« AnteriorContinuar »
that art at Sidon*, and was even removed in shiploads | ble,) is but 150 yards across, and can admit no vessel for the use of the Venetian glass-works, as late as the larger than a fishing-boat. early part of the eighteenth century. This stream Tyre is a place of remote antiquity, though less rises in the mountains of Lebanon, and in autumn ancient than Sidon. It was originally situate on the becomes charged with an ochreous matter, (swept mainland; was the founder of Carthage and nufrom the hills by the heavy rains,) which imparts to merous other colonies; and carried on an extended its waters a sanguine hue, fabled by the heathen commerce, which is fully detailed by the prophet Ezepriests of old to be the blood of Adonis, yearly slain kiel (chap. xxvii). As the city increased in importin Lebanon; a fancy also applied to several other of ance, buildings appear to have been erected upon the the Syrian streams.
present peninsula, but which was then an island From Acre to Sour (Tyre,) is a distance of about three-quarters of a mile from the shore. To this thirty miles, over a fertile plain backed by the moun place the whole population retired from the fury of tains of Galilee, and presenting some bold headlands, Nebuchadnezzar, (about b.c. 580,) by whom they one of which, called Cape Nakour, is the “Ladder had been besieged for thirteen years, and whither, for of Tyrus,” mentioned in the first Book of Maccabees, want of shipping, he was unable to pursue them. The (xi. 59,) and another has in all ages borne a name city on the mainland was utterly destroyed by the descriptive of its appearance; it was formerly termed conqueror, and with its ruins Alexander in afterPromontorium Album, and is now styled Ras-el times constructed the causeway or isthmus which now Abiad, or Cape Blanco, all equivalent to the White exists, for the purpose of reaching the new city. Cape, being a huge mass of limestone, over which is The cities on the Phænician coast early entered into carried an ancient road, propped up by a low wall; a a kind of commercial league, of which Sidon was at work ascribed by the natives to Alexander the Great, first the head, but afterwards Tyre, which latter exbut more probably of Roman origin.
ercised the supremacy so rigorously that some of the About three miles beyond Acre is a fountain, and dependant cities called in the aid of the Assyrians. the ruins of what is supposed to have been a monas- Tyre was in consequence besieged by Shalmanezer tery, bearing still the name of Semmars, or St. for five years, but without effect; Nebuchadnezzar, Mary's; and six miles further is a small town called however, destroyed it, and shortly after, the form of Zib, on a hill by the sea-shore, the Achzib of Scrip- government, which had heretofore been regal, became ture, and the Ecdippa of the Greeks. Next occurs republican, being administered by shophetim, who Cape Nakour, between which and Cape Blanco are have been likened to the Hebrew judges and the the ruins of a castellated edifice, called Scandaleum, Roman consuls. In B.c. 538, when the city surrenit being, like many other objects in the East, whose dered without resistance to Cyrus, this form of goreal origin is unknown, ascribed by the Mohammedans vernment was continued, and the Tyrians were so to Scander, or Alexander the Great. It has, issuing favourably treated by the Persian monarchs, that they from under its ruined walls on the beach, a fountain made a most vigorous defence against Alexander, of pure water, and is known to have been occupied who at length took their city after an eight months' and strengthened by the forces of Baldwin the Second, siege, and treated the vanquished in a most barbarous in 1124, when proceeding to besiege Tyre. A little manner (B.C. 332). He also destroyed the city; and, inland lies a place now called Om-el-Hamid, where though it was soon rebuilt, its commercial importance are considerable remains of ancient military works, was in a great measure gone, the trade by which it of doubtful origin; and from hence to the site of had been enriched being transferred to Alexandria. ancient Tyre extends a paved road, still in good condi Of the power and splendour of the elder Tyre, (the tion. About three miles before reaching this spot, are Palæ-Tyrus of Strabo,) we have the most lively acobserved three cisterns, of large dimensions, situate counts in the inspired pages of Isaiah and Ezekiel. The about half a mile from the beach, and supplied latter especially speaks of it as “ the renowned city, from some source which has not yet been discovered; which was strong in the sea," and says, " Thy buildthey bear the name of Solomon's Cisterns, and are ers have perfected thy beauty," (xxvii. 4,) whilst detraditionally stated to have been built by Solomon nouncing the judgments of the Lord upon it for its as a return for the services rendered by Hiram in pride, luxury, and cruelty. Profane writers also the erection of the Temple ; but the ruined aqueduct mention the new city in terms of admiration, and by which the water was conveyed to Tyre is supported coins remain which testify, by their pompous inscripon arches, and is therefore deemed to be of Roman tions, that its pride was littie abated by the repeated construction.
fall of its fortunes. It is styled on them, the “SaThe Tyre of the present day is situated upon a cred Asylum," " the Metropolis," “ Self-governed," barren peninsula, of a triangular shape, and about a and it appears, indeed, to have again risen into conquarter of a mile broad, connected with the main sequence under the Roman empire. Whatever injury land by an isthmus of shifting sand-hills. Being, it sustained at its conquest by the Saracens, (A.D. like most of the Syrian towns, surrounded by a wall 639,) seems to have been repaired; for when the first with towers, and having an ancient castle of large Crusaders passed it on their way to Jerusalem, (A.D. dimensions, it presents a magnificent appearance 1099,) it was a strong and stately city, surrounded by a from a distance, but when more closely examined, lofty double wall, which was still further strengthened it is the very picture of desolation. The sand on the at the mole; and it did not fall into their hands until isthmus is piled up against the wall, which it threatens the year 1124, when it was captured by Baldwin the speedily to overwhelm, the whole of the peninsula is Second, assisted by the Venetians, to whom a third spread over with shapeless ruins which extend far part of the town was assigned. into the sea, and the inhabited portion is not above Tyre having in former days been an archbishopric, one third of the whole, the population not exceeding the see was now restored, and some remains of the 1000; whilst the only harbour (and that too choked cathedral are yet to be seen *. After the battle of up with sand and broken columns of granite or mar Tiberias, (A.D. 1187,) great numbers of the fugitives
took refuge in Tyre, which was immediately besieged The ancients attributed to the Sidonians the invention of arith. metic and astronomy, as also of the manufacture of glass and fine by Sala din, but successfully defended by Conrad of linen ; to the Tyrians they ascribed the discovery of the purple dye, and working in ivory; but it appears probable that inost of these arts * William of Tyre, an Englishman, and a valuable historian in were derived from the Egypuans.
relation to the Crusades, was one of its archbishops.
Montferrat, who arrived by accident when the place of Scripture (1 Kings xvii. 9). It stands on a hill, was on the point of surrendering. He immediately cut out into tombs, half a mile from the sea, and is, claimed the sovereignty of the town, took the title of like Sarepta, celebrated for its wine, the slopes being marquess of Tyre, and refused to admit within its covered with vineyards. From hence to Sidon (ten walis, the king, Guy de Lusignan, who soon departed miles) the country is well cultivated; the plain to lay siege to Acre. Conrad, also, having married between the mountains and the sea widens to two Isabel, the sister of Baldwin the Fourth*, laid claims miles, and is entirely occupied by groves of olive, to the kingdom, and it was at length adjudged to him,mulberry, and fig trees, and vegetable gardens, with Guy becoming King of Cyprụs. He never, however, only narrow paths between them. enjoyed the regal dignity, being very shortly after Saide itself stands upon an elevated plain near the murdered in the street of Tyre, (April 28, 1192); a From a rock on the shore an ancient mole leads deed which has been, without sufficient foundation, to a small isle, on which is a fort commanding the ascribed to the order of Richard Cour de Lion, who harbour. This is now on the south of the town, the had a quarrel with Conrad on account of an unseemly old port to the north being choked up; nor is the new alliance which the marquess had entered into with one in much better condition. Saide, however, is still Saladin,
a place of some importance, containing a population Tyre remained in the hands of the Christians till of from 8000 to 10,000 persons, of whom about one1289, when it was captured by the Egyptians. The third are Christians. A considerable quantity of silk inhabitants were allowed to withdraw with their pro- is produced in the neighbourhood, and many of the perty, but all the churches and fortifications were inhabitants were recently employed in a silk factory destroyed, and the harbour choked up with the rub- which the Pacha of Egypt established; others carry bish. In this state it remained until about 1766, on an export trade of some amount in olive-oil, cotton, when it was taken possession of by one of the moun and dye-stuffs, though there is no shelter for shipping. tain tribes (the Mutualis,) who made some efforts to Sidon, the parent of Tyre, though not so splendid restore the port, and to whom is owing all the in its prosperity, is thus less abject in its adversity; present importance of the place. It exports some and, indeed, it seems at almost all periods of its cotton grown in the neighbourhood, but its chief trade history to have had opposite interests and prospects. is as one of the ports of Damascus, a portion of the It was early supplanted as head of the Phænician European produce intended for that city being usually league, by Tyre; and shared all the revolutions to disembarked here. From 1833 to the 26th of Sep- which that city was subject, from the times of the tember of the present year, the town was in the Assyrians to those of the Crusaders. It was conpossession of the Pacha of Egypt, but on the last- quered in succession by the Assyrians, Persians, mentioned day it surrendered, without resistance, to Greeks, and Romans, the Saracens, and the Cruthe forces of the Allies.
saders, and was held by the latter, (except for a few From Tyre the coast bends to the north-east, and years prior to the third crusade,) for a period of near at the distance of five miles is passed the river by two hundred years, being taken from them in 1289. which the valley of Baalbec is watered. This is one of Being then dismantled by the victors, it remained in the most considerable streams in Syria, and was an ruins till restored by Fakr-el-Din, who, however, ciently called the Leontes; now it bears the name of while he built here a palace, in the Italian style, and Liettani, or Kasmieh. The road to Saide (Sidon) is erected a fortress, both of which yet remain, filled now carried over the foot of the mountains of Lebanon, up the harbour with granite columns from the anwhich here approach the shore. Two or three collec- cient ruins, to prevent the entry of a Turkish fleet tions of ruins occur, which have not all been satisfac- sent against him. On his fall, (A.D. 1631,) Sidon torily identified; but one village, about twelve miles became the capital of a pachalic, which was once held north of Tyre, bearing the name of Sarfend, is, with by the famous Djezzar Pacha, the ruler of Acre. In much probability, supposed to represent the Sarepta 1833 it fell with the rest of Syria into the hands of
Mehemet Ali, and was captured from him, after some • Guy was married 10 an elder sister, in whose right he reigned; ' considerable resistance, by an allied British, Austrian, but he was little esteemed as a warrior, while Conrad's defence of Tyre procured himn the good will of all.
and Turkish force, on the 26th of September last.
The city of Paris has been the theatre of a greater number the city nearest to the outer wall: these fauxbourgs, under of political events than any other city in Europe, with the the names of Fauxbourg St. Honoré, Fauxbourg Montmarexception of Rome; and it is for this reason that we have, tre, &c., are in fact so many villages, which have been in previous Supplements, treated somewhat fully of those absorbed by the city. The Boulevards Intérieurs may be historical events in which Paris bore a part, from the irruption considered to form, in general, a sort of boundary between of the Goths and Franks in the fifth century, to the termi- the fauxbourgs and the more central parts of the city. nation of the great revolution in 1815. We now proceed to These Boulevards present a feature to which London has give a description of the city,—its form and extent,—and nothing at all parallel. Let the reader conceive a broad the chief buildings with which it is ornamented.
walk, with double rows of elm-trees on each side, exParis lies in a hollow, or basin, surrounded on every side tending to a distance of twelve miles, and he will have an by heights, and watered by the river Seine. The city is idea of the Boulevards, which form a circuit through the entirely surrounded by a wall,.--not for military, but for streets of Paris, at a considerable distance within the outer municipal and fiscal purposes,-about fifteen miles in cir- wall. The greater part of this walk (which is broken up cumference, enclosing an area about five miles long, from into portions termed Boulevards, to which separate names W.N.W. to E.S.E., and three miles and three-quarters are, for convenience, attached) is lined with handsome broad. This wall is broken by about fifty entrances or houses on each side, interspersed with shops, cafés, hotels, gates, called barriers, through which access is gained to the &c.; forming a favourite promenade for the citizens. city; and at most of which are toll-houses, where duties are It may well be supposed that Paris, containing as it does collected on goods entering the city. Round the outside of nearly a million of inhabitants, must possess a vast number the wall is a continuous road, planted with trees, and called of public buildings; indeed they bear a larger proportion the Boulevards Extérieurs, or exterior boulevards.
to ihe number of inhabitants than those of London; for in On entering within the wall of the city, we find Paris to the latter city private mercantile transactions form a more be made up of several distinct portions, which have been striking feature than public institutions or establishments. added at different times, as the population increased. The As it will be impossible to describe all the public buildings heart of the city, or that which was known to the Romans in Paris, we confine ourselves to those most worthy of notice; nearly two thousand years ago, is situated immediately we will commence at the north-west of the city, proceed contiguous to the Seine, particularly on the islands which thence eastward, and afterwards cross the Seine to the occur in that river; but successive centuries witnessed the southern parts; noticing the chief buildings, markets, spread of the city on every side; by which the former bridges, &c., as we proceed. In doing this, it will be consuburbs became incorporated with the city,-villages became venient to divide Paris into certain portions or districts, so suburbs,—and then even these became included within the that the buildings and other objects of curiosity may be city-wall
. From this circumstance the name of Fuuxbourg grouped together in detached portions. The twelve arron(suburb), is given to many, and indeed nearly all parts of dissements into which Paris is divided might be useful for Vol. XVII,
this purpose, were it not that their boundaries are usually | This is an open square, where Louis the Fourteenth caused very tortuous or irregular. We will therefore select a more a magnificent triumph to be prepared, in celebration of convenient mode of division.
some of his victories. A triumphal arch was built here,
in 1806, as an entrance to the palace: it is sixty feet wide, FIRST DISTRICT. NORTH-WEST PARIS.
and forty-five high, each front being decorated with four At one of the western entrances to Paris, is the Tri. Corinthian columns. The various parts of the arch were umphal arch de l'Etoile, commenced by Napoleon, in 1806, decorated by Buonaparte with statues, allegorical figures, as a sort of monument of his own success; but the year bas-reliefs, &c., commemorative of his triumphs; but when 1812, which proved so disastrous to him in Russia,
the Allies entered Paris, many of these were removed, and a stop to the progress of this arch. It remained incom- we
were only partially restored at a subsequent period. Ata plete until a few years ago, when it was completed from short distance north-east of this triumphal arch is the the designs of M. Debret. From the top of the arch is a Palais Royal, commenced by order of Cardinal Richelien, magnificent view of the surrounding country; and the in 1629. After his death, it passed successively into the arch itself forms a noble termination to the principal avenue possession of Louis the Thirteenth, Anne of Austria, Louis of the Champs Elysées, or Elysian Fields. This is a large the Fourteenth, and the Duke of Orléans. One wing enclosure, planted by the minister Colbert, in 1670, for the of the palace was, in the time of Molière, occupied as a use of the inhabitants of Paris. The principal walk or path theatre, capable of containing 3000 persons : this was extends from the arch to the Place Louis XVI.; and when afterwards burned down; and numerous additions and restanding in the place, with the arch behind the spectator, pairs were made, about the year 1780, which brought the the Palace of the Tuileries is seen in front, and the Palace palace nearly to its present state, as to architectural appearElysée Bourbon at the left. This last-mentioned palace ance. The palace is in the form of a parallelogram, of was built, in 1718, by Count de Loreaux, and is chietly re such immense extent, that the galleries on the ground-floor markable for the vicissitudes it has undergone in owner are said to be nearly half a mile in circuit. On entering ship, or rather occupancy.
the portico, we come to a square or court-yard, in the centre Some years after its erection it was occupied by Madame of which is a garden, surrounded by buildings which would de Pompadour; then as a residence for foreign ambassadors constitute one of the finest palaces in Europe; but the extraordinary; afterwards M. Beaujon purchased it, and Duke of Orléans, who owned the palace during the early made it a family mansion. Its next occupant was the years of the Revolution, was a profligate and licentious man; Duchess of Bourbon ; and during the early years of the and, having exhausted his fortune, he formed the unprincely Revolution it was used as a printing-office for government plan of converting his palace into a sort of bazaar. He documents. When the storms of the Revolution began to divided the arcades of the lower galleries into portions, and subside, the palace became, in succession, the residence of made a range of shops, which were speedily let to the Murat; Buonaparte; the Emperor of Russia, during the bighest bidders: these shops became suine of the best in temporary peace of 1814; Buona parte again, on his return Paris, having among them, however, some of an humbler from Elba; the Duke of Wellington, after the victory at kind. Goldsmiths, jewellers, booksellers, tailors, blackingWaterloo; the Duke de Berri; and the Duke de Bordeaux. makers, hair.dressers, &c., were, and still are, to be found The interior of the palace is fitted up with luxurious ele in these shops. Beneath the ground-story, subterranean gance; and the gardens in front have a fine view over the apartments were let out as drinking and dancing rooms; Chainps Elysées.
and on the first toor, the apartments and galleries were But far more extensive than the Elysée Bourbon is let in a manner which perhaps has never had a parallel the palace of the Tuileries, separated from the Champs in any other city in Europe : literary and learned societies, Elysées by the Tuileries' garden. The site which the booksellers, gamblers, and depraved persons, occupied rooms palace occupies was once a sablonnière, or sand- pit; and under the same roof !-thus seeming to place intellectual was transformed, about the beginning of the fifteenth cen advancement and moral degradation hand in hand. tury, into tuileries, or tile-works. Neuville, secretary of Although many changes have occurred within the last finances, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, built a fifty years, we believe the mode in which the Palais Royal mansion near the tile works, which, from its situation, he has been occupied, still remains nearly as it was at the time termed the Hôtel des Tuileries. This mansion, after a of the Revolution. few changes, came into the hands of Catherine de' Medici, The Palais Royal is at one angle of a triangular space, whose name is so indelibly connected with the massacre of bounded by the Rue St. Honoré, the Rue Vivienne, and St. Bartholomew. The mansion was pulled down, a num the Boulevards; and in this space are many public buildber of other houses purchased and pulled down, and the ings, such as the Bibliothèque du Roi (Royal Library); the foundation of a new palace laid, by the architects Delorme offices of the Minister of Finances, of the Minister of Justice, and Brillant. Catherine erected a large palace, though of the Minister for Foreign Affairs; and the Place de Ven. forming but a small part of the original plan. After her dôme, &c. The Royal Library is a magnificent collection death, the building was enlarged from time to time, by of books, which sprang originally from ten volumes, which Henry the Fourth, and Louis' the Thirteenth and Four an early king of France, before the invention of printing, teenth, until it assumed its present ponderous appearance. collected. Small accessions were made to the collection, The front of this palace exceeds 1000 feet in length; and till, in 1429, it amounted to 150 volumes. Louis the comprises five pavilions, connected by four ranges of Eleventh, Charles the Eighth, Louis the Twelfth, and buildings. Ionic pillars run along the whole façade: the Francis the First, gradually increased the number, partly story above these is in the Corinthian order; and the attic by purchase, and parily by conquest in foreign countries. story is surmounted by a balustrade, decorated with stone Henry the Second ensured its progressive increase by vases. There are two fronts, one opening upon the garden, making a law that every bookseller should present to the and the other upon the Place du Carousel ; and the central library a copy of every book which he published. Colbert, pavilion in each front has a portico, with columns of the Cardinal Fleury, and Louis' the Fourteenth, Fifteenth, Ionic order. Statues, columns, vases, balustrades, &c., and Sixteenth, made such additions as rendered the col. succeed each other in strange confusion along both fronts; lection the finest in Europe. The library is contained in and the whole pile shows a lamentable want of unity of a plain and unassuming building, surrounding a court-yard. design. Five different orders of architecture, and five The ground-Hoor is appropriated to the new publications, distinct species of ornament, succeed one another without constantly being received from the booksellers. The first harmony or proportion.
The interior of the palace is, floor is occupied by the general store of printed books, however, fitted up with magnificence. On entering the (350,000 in number,) a cabinet of medals, cameos, and investibule, the grand staircase, leading to the state apartments taglios, a cabinet of antiquities, a gallery of MSS., (amount. is on the right, together with galleries communicating withing to more than 100.000,) a repository of engravings, the chapel, and with the king's private apartments. The comprising 5000 volumes of prints, all well classifieri,) Salle des Spectacles, where dramatic pieces are represented; and other apartments.
Visitors may see the greater part the Salle des Maréchaux, decorated with portraits of the of this superb collection, under certain restrictions. marshals of France; the Salon des Nobles, with paintings The Place Vendôme, is a little to the north of the Rue St. of battles, &c.; the Salon des Pair, with emblems of Honoré, and of the Tuileries Gardens. This place, or open peace; the Salle du Trône, and the Salle de Conseil, ground, was formed by the Marquess de Louvois, in the reign used for state receptions; and numerous other apartments, of Louis the Fourteenth, as a medium of communication are decorated in a style of splendour which may be expected between some of the Parisian streets. It has a range of in the residence of a French monarch.
uniform buildings round three sides, but derives its chief inOne front of the Tuileries faces the Place du Carousel. terest from the column in the centre. This column, formed
on the model of that of Trajan at Rome, was commenced, in near Paris; and are appropriated to the reception of persons 1806, by order of Buona parte, and finished, in 1810, at an charged with different species of crimes. expense of 1,000,000 francs. It is formed of stone, and The Abattoirs are establishments exceedingly creditable entirely cased with brass, furnished by the guns taken from to the Parisians; since they remove from the public eye a the Austrians by Buonaparte. The column is about 140 scene which too often disgusts the inhabitants of English feet high, and 13 feet diameter; and from the pedestal cities. The abattoirs were established by Buonaparte, in commences a series of bas-reliefs, which wind round the 1810, to remedy the nuisance of having cattle driven into column spirally until they reach the top. The bas-reliefs, the heart of the city, and there slaughtered in alleys and are executed on brass plates, 276 in number, each mea courts. They are buildings of great extent, that of Montsuring four feet by three; the subjects represented being the martre being 1074 feet in length, and 384 in depth; and principal events in the campaign of 1805. The column and consists of slaughter-rooms, built of stone, with every facility the bas-reliefs were the labour of Lepère, Gondouin, Denon, for cleanliness, and with all the requisite tackle, &c. Each Bergeret, Delaunoy, and Raymond, and are deemed ad butcher has stalls set apart for his beasts, pens for his mirable specimens of skill. A statue of Buonaparte was sheep, and convenience for his forage: and pays the governplaced on the top of the pedestal: this was removed by the ment a certain small sum for every beast driven into the Allies, in 1814, but restored to its place in 1831.
abattoir. The abattoirs, five in number, are situated in
the outskirts of the city, and to them the oxen and sheep SECOND DISTRICT. NORTHERN FAUXBOURGS. are brought from the neighbouring villages of Scéaux and Northward of the spot to which our attention has been
Passy; so that there is nothing equivalent either to Smithrecently directed is a large district, bounded by the Boule- | field or to Newgate markets-both situated in the heart of vards Extérieurs on the north, the Boulevards Intérieurs on
a great city, and devoted, the one to the sale, and the the south, the Rue St. Martin on the east, and the Rue du other to the slaughter, of oxen and sheep. The attempt Faurbourg du Roule on the west. This district contains,
to establish an abattoir at Islington, near London, has among other buildings, the Church of the Madelaine, the
failed; a circumstance which, without regarding it as a Chapel of Louis the Sixteenth, the house of the English commercial speculation, we may regret on the score of ambassador, the prison of St. Lazare, and two abattoirs, or
cleanliness and decency. slaughter-houses.
The arches, gates, or portes of St. Denis and St. Martin, The Church of the Madelaine, called originally the Tem; Porte St. Denis was erected in 1672, in commemoration of
lead from the interior Boulevards to the Fauxbourgs. The ple of Glory, was commenced in the year 1777, and dedicated to those who died while fighting for France. But the plan perfect square o seventy-two feet, decorated with bas-reliefs
several victories gained by Louis the Fourteenth. It forms a of the original architect was departed from during the subsequent troubles; for it was taken down,—then partially and is deemed one of the noblest specimens of art erected
trophies, colossal figures, and other emblematical trappings; restored,—then rebuilt in 1816, in order to contain expiatory monuments to the royal personages executed during the
in Paris during the reign of Louis the Fourteenth. Having Revolution. From 1816 to 1830 it was called La Madelaine, suffered from violence during the Revolution, it has been and was consecrated for the performance of public worship,
since repaired in the same spirit as the original. Not far but has since resumed its original title of Le Temple de la from this noble arch is the Porte St. Martin, built in 1674, Gloire. It is a plain edifice, having in front a portico, with
two years after that of St. Denis, and from a similar motive. eight columns. Near this church is a chapel called La
It forms a square of 54 feet, and is divided into three arches, Chapelle expiatoire de Louis XVI., erected on the spot others 16 feet high and 8 wide. it is less richly decorated
the central one being 30 feet high and 15 wide, and the where Louis and his queen were buried after their execution in 1793. It is a neat rectangular building, surmounted by than the Porte St. Denis, but is equal to it in delicacy and a dome, and having, in the interior, fifteen 'niches, intended harmony of execution. The bas-reliefs with which it is to receive statues of the most illustrious victims of the and other places, during the military career of Louis the
decorated represent the capture of Limburg, of Besançon, Revolution. The prison of St. Lazare is devoted to the reception of
Fourteenth. women sentenced to different periods of imprisonment.
THIRD DISTRICT. Here an excellent system of management is adopted; for We shall now conduct the reader to a portion of Paris the inmates are compelled to work; and beautiful specimens nearly rectangular, and bounded by the interior Boulevards of needle-work are often produced. While on the subject on the north, the Rue St. Martin on the east, the Rue of prisons, we may say a word or two on the others which Vivienne and the Tuileries on the west, and the Seine on are to be found in Paris. The Prison de la Force, which the south. This portion contains the Palais du Louvre, the was formerly the hotel of the Duke de la Force, is appro. Church of St. Germain's, the Protestant Church, the Trea- . priated to the reception of persons accused of crimes, but sury, the Bank, the Post-Office, the Custom-House, the not yet tried: the exterior of the building possesses con Bourse, or Exchange, the Corn Market (Halle aux Blés), siderable architectural beauty; and the interior is divided the Place des Victoires, &c. into six compartments, each of which has a court-yard, a The magnificent Louvre (the origin of the name of which covered gallery, an infirmary, and a common store or larder. is a matter of much dispute) is the most ancient palatial The Temple was a large building erected by the Knights building in Paris. A palace was built on the site-at that Templars in 1200; but after the demolition of that order, time beyond the limits of the city-by King Dagobert, in the building, or a portion of it, was used as a place of con the dark ages; destroyed by the Normans in the tenth finement for prisoners of state ; and under this designation century; rebuilt by Louis the Young; and enlarged by a melancholy interest was given to the Temple, as the Philip Augustus, who added an immense isolated tower, in abode of the unfortunate and ill-used King and Queen of which the feudatory barons used to assemble, to do homage France, in the early years of the Revolution. Our country- and fealty to the king. The tower was taken down in 1528; men, Sir Sidney Smith and Captain Wright, were, at a but the remainder of the building existed for a considerable subsequent period, confined here. La Conciergerie is a pri- time, and was repaired or rebuilt piecemeal. Francis the son appropriated to those who have been found guilty of First and Henry the Fourth appear to have used the crimes, and are waiting for punishment. It is situated palace rather as a national museum, or receptacle of the underneath the Palace of Justice; and is chiefly distin- works of art, than as a royal residence; and it has long guished for the personages whom it contained during the been appropriated to the first-mentioned purpose. The lawless period to which we have so often had occasion to Louvre, as it at present exists, is a magnificent range of allude. At the end of a long vestibule is a dark gallery, in buildings, enclosing a central court.
The several portions which is a dungeon, wherein the Princess Elizabeth, sister of this structure have been added by almost every sovereign, of Louis the Eighteenth, was confined previous to her exe from Francis the first to Louis Philippe. The east front or cution: another where Marie Antoinette was confined for façade is that which is most admired; it is 525 feet long, two or three months, and since converted into a chapel, and is composed of two peristyles, and three projecting decorated with expiatory altars and tablets, in memory of buildings, on a ground-floor, which form one continued the king, queen, and princess. In other rooms of the same basement; but it has been objected that the substructure, prison, were confined Lavoisier, Condorcet, Malesherbes and or ground floor, on which the colonnade above is raised, is other illustrious men; together with the monster Robes too lofty for the height of the colonnade itself. A gallery, pierre. The Abboye, the Prison de Montaigu, the Maison 1400 feet in length, extends from the Louvre to the & Arrêt, the Bicétre, the Madelonnettes, St. Pelagie, and Tuileries, so as to connect the two palatial buildings. the Maison de Refuge, are other prisons situated in and The numerous apartments, galleries, and saloons, of whicha