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Charles II. installed canon of Windsor, and created D.D. July 11, 1660. Having been inducted into the living of Standish, in the county of Lancaster, by a former gift of the earl of Derby, he was in September, 1667, installed dean of Salisbury, and consecrated bishop of Chester, in 1675. The latter dignity he only enjoyed three years; he died suddenly whilst on a yisitation through his diocese, October 5, 1678, and was buried at Windsor. John SHARP, D. D. 1675; afterwards archbishop of York. BENJAMIN WOODROFFE, D. D. dean of Christchurch, Oxon, 1688. JOHN ADAMS, D. D. vice-chancellor of Cambridge, provost of King's College, &c. 1720. ZACHARY PEARCE, D, D. Jate bishop of Rochester. FRANCIS Barnard, D. D. prebendary of Norwich. SAMUEL SALTER, D. D. late master of the Charter-house,
By the vestry books of this parish it appears that “In the year 1578 it was agreed, that every householder in the parish should, in rotation watch their day, from eight in the morning till the same hour in the evening, for the purpose of expelling rogues and beggars from the streets of the parish."
In Stow's London by Strype, is an account of many incroachments upon this church and church-yard, which are stated to be " timbers of the Cock ale-house laid in the chapel wall. A coal-hole made in the east end of the south aisle. A cistern of the said ale-house set in the church-yard. A chimney built from another house into the church steeple, and some closets built over the church-yard.
« Shops in Threadneedle Street in front of the church are built upon part of the church-yard and part of the city ground. For which the parish paid the city 100l. fine, and yearly rent for above twenty years before the fire, and had a lease thereof from the city; which shops were built for the use of the poor of the parish. And the said 100l. was given by the parishioners for that only use and purpose; but since the fire, the shops being demolished thereby, our mi. nister hath seized upon all, and kept the same to himself, VOL. III. No. 50.
and the poor of the parish have no benefit at all by or out of the same ever since.” *
There were only three houses in the parish left standing after the dreadful conflagration of 1666.
Within a few doors of the church is CAPEL COURT, so called from Sir William Capel, lord mayor, a great sufferer through the iniquitous proceedings of Empson and Dudley, in the reign of Henry VII, and ancestor to the earl of Essex. In this court is a spacious and neat building, erected for
THE STOCK EXCHANGE. The first stone of this fabric was laid by William Hammond, Esq. chairman of the committee of managers, in the presence of the proprietors. , Mr. Hammond, having explained the advantages attendant on the undertaking, stated, that the following inscription, engraved on copper, had been deposited under the stone:
“On the 18th of May, in the year 1801, and the 41st of the reign of George III, the first stone of this building, erected by private subscription, for the transaction of business in the public funds, was laid in the presence of the proprietors, and under the direction of William Hammond, William Stur, Thomas Roberts, Griffith Jones, William Grey, Isaac Hensley, Robert Sutton, Jo. Bruckshaw, John Capel, and John Barnes, managers; James Peacock, architect. At this æra, being the first year of the Union between Great Britain and Ireland, the public funded debt had accumulated, in five successive reigns, to 552,730,9241. The in. violate faith of the British Nation, and the principles of the Constitution, sanction and secure the property embarked in this undertaking. May the blessings of that Constitution be transmitted to the latest posterity!"
The national debt is divided into various portions, under the denominations of Bank stock-5 per cent. Navy Annuities--3 per Cent. Consols—3 per Cent. 1726-5 per cent. 1797–4 per Cent. Consols-3 per Cent. Reduced-Long Annuities-Short Annuities---3 per Cent. Imperial Annuities -Imperial Annuities for twenty-five years-5 per cent Irish
* This censure applies to Dr. Bridoak, who went to law with the parishioners in 1669.
Annuities-- Irish Annuities for fifteen years-Deferred Stock -South Sea Stock-3 per Cent. New South Sea Annuities 3 per Cent. 1751—3 per Cent. Old South Sea Annuities, India Stock. These form what are called THE STOCKS; their variety has arisen from the exigencies which gave them birth and the terms on which the several government loans were made, either on annuities, or the funded property of incorporated and other companies. The security of government, as well as of the public companies, having been engaged for the payment of the principal money, sanctioned by parliament, and the interest always having been punctually paid when due, the stocks, by such means are become the most convenient security on which sums of money can be best put out, particularly for temporary purposes; since any sum, large or small, may be bought in, or sold out, at pleasure. But in buying, or selling in any of the different stocks, it must be remembered, that the interest due on them from the time of the last payment by government is always taken into the current price, and the seller never receives any separate consideration for it, except in the case of India bonds and Exchequer bills, where the interest due is calculated to the day of sale, and paid by the purchaser, over and above the premium agreed for. But, as the interest on the different stocks is paid at different times, this, if not rightly understood, would lead a person not well acquainted with them, into considerable mistakes in his computation of their value; some always having a quarter's interest due on them' more than others, which makes an appearance of a considerable difference in the price, when, in reality there is none at all; thus, for instance, Old South Sea Annuities sell for 85 l. or 851. 10s. while New South Sea Annuities fetch only 8411. or 841. 158. though each of them produce the same annual sum of three per cent. but the old annuities have a quarter's interest more due on them than the new annuities, which amounts to 155. the exact difference. Every capital stock or fund of a company being raised for a particular purpose, and limited by government to a certain sum, it necessarily follows that, when that fund is completed, no more stock of that de.
nomination can be bought of the company; though the shares already purchased may be, and are, continually transferred from one person to another. This being the case, there is frequently a great disproportion between the original value of the shares and what is given for them when transferred; for, if there are more buyers than sellers, a person who is indifferent about selling will not part with his share without a considerable profit to himself; and, on the contrary, if many are disposed to sell, and few inclined to buy, the value of such shares will naturally fall, in proportion to the impatience of those who want to turn their stock into specie.
The real value of one stock above another, on account of its being more profitable to the proprietors, or any thing that will really, or only in imagination, affect the credit of a company, or endanger the government by which that credit is secured, must naturally have a considerable effect on the stocks. Thus, with respect to the interest of the proprietors, a share in the stock of a trading company which produces Sl. or 6l. per cent. per annum, must be more valuable than an annuity with government security, that produces no more than 31. or 4l. per cent. per annum; and consequently such stock must sell at a higher price than such an annuity. Though it must be observed, that a share in the stock of a trading company producing 5l. or 6l. per cent. per annum, will not fetch so much money at market as a government annuity producing the same sum, because the security of the company is not reckoned equal to that of government; and the continuance of their paying so much per annum, is more precarious, as their dividend is, or ought to be, always in proportion to the profits of their trade.
As the prices of the different stocks are continually fluctuating above and below par, so when a person, who is not acquainted with transactions of that nature, reads in the newspapers the prices of stocks, where Bank stock is marked perhaps 127, India ditto 134 a 1344, South Sea ditto 977, &c. he is to understand, that 100!. in those respective stocks sell at such a time for those several sums.
At the bottom of Bartholomew Lane is THROGMORTON STREET ; which originally consisted of old and small tenements, till in the reign of Henry VIII. Thomas Cromwell, master of the Jewel House, and ultimately earl of Essex, erected a large and spacious mansion for his city residenceStow mentions an act of agression by that great courtier, which does not redound in the least to his credit “ This house,” says he, “ being finished, and having some reasonable plot of ground left for a garden, he caused the pales of the gardens adjoining to the north part thereof on a sudden to be taken down, twenty-two feet to be measured directly into the north of every man's ground, a line there to be drawn, a trench to be cast, a foundation laid, and an high brick wall to be built. My father had a garden there, and a house standing close to his south pale; this house they loosed from the ground, and carried on rollers into my father's garden twenty-two feet, before my father heard thereof; no warning was given, nor any other answer, when he heard thereof and spake to the surveyors of that work, but that their master, Sir Thomas, commanded them to do so. No man durst go to argue the matter, but each man lost his land; and my father paid his whole rent, which was 6s. and 8d. a year, for that half which was left. And so much of my own knowledge have I thought good to note, that the sudden rising of some men causeth them to forget themselves."?
The manner in which Stow's house was removed, exhibits very strikingly the mode of habitation belonging to the lesser classes of citizens, which could not be very substantial, since they could be removed at pleasure, like the huts of the Russian peasantry. The extent of the liberty of the subject, in those days of arbitrary domination is also evidently ascertained.
After the attainder and execution of the earl of Essex, this house having been forfeited to the crown, was purchased by the Draper's Company, by whom it is now occupied.
DRAPERS' HALL. This is a spacious and noble edifice, composing the four sides of a quadrangle, each of which is elevated on columns,