Imágenes de páginas


Collection of Super. Teachers' County By-law to annex to MISCELLANEOUS :

Presiding Examiners, Directions
39 section a portion of town-

Changes in words

The Ottawa Normal School 39 ship where there was no The Schoolmaster's guests 31 Provincial Certificates, list of 162


157 Protection for school children 32 Provincial Certificates and the
The Education of Farmers.. 26 Legislative Apportionment, 1876 82 The Metric system. :

42 Inter. Exam.

Should not the Farmer be Library Books sanctioned ..149, 179 American Geographical Ele-
26 Little. Inspector, Algoma Schools 158 vations

More Education among Far- LOCAL SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 57,74 A few startling Teniperance Retired Teachers, list of .... 13, 131
mers ...
26 Competitive examination in

facts ..

43 Ross, G. J., appointed member
Farm, Garden and Home 27 Ameliasburgh..

132 Cost of crime in the United

C. P. I.

Why they leave home.. 27 Competitive Examination at


43 RYERSON, REV. DR ,Retiring Al-

133 Beautiful things
43 lowance

Lower School, H. S. programme The rewards of labour. 43 Parting Circular from

Ontario Educational system

11, 145
Want of courtesy
44 Retirement ..

at the Centennial

The courtesy of bluff and
Awards to Department 177

honest people...

Elgin Teachers' Association 132
Macbeth. The true.

Carrying water to the School 44 School Accommodation, sufficient
Elliott, W.M., Examiners Certi-


Animals, and the ancient School-room poisoning in N. Y.. 75
ficate cancelled.

Madoc Teachers' Institute. . 103, 155

Greeks ..

44 Scottish Educational Reports,
Elora, School Convention in 57 Marling, Alex. LL.B., appointed Township School Boards 58 Extracts from...

England, Compulsory Education

Secretary, E. D......

On Mathematics ...

60 Secretary of the Education De-
Bill in

Mathematical Department 29, 59, 169

An old teacher's advice 79 partment, appointment of .. 33
English Education, Bill of 1876 95 Max Muller on National Educa-

tion ....
Report, Extracts

Where is your School-house.. 79 Separate Schools, Memo. of Min-
How Hindoo girls are made

ister of Education...


McGill University, Montreal.. 75

graceful ...


“ Apportionment, 1876 85
English Language, Simplification
Mechanics, Necessity of Educated 112
What skilled labour does.. 79 Smirl, Mr. A., censured.



Middlesex Teachers Convention. 87 Morrisburg Investigation 67, 97, 138, Smith, Goldwin, Lecture on Eng-
Exeter Teachers' Institute.. 103 MINISTER OF EDUCATION. Ap-

149 land

pointment of
32 Museums, Village...

62 Smithville, Competitive Examin-
Regulations, Teachers' Certi-

ation at



St. Catharines, Sketch of Public
Farmers, Education of..
26 Regulations, Intermediate


Ferguson, Rev. W., charges

Normal School Students' Certifi-


.67, 138 Certain Teachers at Ottawa

148 Superannuated

granted Certificates

Normal Schools, Toronto, and

.97, 130, 177
Rev.Mr. Borthwick's Certifi-

Ottawa... 97, 113, 114, 130
cate cancelled..


Northumberland Teachers' Asso-
Glashan, J. C., appointed mem-
Mr. A. Smirl, censured

151 Teachers' Institute, Caistor ...... 155

ber Central Committee Ex. 48


Goderich Schools

Superannuated Teachers.

ings of

Organization of the Educa-
tion Department ...

Tyendinaga Teachers' Asso-
The general absence of good


Supplementary half-yearly


Oxford Teachers' Convention 86
Returns ..

66 Conference at Philadelphia 136
Words to the Young


Re U.S. S. of Charlotteville,

Educational Exhibition, On-
A Word to Boys


selection, school site... 66 tario....

..137, 171
Grenville Teachers' Association 151

Regulations for Journal of
Educational Museum at the

Huron Teachers' Association 103

Institute... 103
68 permanent Centennial Ex-

Regulations for



South Hastings Teachers'
Haldimand Teachers' Convention 151 School Teachers' Examina- Object lesson-teaching at the

Institute ..


High School Programme, New,

Wentworth Teachers' Insti-
1, 11, 145
Regulations for Public School
Ontario Teachers' Association... 114


Intermediate Ex-

Teachers' Examinations .. 81 Ottawa, Borthwick Investigation
Address, Oxford Teachers

13, 68, 91, 98, 121

Schools in Algoma District 106
am., H. School Inspectors

87 Oxford University Reform......

Elgin Teachers Association. 132

Oxford Teachers' Convention.... 86

Durham Teachers' pic-nic... 132
Address, Middlesex Teachers'
Higher English in the Schools,

Prince Edward Teachers'

Study of


Supplementary Regulations
Hindoo Girls, how made graceful 79

Lennox and Addington
for Normal Schools
Hodgins, J.G., LL.D., appoint-

130 Parry Sound District, Inspection

Teachers' Association...... 149
International exchange of by Mr. Little.

ed Deputy Minister of Edu-

Grenville Teachers' Associa-
School material.

130 PERIODICALS : Extracts from


Holland, Middle Class Education
Directions for Separate School Recent opinions of American

Northumberland Teachers'

131 Educators


Hughes, James, appointed Mem-

County Dundas Board of Ex-
Village Museums

Education in Eastern On-
ber C.P.I.

aminers .
138, 139 What to read


Address, Lennox and Ad-
Huron Teachers' Association.... 103

Progress of Popular Science

Haldimand Teachers' Con-
dington Teachers' Associa-

in Schools...


150 School-room poisoning in N.

Madoc Teachers' Institute. 155
Address, Grenville Teachers'


International Educational Con-

South Hastings Teachers'
151 Physical Education


ference at Philadelphia... 136
Address, Northumberland

Max Muller on National

Temperance facts, startling.. 43
Intermediate Examinations, Pro-
Teachers' Association .... 151 Education

77 Tey, J. J., appointed member
50 Address, School officials,

The True Macbeth

C. C. É..


Eastern Ontario...
152 The English Education Bill

Time, value of

Appointment of Sub examin-
Certificates expiring in De-

of 1876..
95 Toronto City Schools

97 cember
161 Compulsory Education in

Township School Boards.

Decision on Mr. Martin's

96 Truancy in N.Y.....


161 Oxford University Reform.. 109
Japan, Education in

List of Certificates awarded.. 162 Middle Class Education in

Japanese Commission and Edu-

Address, Elgin Teachers' As-


cation Department


164 Necessity of Educated Me- United States, Education in.... 19
Jennings, Rev. Dr..
Address, North Essex Teach-

Cost of crime in


Journal of Education, communi-

ers' Institute

165 Bad air in the School-room. 171 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN ON-
cations to

.68, 169 Address, Dundas Educatio-

Sanitary effect of shade trees 172
nal Association .
Industrial element needed in

Toronto University, Revised
Address, Halton County pub-



lic meeting
166 Utilization of solar force.. 173

Convocation. 106
Kindergarten System

Central Committee of Exam-
Comparative size of counties 173

Victoria University. 107
inery- New Appointments 178 A batch of weather signs. ... 173


Collegiate Institutes and How to make Entomologists 173 Upper School, H. S. Programme
Law Society, Primary Examina-
High Schools Classification Teaching kindness to ani-

11, 145
158 and Grant
178 mals



Meetings of the Minister of

Schools of Art...
174 | Vacations

.67, 112, 134

Education with Teachers

Art Eduoation...

The Rights of Teachers.... 55 and Trustees

178 POETRY :

Remuneration of School Sec. 55 Books 19cts. to the 1s. sterl-

The Schoolmaster's Guests. 31 Webster's Dictionary
Coghlan vs. Trustees 4 Til-

179 Beautiful Things

3 Whitney, W. A., Dundas Co.
bury East
Trustee purchases from Book- Poor School Grant, 1876.,

47 Examiner, charges against
Re No. 6 Fredericksburgh

179 Prince Edward's Teachers' Con-

67, 138
156 Books for School Librarie.


Examiners' Certificate can-
Re Niagara H. S. Board... 156 and Prizes
$180 Prize Books sanctioned 149, 179 celled



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nish, as the law prescribes, “adequate school accommodation NEW HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMME

for all the school residents of the Section or division.” This SUFFICIENT SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION AND TEACHERS. STUDY OF HIGHER ENGLISH IN THE SCHOOLS....

they have ample powers to do. No public meeting or other HIGH SCHOOL INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION.. FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES .......

parties can deprive them of this power, or interfere with them EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT ON Exolish ELEMENTARY EDUCATION, 1874-1875.. EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORTS OF HER MAJESTY'S INSPECTORS OP SCHOOLS..

in its exercise. If the proper accommodation be not provided, EXTRACT FROM REPORTS OF H. M. SCHOOL' INSPECTORS IN SCOTLAND, 1874–1875. I. CORRESPONDENCE OF THE JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.1) Competitive Examinations ;

parents can plead that neglect on the part of the Trustees as a (2) Simplification of the English Language...

reasonable excuse for keeping their children at home. Under II. MISCELLANEOUS.-(1) Changes in Words ; (2) Webster's Unabridged aud Pictorial Royal Quarto Dictionary

such circumstances, it will be impossible for the Inspectors or III. PAPERS ON PRACTICAL EDUCATION. (1) Free-hand Drawing ; (2) Music in the

Public Schools ; (3) Ornamentation of Houses and Schools ; (4) School-girls in the Department to see to the "due carrying out” of the comSociety ; (5) The Fallen Great of 1875.

pulsory clauses of the School Act. IV. SCHOOL MATTERS IN ONTARIO.-(1) The Revised Programme, and the Regula

tions for the Apportionment of the Grant ; (2) Charges Against the Chairman of the Ottawa Board of City Examiners...

“ Free Schools” and “Compulsory Education" are the V. SHORT CRITICAL NOTICRS OF BOOKS.....

necessary complement the one of the other; and the ratepayers, VI. DEPARTMENTAL NOTICES.-(1) High School Programme, Interim Committee ;

(2) Authorized Text Books ---Special Notice ; (3) School Census of 1875 the basis especially those in cities and large towns, have a right to of Apportionment in 1876; (4) Trustees' Supplementary Returns.

demand that the one part of the Act should be reasonably VII. ADVERTISEMENTS.......

enforced, while they are prepared to comply with the demands NEW HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAMME.

made under the other for the support of Free Schools.

To show the great impetus which the law of 1871 gave to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been school building, &c., in Ontario, we may mention that in 1870 pleased to approve of the new High School Programme and the expenditure for school sites and buildings only reached the Regulations adopted by the Interim Committee of the Council sum of $207,500 ; in 1874 it was $650,000, or more than of Public Instruction on the 13th of November, and published three times as much. on pages 178, 179 of this Journal for December. The first

We have, therefore, great reason to congratulate ourselves and intermediate High School Examination, under the approved the large majority of the School Corporations on the zeal and Programme and Regulations, will be held in June of the enterprise with which they have generally complied with the law current year.—(See Explanation of Programme, &c., on pages in regard to school accommodation. Upwards of $2,000,000 2, 11 and 16.

have been expended during the four years (1871-1874, in

clusive,) since the new law came in force, in the purchase or SUFFICIENT SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION enlargement of school sites, and the erection and repairs of AND TEACHERS.

school-houses. THE taking of the School Census in December, under the As a necessary consequence of increased school accommodaauthority of the Trustees, and as required by law, will no tion, the employment of a second teacher, when the number of doubt bring under the immediate notice of the School Inspec- pupils on the roll exceeds 50, is essential. Inspectors have, in tors the fact that the school accommodation in many sections, some cases, interpreted this regulation to mean an average and in some villages, towns, and cities, is not at all equal to attendance of 50;" but this is not the provision of the law or the requirements of the law, and the school necessities of the regulation on the subject. neighbourhood. It is to be hoped, therefore, that the Inspec- To the inquiry of an Inspector on the subject the following tors will see that while, on the one hand, the law requires reply was sent :-“The interpretation which you have given that each child should receive at least four months' tuition to the regulations in regard to two teachers, and the average

VARD the Public School Trustees should, on the other hand, attentione in a school, is one which they do not bear. Such


au interpretation in other counties has led to serious embarrass- is something in the influence of a great soul upon another soul ment and complaint on the part of parents and others. While which defies analysis. No analysis of a poem, however subtle, can

produce the same effect upon the mind and heart as the reading of the Department holds that the regulations should be interpreted the poem itself.

“*O delight as they read, yet it will be happy to act, as far as possible, upon

And triumph of the poet –who would say the advice and recommendation of Inspectors in all doubtful

A man's mere 'yes,' a woman's common ‘no,'

A little human hope of that or this, cases, where the regulations cannot be carried out, and the

And says the word so that it burns you through

With a special revelation, shakes the heart circumstances of the locality would warrant a temporary

Of all the men and women in the world, suspension of them ; but it is not competent for an Inspector

As if one came back from the dead and spoke,
With eyes too happy, a familiar thing

Become divine i' the utterance !!
to authorize a departure from the regulations without the
sanction of the Department."

But though the works of Shakespeare and Milton and our other great writers were not intended by their authors to serve as text

books for future generations, yet it is unquestionably the case that STUDY OF HIGHER ENGLISH IN THE SCHOOLS.

a large amount of information may be imparted and a very valuable

training given if we deal with them as we deal with Homer and (In connection with the new High School Programme.)

Horace in our best schools. Parsing, grammatical analysis, the

derivation of words, prosody, composition, the history of the lanOn the introduction of higher English into our schools, J. M. guage, and, to a certain extent, the history of the race, may be Buchan, Esq., M.A., Inspector of High Schools, has addressed the both more pleasantly and more profitably taught in this than in any following letter to the Rev. G. P. Young, M.A., Chairman Central other way. It is advisable for other reasons, also, that the study Committee of Examiners. We insert it for the information of all of these subjects should be conjoined with that of English Literaparties concerned, and commend it to their consideration. Mr. ture. Not only may time be thus economized, but the difficulty of Buchan says :

fixing the attention of flighty and inappreciative pupils may more “ In consequence of the action which the Council of Public In- easily be overcome. struction has lately taken, in order to promote the study of higher “ În order that it may be understood in what way the study of English, you recently requested me to put into a shape fit for pub- the subjects mentioned in the preceding paragraph may be carried lication, any information or advice which I might deem it judicious on along with that of an English classic, 1 shall now detail at some to give, in regard both to the way in which the prescribed poems length the work which an advanced class ought to do. I shall give and prose writings should be studied, and to the particular editions a brief notice of a number of topics which I must mention in some which would be most suitable. It is difficult to treat the former of order, but it must not be inferred that the order here given is that these subjects in a satisfactory manner within the brief compass of in which a class should deal with them. Whether a class should a letter; but, as the Committee are of opinion that there are a take them up separately, or concurrently, or in groups, must be degreat many teachers and students who will welcome even the slight- termined in each case by the teacher, after considering the length est indication of the path which they ought to pursue, I shall write and character of the classic about to be read, the training of the class, a few paragraphs on the topics on which information is most likely and the way in wbich he can do his work to the greatest advantage. to be sought or needed. I shall, besides, give the names of any I shall indicate the topics the consideration of which may be omitted suitable editions of the works prescribed which have fallen under by junior classes. my observation.

(i.) A synopsis of the contents, plot, or general meaning of the "At the beginning of this year the study of English Literature, work to be read should be required from each pupil, not only as a as distinguished from that of the History of English Literature, is proof that he has read it, but also as a useful exercise in composito be introduced in the Normal and High Schools. Candidates for tion. This abstraot should be first given orally and afterwar is comfirst-class certificates are to read Macbeth,' '11 Penseroso,' ten mitted to writing. In the case of a work like the Lady of the Essays from the Spectator,' and Johnson's Lives of Milton and Lake,' which cannot be read through at a single sitting, it will be Addison ; pupils in the higher department of the High Schools are found convenient to require the synopsis to be made out in parts, to read Macbeth' and 'Il Penseroso,' and pupils in the lower which should afterwards be combined. department are to read the 'Lady of the Lake' and Gray's “(ii.) The work should be read aloud, with due attention to

Elegy? Of these three classes of pupils, the first two approxi- elocution. Short poems and the finer passages in long poems should mate sufficiently in regard to knowledge, mental training, and ripe- be committed to memory and recited. But no passage should be ness of intellect, to render it advisable that they should be taught read aloud or recited in the class before it is tolerably well underin the same way.

The third class of pupils will require to have stood. A classical composition appeals to the ear as well as to the the method of instruction adapted to their less mature years. understanding, and much both of its melody and of its meaning will

" It is impossible, and were it possible, it would not be desirable, be missed if it is not read aloud. The educative influence of good to lay down a set of rules for the guidance of teachers in teaching reading is a subject to which the attention of inany Canadian the works named in the preceding paragraph, which would meet the teachers requires to be directed. The teacher or pupiù who can read case of every teacher and of every class. Not only do teachers a fine poem with expression, who differ in their mental constitution, not only do classes vary in

““Says the word so that it burns you through ability, thoroughness of training, and in other respects, but the selec

With a special revelation,' tions to be read differ in length, in subject, in form, and in character. Some are in prose, some in verse. Of those in verse, one is is a power and a refining influence in a school. Of course, many, dramatic, another lyrical. All that I can do is to state the principles on account of natural defects, can never become very good readers, which should, in my opinion, be acted upon by teachers of English but all can be taught to read with some degree of expression. There Literature. The application of these principles must be made by are, moreover, always some in a school who can be taught to read the teachers themselves.

well, and the æsthetic benefit of good reading is not confined to the “With all classes of pupils alike, the main thing to be aimed at reader-it is shared by the listeners. by the teacher is to lead them clearly and fully to understand the “ (iii.) The life and times of the author should be studied, and meaning of the author they are reading, and to appreciate the the connection between the characteristic features of the literature beauty, the nobleness, the justness, or the sublimity of his thoughts of his era and the general history of the period developed. Any and language. Parsing, the analysis of sentences, the derivation of illustrations of the modes of thought, manners, customs, political words, the explanation of allusions, the scansion of verse, the point- views, etc., of the period that can be drawn from his pages should ing out of figures of speech, the hundred and one minor matters on be brought under the attention of the class. which the teacher may easily dissipate the attention of his pupils, (iv.) The attention of the class should likewise be directed to should be strictly subordinated to this great aim. The masterpieces all difficulties in parsing or analysis that occur in the work under of our literature were written, not to serve as texts whereon exer- consideration. It will serve a good purpose if the regular exercises cises of various kinds might be based, but to convey to others, in in parsing and analysis be taken from its pages. As occasion offers, the most attractive form, an account of the thoughts and feelings explanations bearing on the history of the grammatical structure of which pervaded the minds of their authors : so that if we wish to the language should be given to advanced classes. benefit in the highest degree by their perusal, we must make our- (v.) Junior classes cannot be expected to know much more of selves at home with their writers, and inhale for a time the mental etymology than the outlines of the history of our vocabulary and atmosphere which they breathed. It is essential

that the miud of the more easy and obvious derivations. The attention of advanced the reader should be put en rapport with that of the writer. There classes should be directed to any words that are interesting on ac

count of the history of their meaning or on account of the fragments dates at that examination in the Sixth Book of Voltaire's Charles of history which they embody. In any class in which all the pupils XII., instead of in the Advanced Reader. Candidates who take are studying some other language, so much of the fundamental French at the first intermediate examination will, accordingly, be principles of the science of language as can be readily grasped by examined in De Fivas' Elementary Reader and Charles XII., them may be discussed with advantage.

Book VI. “(vi.) All allusions should be explained, any peculiar use of There would obviously be a hardship in requiring all classical words should be noticed, proper names should receive their share of pupils to stand an examination in the First Book of Cæsar next consideration, and the meaning of sentences or clauses that present June. Many of the pupils in the higher forms are reading Cicero, difficulties should be discussed. The explanation of the meaning of Livy, or Horace, but have not read the First Book of Cæsar. Some difficult passages in verse will be much facilitated if the pupils be re- of them are preparing to enter the University 'or to pass the prequired to render them in prose.

liminary examination for some profession, and it would be unwise “(vii.) If the subject of study be a work in verse, attention to insist that they should break in upon their plans to any considershould be paid to its metrical construction.

able extent. We accordingly purpose to exempt, with the permis“ (viii.) Some attention should be paid to figures of speech by sion of the Council, from the examination in Cæsar, all such adadvanced classes.

vanced classical pupils as satisfy us at our inspectoral visits that “(ix.) Advanced classes should attempt to form a critical esti- they are entitled to exemption by reason of the quantity and quality mate of the work under consideration. It will be impossible for of their knowledge of Latin. All candidates in Latin must, howany pupils except those who have read a good deal, and difficult for ever, be examined in the first three hundred lines of the Second them, to do this with even moderate success. But a good teacher Book of the Æneid. may, by judiciously chosen exercises, lead his pupils up to a point

We have the honour to be, Sir, at which they can form a critical estimate of greater or less value.

Your obedient servants, They may be required to state in their own language what they

J. A. McLELLAN. consider the author's conception of a particular character to be, or

J. M. BUCHAN. his views on some important point. They may be required to state

A. ARTHUR MARLING. the impressions produced on them by reading the work, what they

Toronto, 30th Dec., 1875. think its leading features are, or what they imagine to be the object which its author had in view in writing it. If there be a plot, its probability may be discussed. If the subject of the work be one

FIRST CLASS CERTIFICATES. which has been treated by other writers, the attention of the class should be directed to differences of treatment, and parallel passages

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. should be cited. Numerous topics of a similar character will be Some teachers, who are unable to attend either of our Normal suggested by every classical work, and the discussion of some of Schools, have asked for information as to the works on Natural them, both orally and on paper, will form the best preparation for Philosophy which it would be best for them to consult with a view an attempt at a critical estimate of it.

to the examinations for First Class Certificates. “Those who are acquainted with the admirable suggestions on The treatises on Elementary Statics and Elementary Hydrostatics, the teaching of English, prefixed to Hales’s ‘Longer English Poems,' by Hamblin Smith, and Balfour Stewart's Lessons in Elementary will see that my views in the main coincide with his. This book is Physics, have been sanctioned by the Council of Public Instruction ; one which every teacher of higher English, and every candidate for and they contain all that is necessary on the subjects of which they a first class certificate, ought to possess. The'Longer English Poems' treat. It is recommended that particular attention be given to are accompanied with notes, and include 'Il Penseroso' and Gray's Chapters I., II., III., and to Lesson 16, Chap. IV., of Stewart's * Elegy. The price of the book is about $1 35. Several editions of work, as they furnish a key to the modern treatment of Mechanics.

Macbeth' have been published at one shilling sterling. The only A First Book on Natural Philosophy by Samuel Newth, embracone of these of which I can recall the name is that of the Rev. John ing all the subjects on Natural Philosophy required at the matricuHunter, in Longmans' Series. There is, in the Clarendon Press lation examination of the University of London, may be studied Series, a good edition, of which Mr. Aldis Wright, a scholar of with advantage. It contains a number of happily chosen examples. some reputation, is one of the editors. It is sold for about forty The part of it devoted to Dynamics is clear and simple. cents. In Seeley's Cheap School Books there is a volume contain- Students who possess Clerk Maxwell's Theory of Heat (Longing 'Il Penseroso' and other selections from Milton, with notes man's Text-books of Science, $1 05) should carefully read Chap. IV., and an introduction by the Rev. H. R. Hickin, M.A. Its price is “ Elementary Dynamical Principles.". eight pence sterling. There is a volume of selections from Milton, It would be of great advantage to intending candidates to work likewise including 'Il Penseroso,' in Collins's Series, which con- over the papers in Natural Philosophy that have already been set. tains an introduction and notes by J. G. Davis. Its price is one Solutions of these have appeared in the Journal of Education and shilling sterling. The edition of the 'Spectator' which will best meet in the Ontario Teacher. the needs of candidates for first class certificates is that by Professor A friend, in whose judgment I have confidence, has furnished me Morley, of University College, London. It is sold at five shillings with the following notes on some works, which are highly spoken of, sterling. A cheap edition of Johnson's 'Lives of the Poets' is to but which I have not myself seen :-be found among the Chandos Classics. Among Chambers’ Cheap First Lessons in Theoretical Mechanics, by the Rev J. F. Twisden. Reprints of English Classics may be found an Edition of Gray's London : Longmans, Green & Co. $2 05.-- This work is well suited * Elegy, at four pence sterling, and one of the 'Lady of the Lake' to one unacquainted with Trigonometry. The mathematical knowat one shilling sterling, in paper covers, with memoirs and notes. ledge demanded of its readers is thus stated in the preface :-"A

“ The preceding paragraph contains all the information that I am very large portion of the principles of mechanics admits of exposiable to furnish in regard to cheap editions of the English Classics tion and illustration without demanding of the student a knowledge which have been prescribed. I desire it to be noticed that of the of more than arithmetic, a few rules in mensuration, enough geomebooks I have mentioned I recommend only Hales's 'Longer English try to make accurate diagrams with compasses, scale and protractor, Poems' and Morley's 'Spectator.' . All the others contain notes of and enough algebra to solve a simple equation. No more than this some value with the exception of Johnson's 'Lives,' in the Chan-lis needed for the study of the following pages, with the exception dos Classics, but I do not feel warranted in saying that they are so of Chapter VI., on motion in a circle, and a few articles and examgood as to be entitled to be preferred to other cheap editions. There ples occurring for the most part towards the end of the book.” may be others which contain better notes, but this, after all, is a Attention should be given to Chapter V. (including Section 93 on matter of minor importance. Good notes are a good thing, but the the absolute unit of force) and to Ex. 137, “Newton's Laws of student who puts his faith in notes and neglects the study of the Motion, and proof of the parallelogram of forces.” There are 423 text does not take the course from which he will reap the greatest exercises for the student and 171 solved examples. benefit.”

Principles of Mechanics, by T. M. Goodeve. London: Longmans,

Green & Co. $1 05.—This is one of Longman's Text-books of SciHIGH SCHOOL INTERMEDIATE EXAMINATION.

The reader is required to have a very slight knowledge of

Trigonometry. The introduction, to which special attention should To the Editor of the Journal of Education.

be given, may be substituted for Chapter 1. of Stewart's ElemenSIR, -In view of the fact that there is likely to be a difficulty in tary Physics. The work is peculiarly valuable on account of its obtaining a supply of the proper French Readers at a sufficiently illustrations of the application of the principles to the construction early date to render it possible for the French Classes in the High of machines. Schools to read the prescribed work before the June examination, The advanced student desirous of a purely theoretical work may we desire to announce that it is our intention, if the Council of consult Todhunter's Mechanics for Beginners. The work contains Public Instruction approve of the substitution, to examine candi- 350 exercises in Statics and 253 in Dynamics, many of considerable


of age.







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difficulty of their kind. A fair knowledge of Trigonometry is re- The average attendance in aided schools (day and night) has risen quired to read this book.

from 1,225,764 in 1870 to 1,727,449 in 1874. There were, in 1874, Elementary Problems in Statics and Dynamics, by H. Walton. 2,497,602 names of scholars on the registers of inspected schools, of London: Bell & Daldy. $3 15.-A full collection of examples of whom 2,070,727 were present on the day of inspection, and this is methods of solution and of exercises to be solved ; these are of all the number of children (out of some four and a-half millions for degrees of difficulty. This work might be advantageously consulted whom elementary schools are required) who received more or less by candidates for First Class Certificates, Grade A.

of efficient instruction in such schools during the past year. Of

these scholars, 916,591 were below and 1,581,011 above seven years GEORGE PAXTON YOUNG.

It further appears from the reports of the Inspectors that miliEXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT ON ENGLISH ELE

tary drill, which (as distinguished from the ordinary school drill MENTARY EDUCATION, 1874-1875.

practised in every good school) was introduced by the New Code,

is systematically taught, with more or less satisfactory results, to In the last ten years, the sum of £4,258,099 (to meet Govern- the boys attending 1,137 day schools. ment grant of £5,958,976) has been subscribed towards the main- The 12,167 elementary day schools in England and Wales, intenance of elementary schools under inspection ; and the annual spected in 1874, provided accommodation in 17,646 departments, amount derived from this source has risen from £277,760 in 1864 for 2,871,826 scholars, The average daily attendance in these to £616,326 in 1874. The number of subscribers in these two years schools amounted to 1,678,759, so that each department, while was respectively 145,856 and 251,185. Voluntary effort in the past providing accommodation for 162 scholars, had an average attendyear further contributed £172,166 towards the erection of those ance of only 95. It has been calculated that, under the operation elementary schools to which building grants were made, and of the Education Acts, the average attendance will rise to 120. * * * £22,395 towards the maintenance of training colleges under in

The accommodation provided in 1875 by the training colleges spection.

under inspection in England and Wales is sufficient for 3,076 The Inspectors found 18,714 certificated teachers at work in the students, and 2,975 are in residence. In 1865, the colleges held aided schools which they visited, while the 40 training colleges, from 2,500 students, and 1,822 were in residence. The colleges can, which the supply of such teachers is mainly recruited, were at- therefore, at present furnish a yearly supply of some 1,500 teachers tended in 1874 by 2,982 students.

who have been trained for two years. The following table of statistics, abstracted from the reports of

The first object of the Education Act of 1870 was to secure a the Inspectors on the schools visited by them in 1870, and in each supply of súitable school accommodation sufficient to meet the of the last three years, shows clearly the rate of progress in the requirements of the country. period which has elapsed since the passing of the Elementary

In the year ending 31st of August, 1874, the number of board Education Act of 1870 :

schools increased from 520 to 838 ; while the accommodation in

these schools rose from 125,058 to 245,508 ; and the average atENGLAND AND WALES.

tendance from 71,243 to 142,017.

The sum expended by school boards in England during the year

under review amounted to-£1,825,957, as compared with £1,126,956 YEARS ENDING 31st AUGUST.

in the previous year; and in Wales to £132,168, as compared with

£48,029. 1870. 1872. 1873. 1874.

About £1,304,004 of the expenditure in England, and about £93,853 in Wales, was incurred in the purchase of sites for schools, and in building, enlarging, and furnishing schools ; leaving

£521,053 in England, and £38,315 in Wales, as the current I. Estimated Population ... 22,090,163 23,067,835 23,356,414 23,618,609 expenditure, in contradistinction to the capital expenditure of the II. Number of Schools (Insti

year. tutions) inspected... 8,9191 10,683

13,163 III. Annual Grant Schools : Number of Departments

EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORTS OF HER MAJESTY'S 1. Day 12,061 14,101 15,929) 17,646


2,504 2,063 1,395) 1,432 Accommodation


1,878,584 2,295,894 2,582,549 2,861,319 The walls are covered with the most recently published maps, 2. Night Schools (not connected with day schools)

and in some cases with excellent prints as well. At one school

10,507 Present at examination

(Harbridge, near Ringwood), recently built by Lord Normanton, 1. Day scholars..

1,434,766 1,607,511 1,811,595 2,034,007 really beautiful engravings—a very good one of “ The Queen," 2. Night scholars

77,918 61,168 35,621) 36,720 amongst others-adorn the room, and give to it an air of comfort Average attendance

and relinement. The “ prints in this instance were the gift, I 1. Day scholars.

1,152,389 1,336,158 1,482,480 1,678, 759 was told, of Mr.Graves, of Pall Mall. Mr. Graves would be doing 2. Night scholars

66,388 45,973 48,690

a good and great educational work, if he would visit and beautify, Voluntary contributions. £418,839 493,385 539,502 602,836

in a similar manner, all the schools in my district. For too much Rates

5,085 61,210 135,991 stress cannot be laid on the importance of having our school-rooms School pence

£502,022 599,283 688,296 814,283 as clean, as light, and as cheerful as it is possible to make them. Government Grants. £587,490 789,689 919,857 1,050,259 Not only are the health and spirits of the teachers and children

benefited by these things, but their eyes are also educated to appreIV, Simple Inspection Schools 1. Accommodation 53,982 83,9351 82,917 91,160

ciate order and beauty, and to detect and dislike untidiness and 2. Present at inspection

39,122 54,260 52,496 59,304 dirt.-Rev. W. F., Treganthen. 3. Average attendance.. 16,599 29,798 30,099 32,192


The discipline of boys' schools and of mixed schools under a Certificated. 12,467 14,771) 16,810

18,714 master, has been greatly improved and strengthened by the introAssistant

1,262 1,646 1,970

2,489 duction of drill. It has tamed down the restlessness and turbulence Pupil

14,3041 21,297 24,674 27,031 Studying in Training Col.

of many unruly spirits, and has brought about a much greater degree leges . 2,097 2,618 2,896 2,982 of quiet submission to authority, and a more prompt obedience to

orders than any which existed heretofore. Changes of lessons, dismissal, &c., are effected with less noise, and with a smaller waste of

time. The task of an examiner is also rendered less troublesome in An addition of room in aided schools for 1,105,882 children in proportion as the scholars are more steady and obedient in their five years is satisfactory. * The increased accommodation behaviour. The habits of order, respectful manners towards others, to which we allude has been supplied in several ways.

and ready compliance with legitimate commands are invaluable as The school boards have availed themselves freely of the power of helping to form the character and promote the welfare of the youth borrowing, on the security of the rates, given by the Acts of 1870 who cultivates them in after life. – Rev. B. J. BINNs. and 1873. We have recommended to the Public Works Loan Commissioners to make 986 loans, amounting to £4,179,173 198. 3d.

BOOKS AND APPARATUS, to 502 school boards, by means of which new accommodation will The supply of books and apparatus is, in many of the schools that be furnished for some 370,956 scholars.

fall under my observation, stiīl too limited and imperfect. Local


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