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continuance of a truce. The siege was formed on the of the animal, unimpaired by the state of hyberna18th of March, 1799, but, at last, after losing 3000 tion. The bat takes 'wing as readily and actively as men, the French retreated, in the night of the 20th ever, when roused from his state of repose, and the of May, leaving behind them all their heavy artillery, hedgehog walks about in his usual manner, without which was immediately mounted upon the walls by any appearance of feebleness or impaired strength. Djezzar, and from that period Acre has been the best. It must not be supposed that the winter sleep of anifortified town in Syria. In 1831 and 1832 it stood mals is entered upon at a particular season of the a'six months' siege from Ibrahim Pacha, whose can. year, and remains perfectly uninterrupted until that non destroyed most of what yet existed of the ancient season has passed away. It is strictly dependent buildings, so that very few remains of antiquity are upon circumstances, and is capable of being internow to be seen, except in fragments worked up in rupted, and even altogether prevented, by regulating the walls and forts which the Egyptian conqueror has the temperature to which these animals are exposed. erected, most of which are said to be bomb-proof, and Thus, dormice may be kept in a cage in a warm room, capable of withstanding the attack of an European all the winter long, without falling into the lethargic force, an assertion the truth of which seems likely to state, though they will appear more listless and dull be very soon put to the test.
than at other seasons of the year. Their sleep is also liable to interruption when in their natural state,
either from a sudden return of mild weather, which TIIE DORMOUSE, (Mus avellanarius, Linn.)
causes their revivification, and induces them to seek their usual food, &c., or from an accession of cold, such as to cause pain and accelerated respiration, and to make them active in their endeavours to retreat from the cause of their sufferings.
It is a very surprising fact that during their state of hybernation, animals almost wholly cease breathe. Dr. Hall made an experiment with a bat, which clearly proves this to be the case. pared a vessel for the reception of the animal, in which no absorption of air could possibly take place without his being able to ascertain it. The bat remained in this vessel a whole night, and when the air came to be examined it was found precisely the same as the evening before. The bat was then roused
to some degree of activity, and immediately there 17
occurred a consumption of air, exactly in proportion
to the time the bat remained active. The various We have now arrived at the season in which many experiments made on lethargic animals give us the animals prepare for winter repose, and pass into the certainty that they can exist, when in their torpid peculiar condition called hybernation. The temporary state, not only in confined portions of air, but in a suspension of their usual functions, signified by this total abstraction of atmospheric air, and that they term, is not traceable to any particular characters, can even live for several hours in carbonic acid gas, external or internal, of the species that are liable to which causes instant death to an animal in its active this state of lethargy, but must rather be considered state. Spallanzani kept a marmot for four hours in as a wise and benevolent provision, by which various this gas without injury to the animal, while a rat and animals are enabled to adapt themselves to the state a bird, placed in it at the same moment, died immeof the temperature around them, and to sleep away diately. a season that is uncongenial to their natures.
The circulation of the blood in hybernating animals Each of the species subject to this remarkable proceeds uninterruptedly, but more slowly, and the change seeks its appropriate place of hybernation, blood not being acted on by the air in the process of either in the earth, in caverns and ruinous places, in breathing is what is called venous blood. The heart trunks of trees, or bushes, or in some spot protected of the animal, in its active state, is precisely like that from the extreme severity of the weather, for intense of other animals, but when the lethargy ensues it cold is productive of nearly the same effects as re becomes quite altered, and is called veno-contractile. turning heat in these animals. It accelerates the
This phenomenon (says Dr. Hall) is one of the most recirculation, and consequently, the respiration, and markable presented to me in the anima! kingdom. It forms thus the animal is restored to activity. When a the single exception to the niost general rule, amongst anisheltered spot has been selected, it is usually lined mals which possess a double heart. It accounts for the with dried herbs, grasses, leaves, and moss, and then possibility of immersion in water, or a noxious gas, without (in the case of the dormouse) the animal rolls itself drowning or asphyxia, and it accounts for the possibility of
a suspended respiration, without the feeling of oppression up in a ball-like form, and falls into its customary
or pain, although sensation be unimpaired. It is, in a word, state of repose.
this peculiar phenomenon which, conjoined with the pecuHybernation must not be confounded with the liar effect of sleep in inducing diminished respiration in state of torpor sometimes produced in animals by hybernating animals, constitutes the susceptibility and severe cold, which stiffens the muscles, and deaden's capability of taking on the hybernating state. the sensation. Dr. Marshall Hall, who has carefully The different species of dormouse present examples investigated the phenomena of hybernation, asserts of hybernating animals, and are interesting from the that in those animals on which he experimented he elegance of their forms, and the activity of their found the sensibility nearly the same as in ordinary habits. They belong to the great order rodeniia, or sleep. The lightest touch applied to one of the gnawers, and occupy an intermediate tion between spines of a hedgehog immediately roused it to draw inice and squirrels. The dorinouse resembles the a deep and sonorous inspiration. The gentlest shake squirrel in its favourite haunts, in the situation which of the bat induced repeated inspirations. The power it chooses for its nest, in its sudden leaping motion, of moving the muscles remains, like the sensibility its feathered tail, and acute black eye. Its food like
wise consists of nuts and grain, as well as of other | ferent animals. The dormouse often wakes and takes vegetable productions. In size and form, however, a small portion of its easily-acquired food, which con. it is inferior to the squirrel, and nearly resembles the sists of grain, &c. The hedge-bog, whose supply of field-mouse. The dormouse inhabits woods, thickets, snails and worms would be more difficult to obtain, and plantations, and makes a nest of grass, for the in seasons of frost and snow, does not awake so frereception of its young, on the low forked branches quently; and the bat, which depends upon insects for of a spreading bush, or in the recess of a hollow tree. its nourishment, remains in cold weather more firmly
The Common Dormouso is found in England, but asleep than the other two; and though sensible of not very plentifully. Its haunts and habits are such warmth, and easily excited, does not appear to rouse
we have described above. It is smaller in size itself from a desire to take food. than some of the allied species, being little larger In lethargic animals in general the vital principle than a common mouse. The result of the experi- termed irritability has been proved, by a series of deliments which have been made on this species seems cate and elaborate experiments, to be increased in proto prove that the common dormouse is of all animals portion to the profoundness of the torpor. Were not the most disposed to lethargic habits; that a tempe- this the case, as respiration is nearly suspended, vitality rature either too high or too low rouses it; that as would soon cease. Here we have another added soon as it is awakened it takes some food, though proof of the wisdom and design to be found in the moderately; that it passes from its lethargic to its works of creation, by which provision has been made active state in less than half an hour; that the time for the wants of every living thing, and a guard it takes in waking thoroughly is quick in proportion placed, as it were, to ensure the preservation of the to the elevation of the temperature. M. Mangili, in meanest and most insignificant creatures. examining a dormouse of this species, found that when exposed to a great degree of artificial cold, Or late years education has become a subject of general during its lethargic state, it died in twenty minutes. care and attention. But there may be excess even in so When opened he found a great quantity of blood in
amiable a feeling as the devotion of a parent to a child; that the ventricles of the heart, and in the principal ves
very devotion may be productive of mischief to its object.
No pains are spared in cultivating talents, in giving graces, sels which supply and receive from the lungs. He accomplishments, useful information, deep learning; but it also found the lungs, the veins of the neck, head, and
may a question whether the wholesome training of the especially of the brain, considerably distended with feelings is as judiciously attended to as that of the under. blood.
standing. May not the very importance attached to all The Loir, or Fat Dormouse, is nearly as large as the concerning the young lead them to think too much of squirrel; the cheeks are covered with whitish hair; feelings of others, is not one strong motive for controlling
themselves ? Unless they are early taught to consider the the mustachios are long; the upper part of the body their own, (that most difficult and most necessary of all is ashy-gray brown, the under whitish; the tail is lessens), utterly neglected ?--Mrs. Sullivan. covered with long hairs, of the same colour as the body, and disposed in a similar manner to those of your devotion may be earnest, but it must be unconstrained the squirrel. When the cold approaches, the loir and, like other duties, you must make it your pleasure too, rolls itself into a ball, and in this state may be found
or else it will have very little efficacy. By this rule you may in winter in hollow trees, or clefts of rocks, or in joys it is an evidence of their being sincere, but when they
best judge of your own heart. Whilst those duties are holes in walls exposed to the south. It may be taken are a penance it is a sign that your nature maketh some re. and rolled about without rousing it: nothing, indeed, sistance, and whilst that lasteth you can never be entirely seems to wake it from its lethargy but gradual heat. secure of yourself.-The Lady's New Year's Gift. If exposed suddenly to the heat of a fire it will soon die. Although apparently insensible, with the eyes Morea, into which the Turks were never able to penetrate,
The province of Maina, at ihe southern extremity of the closed, and the limbs most curiously folded together, contirues in a state of almost primitive barbarism. Their the loir is sensible of pain, and manifests by slight extraordinary notions of justice are whimsically displayed convulsive movements its consciousness of the inflic- in the following incident:-A Mainote had just been cited tion of a wound or a burn.
before the attorney-general, for killing a man in his proThis animal is confined to the temperate parts of
vince. The man frankly acknowledged the affair, and said the continent of Europe, but does not frequent the
that bis reason for the act was, that the deceased had killed mountainous regions where the marmot is found. his clan had been reduced to thirty-five, and that the clan
one of his relations; that through the death of his relative, In Italy the loir is used for food, and esteemed a of the deceased, a rival one, was thirty-six in number; he delicacy. The way in which it is taken is by simply therefore killed the man in question solely with the view of preparing a place for its winter-quarters in the wood. reducing the antagonist's clan to the same number as his This retreat is made large enough to hold a number own!-Cochrane's Wanderings in Greece. of the animals, and there they are sure to be found assembled towards the end of autumn. The Roman
A PLAGUE ENCAMPMENT.
Nothing ever thrilled me more than when I once came epicures were very fond of these animals : they kept suddenly, during my wanderings, upon an encampment of and fattened them for their tables in receptacles the plague'smitien.' The huts are generally erected on a called gliraria.
hill-side, and the tents pitched among them; and you see There is a species common on the continent called the families of the infected basking in the sunshine within the Garden Dormouse, or Lerot, which very much re
their prescribed limits, and gazing eagerly at the chance sembles the loir, but is smaller and thicker. It in- passenger, whom his ignorance of their vicinity may conhabits gardens, as its name imports, and also finds duct past their temporary dwellings; the children rolling
half-naked upon the grass; and the sallow and careworn its way into houses. The food which it selects is the parent hanging out the garments of the patients on the best and choicest fruit, in search of which it mounts trees of the neighbourhood. Such was precisely the case the espalier trees with great dexterity. It sometimes with that into which I had unconsciously intruded: and makes its bed of muss and leaves, and hybernates in whence I was very hastily dislodged by the shouts of the orchards, in the clefts of trees. This species is not guard, stationed to enforce the quarantine of the mountain eatable, like the loir, but gives a scent resembling It is ditlicult to look upon such a scene, and upon such a
colony; and the alarmed exclamations of my companions. that of the common rat.
sky, and to believe in the existence of this frightful scourge! Hybernating animals take very little food during It is the canker at the core of the forest-tree-the serpent in their time of repose, but the quantity differs in dif- the garden of Eden.-Miss Pardoe's City of the Sultan.
[Our attention has been directed to a problem contained in the Satur. | townsmen's possessions; and the account relative to
day Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 92, which, in consequence of a
Roger the Dyer had, on Michaelmas Day, in his treasury To draw c right angle, without any other instrument than
or cupboard, 1 silver buckle, price 18d.; 1 cup of mazer a straight stick and two or three
(maple), pr. 180. In his chamber, 2 gowns, pr. 20s.; Draw the straight line FAC B,
2 beds, price half a mark; 1 napkin and 1 towel, pr. 2s. In and make FA, AC, and co, equal la
his house, 1 ewer with a basin, pr. 140.; 1 andiron, pr. 8d. to each other; from c draw the
In his kitchen, 1 brass pot, pr. 20d.; 1 brass skillet, pr. 6d.; straight line cod in any direction,
I brass pipkin, 8d.; 1 trivet, pr. 4d. In his brewhouse, 1 inake cd equal to CA, and draw
quarter of oats, pr. 25.; wood-ashes, pr. half a mark; 1 great the line ph through the point A;
vat for dyeing 2s. 6d. Item 1 cow, pr. 58.; I calf, pr. 2s.; make FE and EA equal to each
2 pigs, pr. 28., each 12d.; 1 sow, pr. 15d.; billet-wood, and other; draw the line fg, and make
faggots, for firing, pr. 1 mark. Sum = 718, 5d,: fifteenth EG equal to EF. The point G will
of which, 4s. 9d. be exactly perpendicular to A, and will be at right angles with AB,
During the reign of Edward the Third, a powerful and consequently the angle A is
baron in the neighbourhood attempted to rob the a right-angle.
burgesses of some of their privileges; but after a
stout contest, he was forced to yield to the law, which Fish Decoys.-The Malay fishermen are of opinion that was decidedly in favour of the townsmen. All the fish are gifterl with the faculty of hearing; for each canoc successive monarchs confirmed, and many of them is provided with a rattle made of a gourd filled with pebble- enlarged, the privileges which previous charters had stones, which is struck at intervals against the side of the
As a return for these fa. boat for the purpose of attracting the fish. If fish really granted to Colchester. possessed the disputed sense, this noise, which can be heard vours, the burgesses on many occasions assisted, by on a calm day at the distance of several miles, must arrest their purses or by their personal services, the montheir attention, were they even at the bottom of the sea; but archs in the expensive wars which the latter were so one would suppose that it would have the effect of frighten-frequently carrying on. For instance, for the war ing then away, rather than alluring them to the spot. The
which Henry the Eighth entered into against the EmMalay evidently entertains a contrary opinion, since he would as soon think of going to sea without his hooks as
peror, the burgesses of Colchester agreed to supplywithout his rattle.-Earle's Voyuge to the Eastern Seas. The nombre of xv hable folemen, well furnyshed for the
warres; whereof three to be archers, everye oone furnyshed COLCHESTER.
with a good bowe in a case, with xxiii good arrowes in a
case, a goode sworde and a dagger; and the rest to be billCOLCHESTER is a very considerable and ancient town men, having besydes theyre bills a good sworde and a in the north-east part of the county of Essex, about dagger. fifty-one miles from London, and on the high road to On the destruction of monastic establishments in Harwich. The history of this town extends back to the reign of Henry the Eighth, the poorer inhabitants a remote period.
of the town suffered greatly from the cessation of It was the capital of a province under the ancient that charity which was wont to be shown to them by Britons, by the name of Cam-a-laün-uïdun, Latinized the religious establishments: this was, indeed, one of Camulodunum. The town formed one of the first the few evils which lessened the great good produced settlements of the Romans in this country, and was by that change in the religious arrangements of decorated with numerous buildings, such as a senate - England, and which shortly after gave rise to a poorhouse, a theatre, &c. After this, Colchester became law in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. the chief military post in the county of Essex; and Charles the First granted the title of Mayor to the there are still to be traced the lines of fortification in bailiff or chief magistrate of Colchester; but it does different parts of the county, intended to defend the not appear that this favour won the attachment of the Romans from the Iceni of Suffolk.
townsmen to the unfortunate king, for throughout Under the Saxon kings, this town, which had the civil war, Colchester furnished large supplies of now obtained the name of Colon-ceaster (it being i men, military stores, and money, to the parliamentsituated on the river Colne), lost some of its import- arian army; and Oliver Cromwell placed great deance, partly on account of the increasing influence of pendence on the support he received from ColLondon. It afterwards fell into the hands of the chester. After this, the town became, in 1648, the Danes, who committed many depredations there; but scene of a desperate conflict between the Royalists in the year 921 it again passed into the power of the and the Parliamentarians. A Royalist army had Saxons, who retained it till the Norman Conquest. possession of, and defended, the town; while a parAt the latter period, the property of the town was liamentarian army, under Fairfax, besieged it: the chiefly divided between the Crown and the Bishop of mayor and inhabitants of the town being for the London. Under the reign of William Rufus, the assailants rather than for the defenders. town, at the request of the inhabitants, was placed siege of seventy-six days, the Royalist garrison, to under the governorship of Eudo Dapifer, who soon the amount of upwards of 3000 men, surrendered; afterwards built the Castle of Colchester, on the site their stock of ammunition being reduced to a barrel of the ancient palace.
and a half of powder, and their provisions being During the next few reigns, the town received nearly exhausted. St. Botolph's Church, together various privileges:-such as the liberty to the towns- with 183 houses, were destroyed during the siege; and men to choose bailiffs from among themselves; freedom after it the walls were destroyed, and the inhabitants from scot and lot; exemption from toll-passage, pont had to pay a fine of 12,0001. age, and other dues; none of the royal or any other The great plague of 1665 destroyed nearly 5000 family should lodge within the walls without the con persons in Colchester.
Since that period nothing sent of the inhabitants, &c. The town was besieged of an historical nature need be recorded here, except two or three times during the reign of John and that various charters and confirmations of pre-existof Henry the Third. A very curious record is still ing charters, have been given to the town by succesin existence, respecting a subsidy which the inhabit. sive monarchs. ants gave to Edward the First to assist him in carry We must now speak of the situation and aspect of ing on his wars. This subsidy was a fifteenth of the the town. The principal part of Colchester occupies
the summit, and northern and eastern sides of a fine ) first obtained that privilege in the twenty-third year eminence, rising gradually to the height of 112 feet of Edward the First ; and London in the twenty-sixth. above the River Colne. The situation is pleasant and The borough has continued, both before and since the healthy, and allows of an extensive prospect over the Reform Act, to send two members to parliament. country in various directions. The Colne is a river The chief source of wealth to Colchester arises that rises a few miles westward of Colchester, and from the supply of the agriculturists of the neighbourfalls into the German Ocean at a distance of fifteen hood with manufactures, in return for the productions miles south-east of the town; a constant supply of of the earth. In former times there were certain oysters, soles, and other kinds of fish, is brought to manufactures carried on, which have since been disColchester up the river. The soil within the town is continued. As long ago as the time of Edward the a dark-coloured sand; but without, it is a dry gravelly Third, the woollen manufacture was caried on to a loam, well calculated for the culture of turnips. considerable extent at Colchester. In the reign of Many gardeners near Colchester supply the town Elizabeth, some Dutch refugees settled in the town, with vegetables, and also send a supply of seeds to and introduced what is called bay and say making, London and other places.
being a particular branch of the woollen manufacture. The town, with its liberties, is divided into sixteen The inhabitants considered these persons as interlopers, parishes, eight of which have their churches within and for some time treated them rather roughly; but the ancient walls, four without, and four in the liber- the government interfered, and restored harmony ties. The parish of St. Mary at the walls contains, between the two parties. The Fleming weavers conamong other buildings, the church, which was so much tinued their manufacture with a good deal of spirit injured during the siege, that it was found necessary and success, until the Spanish war in the reign of to rebuild it in the beginning of the last century. It Queen Anne, when it began to decline; after the is a plain building, consisting of a nave, and two aisles, peace of Utrecht in 1728
the Flemings dissolved whose length is seventy feet, exclusive of the chancel, their fraternity; and the manufacture afterwards which is ten feet by fifteen. The church-yard, became insignificant. surrounded by rows of shady lime-trees, forms a The oyster-fishery has always been of considerable favourite place of resort in the summer season. importance to Colchester. The fish are found in
The parish of St. Peter contains a very ancient abundance in the Colne, and the management and church, in which the episcopal and archidiaconal property of the fishery have been vested in the town visitations are held, and which the members of the ever since the reign of Richard Cour de Lion. corporation attend, once a fortnight, in their robes - Licences are sometimes granted by the corporation it being the principal church in the town. The church to private persons, allowing them to fish and dredge had a narrow escape from earthquake in 1692, oysters; and a court of conservancy is occasionally
Colchester was governed by a portreeve in the time held, to regulate all matters pertaining to the fishery. of William the Conqueror; afterwards by a bailiff and The manufacture of silk was established at Colehesburgesses; and subsequently by a mayor and corpo- ter some years ago, and continues in a respectable, ration. Colchester was one of the very first towns though not very extensive state *. that sent members to parliament; it even preceded
* See the Saturday Magazine, Vol. VI., p. 199, for an account the city of London in this respect; for Colchester of the interesting ruins of si. Botolph's Priory Church,
The revenues In the first article on this subject we gave a brief accruing from Blackwell Hall were about this time sketch of the train of circumstances which preceded made over to Christ's Hospital by the corporation : and were preparatory to the founding, by Edward this hall was, according to the ideas of those times, the Sixth, of the charitable institution of Christ's intended for the protection of the woollen trade, as Hospital: we must now detail the gradual develope- no woollen cloth was allowed to be sold in London ment of the benefits which it was intended to afford, until it had been entered at Blackwell Hall. Various
Within five months after the death of Edward, the fines and penalties, derived from different sources, buildings belonging to the old Grey Friars' convent were also to be payable into the funds of the hospital, were sufficiently restored to accommodate three hun so that its revenues assumed a heterogeneous characdred and forty children, who were admitted in No- ter, Monthly collections were also made in the difvember, 1553 Besides these, two hundred and ferent city parishes; and the proceeds handed over to sixty children were daily fed at Christ Church. the hospital. During the infancy of the institution, the Hospitals There have occasionally been complaints made, of St. Thomas and Bridewell were so far connected that the Blue Coat School, as at present managed, with Christ's Hospital, that the expenses were de- does not fulfil the purposes of the original founder, frayed out of one common fund; but afterwards, from and that it was intended for the poor and destitute the necessity of appointing separate boards of gover- only. Such certainly appears to be the case at a nors, and from the particular bequests of individuals, cursory examination of the subject; but the Rev. W. they became three distinct corporations, united with, Trollope, in his excellent history of the institution, and yet in some degree independent of, the corpora- | traces the various circumstances which led to gradual tion of London. This separation was so far bene- | changes in the plan of proceeding; changes which ficial, that benevolent persons were enabled to select, seem to show that the spirit, though not the letter, of from among these charitable institutions, that one the founder's intentions has been always observed. which appeared to them most deserving of their The estates originally vested in the hospital were by bounty. From this time, constant additions were no means adequate to its support when the number made to the revenue of Christ's Hospital, by dona- of the inmates became large, and it was necessary, in tions, bequests, and legacies. Richard Casteller, a accepting gifts from other quarters, to attend to the shoemaker in Westminster, left lands which, though conditions on which those gifts were made, most of worth only forty-four pounds per year at that time, which conditions were, that poor persons, coming from VOL. XVII,