at Shevelberry, in the this District is partly owing to the erec East; and the other at Pavanasam, in the tion of the Churches in Palamcottah and West, near the mountains. To both places Tinnevelly. They, as it were, proclaim our Preparandi are gone with Tracts; that Christianity has advanced; and give five to each place. to the Cause an external stability, which April 16—The Preparandi have regreatly operates on the fearful minds turned from their Mission, and their of the Natives. We do not erect Chapels reports are very encouraging. At Sheor Schools BEFORE we have people to velberry, the car encountered much diffiput into them, but AFTERWARD: usually culty, to the great annoyance of the the people themselves do the work; but idolatrous people: they endeavoured to they would not be able to complete it, finish the business as well as they could. were we to leave them without assist Our Preparandi have been in several ance. The amount of aid to such a small Villages, where the people heard the Word Place of Worship or School is not always with attention : in one place, several the same; sometimes smaller, sometimes people were so desirous of Christian Inlarger, according to circumstances : in struction, that one of them (Michael) they one place 5 rupees will suffice, in another would not allow to return to Palamcottah, 7, in a third 10; and again, in another, but kept him there. 20 or 30 rupees will be required. We April 17: Good Friday — These several are nearly sure, that the collection of evenings we have spent in reading the hithe amount of SUPERFLUOUS food. brought story of our Lord's Passion: to-day we condaily on the tables of Europeans in India, cluded it. This is ever new; and we drew and which is usually wasted, only for a forth fresh consolation from the love of God. few days, would be sufficient to aid such April 20— I heard to-day the particua Building ! Come then forward, who- lars of the report of the Preparandi. Those ever can, and help; so that the sparrow who went to Shevelberry state, that, on may find a house, and the swallow a nest account of the rain, the large car could for herself, where she may lay her young,

not

drawn; and the people were under even the altars of the Lord of Hosts, our the necessity of contenting themselves with King and our God!

pulling only the small one. Our messen

gers had addressed themselves to the Extracts from Rev. C. Rhenius's Journals. Managers of the Feast, and found a fa

· April 1, 1829–We had the Lord's Sup- vourable reception : they not only heard per to-day, with 52 Native Brethren: and the Tracts read, but asked some of the the Catechists were dismissed to their Sta- Readers to come to a place where their tions. The people of Kadieyam continue relations and friends were assembled, to suffer grievous injustice from Pandiyen- including females, and read the Tracts in Taleivan.

their hearing also; which they did : the Our Tracts begin to be used as in- Brahmins also were friendly. All destruments to keep the Devils out of people's clared, that Idolatry was certainly a vain houses. A man had a dream, in which thing, and that what those books said is his former Devil Swamy told him that he true: a number of Tracts were distri. could no longer dwell with him and do buted. From thence they went to Mahim favours, because he had Christian dooramyarroo, and were likewise well

us.

listened to. They then visited Kalatti preached on Sin and Repentance. The Kennaroo, where they found 8 families; Brahmin heard with much attention, and viz. 2 Christians, formerly residents of afterward conversed with David, sayOokramkotei; 4 Roman-Catholic, and 2 ing, that if he could listen to such instrucHeathen Families, who constrained Mi- tions for forty days, he should certainly go chael to stay with them and teach them to Kielaasam (Siva's Heaven). He took the Word of God, as before mentioned : Tracts. and when Michael hesitated, they posi May 2-The Catechists assembled : tively refused to let him go; and said, this evening was the Missionary Prayerthat at the end of the month they would Meeting, at which they gave a short come to Palamcottah and plead for him. account of their respective Congre. The other Preparandi then visited Pas- gations. In the midst of many troubles, soovintannei, belonging to the Zemindar they are nearly everywhere increasing. of Etiapooram, where there was a feast. May 6 — We had the Lord's Sup There, also, they and the Tracts were well per with 39 of our people; after which received; and some people desired to be the Catechists were dismissed to their come Christians, but feared the Zemin Stations. dar, and thought of first getting his leave. May 15—During the last week things The party that went to Papanaram were have been pretty quiet about surrounded by hundreds of people, who Some of the Preparandi have been sent heard the Word with attention; and the out to new Stations. The Kadeiyam's Tracts were all speedily gone.

Petition to the Board of Revenue is gone April 24, 1829–This morning I returned to Madras. I have been again enabled from Dohnavoor, whither I went on the to do something in the work of Translating 21st, to settle, if possible, some distur- the Scriptures. David has gone on a bances between the Headmen and the journey, partly to take his sick wife to the Catechist, and to inspect the buildings. coast, and partly to visit some Congrega. At Dohnavoor, I heard of troubles in the tions and settle some troubles among Congregation at Kavelkinnaroo, near the them. Br. Winckler has gone off to Travancore Pass, occasioned by the Hea Dohnavoor, to commence his station there. then, who seem to get courage by the The heat is very great. persecutions which at present are going May 21 – I am informed that the on with success in the Nagercoil Con chief persecutor of our people in Moogregations. Coming home, I heard of neinjahpettah died lately, of fever; which similar troubles in the Tiroopoolankoody seems to have awed his associates a little. Congregation.

Under present circumstances, it is cerApril 29—We have found it necessary tainly remarkable. to dismiss two of our Native Catechists, May 23 — This evening, at the Misfor misconduct: the case of one is most sionary Prayer-Meeting, reports were awful; and I can hardly conceive how made of the disposition of the people of he could fall so grossly into the snare of several Villages in the east to renounce the Devil. All has occurred during the Idolatry. last six months, since his marriage : until May 28 : Ascension Day. - The text then, he was an ornament to the Church, of this morning was, Oh, send out thy and an example to other Catechists. His light and thy truth! This we could services were blessed of the Lord : he heartily pray, at our Morning Service, in suffered patiently for the Gospel's sake; remembrance of that important event. and the Gospel spread much in that It was a blessed hour. A Brahmin, region; so that, for these last three or with an attendant, was already seated four years, we had no doubt of his con on a bench when I entered the Church: version. What shall we say to these he heard with much attention throughout things ? Well may we be warned by the Service : afterward he came to me; the Apostle's words, Let him that thinketh when I understood that he was the Brahhe standeth, take heed lest he fall. The min from Manoor, mentioned April 29. Devil is going about, seeking whom he He expressed great joy at what he had may devour: he was nigh to spoiling the heard, and said that it was nectar to his good work in that District; but the Lord soul; and, at last, requested earnestly that has prevented him.

a School might be established in his village, David reported, that, last Sabbath, a that their Children might be instructed Brahmin from Manoor had attended Ta- in these good things. I warned him mul Divine Service, when Br. Winckler against hypocrisy and base flattery, so [RECORD, April, 1830.)

N

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