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grow; they have neither stalk, nor stem, nor leaves, but , stalactites and stalagmites, in the roofs of all these consist simply of flowers, the essential parts of which are grottos. the same as in those of the more complex plants; while Earthquakes are unknown in Malta in modern times, again, they have no proper seeds, but are multiplied his but at Gozo is one of the most remarkable objects, gcologia spores, similar to the spawn of mushrooms; to which, in- cally considered, that it has ever been our fortune to see; a deel, their general form bears no slight resemblance. rent, not in the soil only, but in the rock from the sea-shore

The Fungus Melitensis grows upon a shelf of rock lying to the very heart of the island, which seems to bave been forn off the western point of Gozo. The only way this rock asunder by a force of which we can have 10 conception ean be approached is by a bridge of two ropes, upon which from any in constant operation. A view lately given in the is run a little box just large enough for a man to squat Saturday Magazine *, of a land-slip near Axmouth, Devondown in. The ropes, we think, are at least a hundred feet shire, gives some idea of this ruin. above the level of the sea, and more than this in length.

20. The reader will find an apparatus similar to this ligured in Saturday Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 21. The only object for The seasons at Malta are regular anå well-defined. In which travellers pass over this bridge is to see the curious the summer the heat is oppressive, and the rain continues plant above mentioned, but the risk of conveyance amply with intervals of fine weather, through the months of Decompensates for any want of interest in the rock itself, or cember, January, and part of February; but both of these its productions.

periods are free from the diseases that usually prerail in this The ropes are slack, and consequently curved downwards, latitude, for there is no damp and stagnant air, as in woodly and as soon as the little car is let go, it runs with great countries; there is no vegetable putrefaction, nor animal rapidity down to the centre, where it would else remain, but miasm, to contaminate the air, but the porous rock absorbs a native first pulls himself across, attaches a rope to the car superfluous moisture, the sea-breezes constantly renew the itsell, and then sends it back for the traveller. "We stepped atmosphere, and the health of the islands is remarkable. in, squatting down as deeply as the box would let us, grasp The spring is refreshed by cool winds from the west, ing firmly two iron rings fixed on the inside for thai pur but there are no regular sea and land breezes, and the pose, and taking an anxious look at the old ropes, which nights of summer are oppressive. Storms are not frequent, had been in use quite long enough. The rushing of the although at times thunder-claps burst over Valetta with concern down the inclined plane was the cnly disagreeable terrific violence. Some years since, the stone wall of a part of the passage; it travels at first too rapidly to enable house was cut, as by a hatchet, from the roof to the foundihe squatter to see that all is right, and the creaking of the j ation, by lightning. In one of the rooms, of which this rusty iron rings upon which it runs, is sufficiently unplea wall formed the outer side, stood an iron bedstead, in sant.

which was a child asleep; the lightning melted one of the When we landed, however, not a single mushroom was iron posts of the couch, close to the infant's head, and yet to be found, the guide assuring us thai they were very it slept on, undisturbed by the warring of the elements, scarce, but offering to sell us one withered specimen, which Rain has been known to fall during summer, but it is had evidently been gathered several days. We were after very rare; the dew, howerer, is abundant, and it is the habit wards told that the guide, by dint of clearing one part to of the natives to slecp upon the flat roofs of their houses which he takes his visitor, and by preserving another part during the hottest season, exposed to this abundant condenwhere he warns him that it is dangerous to go, manages sation of moisture; and they do this not only with impurity, to maintain his monopoly, and so increase his perquisites. but enjoy it. A little rain falls in September, but between The old physicians believed this plant to be a powerful

this and the rainy season is an interval of delicious weather, stauncher of blood; in other words, a styptic. In the time called the second summer. During the winter, however, rain of the Knights of Malta, it was held so precious on this rarely continues several days wiihout intermission. The account that a guard was set over the rock, and the proluc- winds from the north are then very cutting, but frost and tion itself was sold for its weight in gold, or sent by the snow are unknown. A few flases of snow fell in the winter grand master to all the friendly sovereigns of Christendom, of 1835–6, but none had been seen before for thirty years, as one of the most precious offerings he could make. Even and the natives looked upon it as an especial wonder. our own government allows 51. annually for their preserva. As regarıls temperature, Malta is considered to be the tion, and no one is allowed to gather them, nor the guide to most steady climate in Europe. For the last six years the sell them. They are preserved ostensibly for the hospitals maximum point of the thermometer within doors has been of 'Malta and Gozo, to which a few are aunually sent, but 90° Fahr., minimum 46°. There is no interinission of no use is now made of them as a styptic. The same plant vegetation. During the summer months, the thermois to be found also in Sardinia.

meter rises from 80° to 90' Fahr.; sinking towards llie end There are no wild animals in Malta. The only animals of October to 70°, from wbich time it gradually decreases for which it has been famous have been the dog, ass, and until January, when it varies from 550 to 50°, below which goat. The asses, especially of Gozo, are remarkably ine, it rarely falls. At the end of February it again rises and fetch a high price. The dog, which is now extinct, to 60°, and continues advancing until the latter end of was a very small animal with long silken hair reaching

June, when the summer sets in. This range does not vary down to the feet; its face was covered with the same, and much one year from another. its nose turned up, but its rarity compensated, in the eyes The thermometer, however, is no index whatever to the of the curious, for its want of beauty.

degree of heat or cold felt by the human body at any place, Wild duck, snipe, fig-peckers, woodcocks, plovers. quails, and at Malta this instrument is more than usually fallacious. &c., afford game for the Maltese sportsman. The wild dove, The weather-cock is the best animal thermometer at Valeita, the solitary sparrow, the ant-catcher, larks, and various other In the nights of summer, if the wind falls calm, the heat felt kinds of birds, are natives of the island. The end of the by man is intense, and in a far higher ratio than that inilimonth of Mareh is called il passo, from the various tribes cated by the mercurial thermometer. In the autumn, the of migratory birds that then make Malta their resting-place south-east wind, or sciroc, brings an overpowering lassitude on their way from Africa to Europe. The only reptiles to man and beast, equally apart from the absolute temperathat we reniem ber to have seen are the green and bright ture, which may be, and often is, considerably cooler than at eyed lizard, and a dark-coloured harmless snake.

other times, when the air will feel liglit, thin, and fine, as Of fish, there are the tunny, the red and grey muliet, It always does at Malta, however bot it may be, so thai ile anchovies, mackerel, white bait, (specifically the same, we

wind be from the west. Again, the north wind in winter are assured by a naturalist travelling for the Surrey is ofter very bitter, when the thermometer does not indicate Zoological Gardens, as those found in ihe Thames,) the any considerable loss of caloric. needle-fish, the shark, &c. &c. Lobsters, crabs, shrimps, The sciroc wind generally blows from the south-eastern oysters, limpets, cockles, sea dates, &c., are met with in portion of the African desert, and brings with it a considerthe markets.

alle degree of moisture. During its continuance the beat In the craggy rocks around Malta, are many spacious is oppressive, the air assumes a hazy appearance, and decaves or grottos, into some of which, that are at the sea posits moisture on the walls, pavement, furniture, books, level, the waves dash in when agitated, and resound from

&c., much to the destruction of the furniture, which warps point to point like thunder. The mouths of others are at and cracks as it becomes dry again. The cockpit decks, different heights, and difficult of access; one of the most under a ship's wind sails, are as moist as if steam had been considerable of these, near Benhisa, the south-east point of blowing down instead of air. Wine, and malt liquors in Malta, extends more than 200 paces under ground. Water, cask, become muddy, and remain so if, bottled at this time, filtering for ages through the calcareous rocks, bas formed

* See Vol. XVI. p. 49.

or so long as they are sick. And now, perhaps, the sciroc | final issue of any struggle between truth and error, yet, by sinks down,-a calm still more oppressive ensues.--anil taking the part of one, rather than the other, he may either debility, listlessness, utter lassitude of mind and body, hold perpetuate error for a while, or do his best to anticipate the an unconquerable spell over the physical and intellectual ultimate triumph of truth. facultie; of mail, and his efforts of action are for the time This, we believe, is the best method in any inquiry upon paralyzed. Vegetation is said to be cherished by it. which the minds of men are divided. Let no one blindly

A westerly wind blows away in half an hour all these repeat 'bis own convictions of general results, let him feelings of exhaustion, but as the sciroc is the only real abstain from the expression of opinions, not waste his drawback to the climate of Malta, how may it be avoided, time in tracing, line by line, the impression that this or that or its effects be combated ? Fortunately, it is only during | fact left upon himself: but let him present the living fact the month of September that it is frequent; it does not itself to others, and if it be truth, it will have its weighly attach or beco:ne sensible to English residents till they and if it be not, no sophistry can long bolster it up. Let have been a year or two upon the island, and its effects are men confine themselves to the positive history of what has quite transient. The island of Gozo offers a healthy refuge been-to accurate descriptions of things divested, as far as during September, and, indeed, at any period of the year, may be, of individual opinions-10 facts made cuminon to inasmuch as it is cooler, and the sciroc is felt there in a all by being told in the simple language of all, -in short, much less degree. To those who cannot leave Valetta, ice to truth, quietly presented to the mind with a most patient or snow, and cold bathing, are necessaries of life. The philosophy. effects of the sciroc are, however, as ve said before, allo We think these observations apply to the question of gether transient

quarantine as it now stands, and hope that we have pres What, then, are the diseases most prevalent at Malta? | pared the mind of the reader to judge for himself of the few We put this question to the principal English physician at facts we have room to give, to which we ask his attention. Valetta, and were told, that except those affections commonly The plague broke out at Malta in 1913, and from April incident to humanity, and especially those attending the of that year till September, 1814, +668 person's diell, and early periods of life, as measles, small-pox, &c., there were the island was kepi in quarantine for the fourteen following few or none besides. We put the same question when going years by France and Italy. To discover how the disease round the wards of the hospital at Gozo, and were told, originated, to trace it to its source, so as to be able ever • The only disease we have here is starvation; the poor afterwards, by all hnman means, to prevent the recurrence people come in here in 100 impoverished a condition to bear of like misery, was of course the wish of all. solid food, but by feeding them upon broth for a day or two, The opinion then and since held ‘is, that plague was and then gradually coaxing their stomachs with animal always introduced from the East by an infected person, or food, they generally leave the hospital fat and well in a few by his clothes, or anything, in short, that had been near one weeks. Low fever, brought on by positive want of food, ill of plague; that the disease never arose spontaneously at forms a large majority of all the cases admitted."

Malta. The account, as told us by an officer of quarantine, It is generally considered that an extreme degree of heat on duty when it broke out in 1813, tallies withi this opinion., is an element favourable for producing disease of the liver. A guardian of the lazzaret, it was said, purchased some The statistical report of Captain Tulloch says, however, leather from a vessel from Alexandria, where the plague that the Maltese are remarkably free from disease of that had been raging, and landed this article before the usual organ;" a sufficient proof," observes the Quarterly Journal period of purification had expired. "Hence," said he, "arose of Medicine," that heat, for many months little inferior to the pestilence which desolated our island; nay more-Gozo that of tropical regions, is inadequate to produce a preva was for a long time free from it, but at last it appeared in lence of liver disease."

a casal near the Giant's Tower. The daughter of a guardian Exposure to the mid-day sun, after intemperance, pro was the first victim, and the father of the girl the second. duces coup de soleil. The glare of the sun upon the naked Cotton is considered to retain the infection of plague longer rocks is very injurious to the eyes; the natives suffer much than most other substances, and when the man was asked, from blindness. The significant name of “ headach," given just before his death, if he were aware of having any co ton there to bad Marsala wine, and that of " kill Johns“ to a about him, he confessed, that when employed in the lazza small hard white apricot, are sufficient cautions to avoid ret at Malta, he had stolen jewellery from those dead of the them. These apricots are among the first fruit, are plague; that he had secreted these in a box containing remarkably cheap, and many of the soldiers, it is said, die cotton-wool

, and had given them to his daugbter, who had from their effects. Deformity is rare: hydrophobia is un

died." known: and horses are not subject either to glanders or To complete these apparent links of cause and effect, the grease.

quarantine laws have ever since been enforced with extreme 21. QUARANTINE.

care at Malta, and no plague has since appeared outside

the lazzaret. Having, however, obtained security from Malta suffered considerably from the cholera in 1837, as, pestilence without, who are those devoted individuals who indeed, it had been expected, on account of the large and risk their lives in the purification of infectious bales of mercrowded population of Valetta; but it is the plague that has chandise, especially of cotton, the most fatal of contagious been, and is still considered to be, the enemy, not only of media ? If leather, when carried out of the lazzaret, and this island, but of every place in the Levant. The lazzaret exposed to the sea-breezes, as it must necessarily have been of Malta is the best in the world, and has been considered at Malta, when passing from the quarantine to the comthe barrier against the entrance of this pestilence into Eu- mercial harbour, be the carrier of the plague, how much rope. The judgment of Europeans has never, until of late, more dangerous must it be to those persons whose anxious. investigated the real conditions under which plague and duty it is to handle such articles from the first hour of other putrid ferers arise; while fear has vitiated the opinions their arrival! If the human beings, clothes, books, and of those who were removed from the source of the inquiry, merchandise contained within any lazzaret at any given and prejudiced the observations of those that were on the time, would, if suffered to pass, as from a centre to their spot.

respective destinations, carry with them pestilence and This, it may be said, is not the place for a discussion death, how virulent must be the poison, how concentrated upon the necessity or uselessness of quarantine, but the the contagion, when confined within the narrow focus of a quarantine laws have separated nation from nation further single building! than the seas which would, but in vain, connect them; and We wish to present facts, and not opinions; but a chain the streams of commerce, of civilization, and of ameliorated of reasoning is necessary to link these facts together. If happiness, that would have flowed mutually from contiguous certain men, clothes, and merchandise be saturated with the continents, have been driven back by the hand of fear; and contagious miasm of the plague, it is quite clear that they

while it is asserted, on one hand, by the majority of the will be, at least, equally, if not more virulently so, in a "European physicians that are now practising in the East, crowded lazzaret, as when scattered in the open air, clirouylı

that there is no necessity, or use, or prevention, but great various countries. It is for those who maintain that, when aluse and suffering entailed upon health and commerce by so scattered, they do carry about them the fatal germs of these laws, and while many others maintain the contrary plague, to prove, at least, that they are not without the opinion, it is at the same time allowed on all hands that the same when shut up in the prisons of disease. The followfacts are not namerous enough, and the statistical results too ing facts, detailed by the officers of quarantine at Malta, few, to enable any one to give an ultimate decision. We as answers to certain questions put to them hy Mr. Holroyd, think this, or any other place, is fit for any subject near to go far to prove that such is not the case. the welfare of us all, and though no man has power over the Capt. Bonavia, superintendent of the lazzaret at Malta,

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has been there since 1832; has never known any persons, although apparently clumsy, are well adapted for the kind employed in fumigating letters from infected places to of service for which they are built; they are clean, safe, and have been attacked with plague; that the persons employed commodious, and are rowed with great celerity, the boatmen in the smoking-office give the letters a general fumigation standing with their faces to the prow, and ihrowing their before they put themselves in contact with them: has never whole weight against the oar, which is plunged deep into known guardians employed in handling the baggage of the water. The natives, both male and female, are expert passengers or merchandise to have been attacked with swimmers. plague: that 15,276 persons have performed quarantine Their religion is Roman Catholic.

The landed property in the lazzaret of Malta from 1832 till September 1838; of their church is about one-fourth of the rental of the island, that of these he has never known a case of plague occur, out of which, the bishop is limited to an-income of 3000l. a in the lazzarel, except those removed from vessels where year. Until very lately, their language was entirely an oral the disease was raging at the time of their removal, one, that is, not written, but merely spoken by an unlettered

Giovanni Garcin, first clerk to the lazzaret, has been em- population; it is said to be a patois between the Arabic and ployed in the establishment for twenty-nine years; has italian, and this assertion is true in the main. The Italian never known an instance of the persons employed in was introduced in the twelfth century, when Roger the exposing cotton, wool, feathers, flax, rags, sails, or other Norman conquered Sicily and Malta, and has since been suspected articles from infected places, to have been at employed for all social, judicial, and civil purposes. Th tacked with plague while so employed, excepting upon higher classes learn the English language as an accomvessels having the disease on board : that the laundresses plishment, and the lower, especially the boatmen, as a means handle the dirty linen of the passengers without any pre- of communication with their English employers. caution previous to immersing it in water; that, of the We have noticed the formation of schools in the interior laundresses thus employed to wash the linen of persons in of the island, and the revival of literature consequent quarantine, he has never known one to be attacked with upon the freedom of the press. The professors, both in the plague.

grammar-school and university, are paid by the government. But, upon the other hand, Dr. Tweedie, pbysician to the The knights founded a library in 1650, which is of public Lowon Fever Hospital, says, Every physician, with one access, and consists of 100,000 voluines. exception, (the late Dr. Bateman,) who has been connected

23. with ihe Fever Hospital (of London), has been attacked with fever during his attendance, and three out of eight physi

Malta is a crown colony, and the local government is cians have died: that the resident medical officers, matrons, composed of the acting governor and a council of six. The porters, domestic servants, and nurses, have one and all in courts of justice are numerous, and law is dear. The pubvariably been the subjects of fever; and the laundresses, lic revenue amounts to about 100,0001. a year, of which 70001. whose duty it is to wash the patients' clothes, are so invari.

is produced by customs, and 23,0001. from rentals. Malta ably and frequently attacked that few women will under

has been considered one of the most densely peopled spots on take this duty.""

the globe. It is reckoned that there are only nine-tenths of We ask no one to be convinced by these facts, that the

an acre to each human being; and calculating only that London Fever Hospital stands more in need of quarantine part which is cultivated, and all that is susceptible of being than an eastern lazzaret; on the contrary, we would advise

so, it is scarcely five-eighths of an acre to each. The same any reader, to whom this subject is a fresh one, not to pass

extent of surface which sustains 1216 souls in Malta, supfrom one extreme opinion to another, but to collect more ports but 152 souls in England. facts, and facts only, upon a subject so important, to the

In 1837, the census of Malta and Gozo numbered 120,989 commerce and health of nations.

souls, of whom 61,159 were males, and 59,830 females. Of

the total number, 104,521 were within the island of Malta; 22.

and of these, 94,978 were natives, 1468 British residents, Treatise after treatise repeats that the Maltese are of 4671 aliens, 2332 British troops, 377 women and others acArabian origin, but we have seen that Tyrians, Carthagi- companying the troops, and 695 childrea of these. Of the nians, Romans, &c., successively possessed the island, and total number in the Maltese islands, 16,468 lived at Gozo, from this mixed stock, the present race must be derived. and of these, 16,455 were natives, and only 13 Britisli resiThe Arabs, it is true, conquered Malta, but they in their dents. turn gave way to oihers, and left of course a portion of their About two-thirds of the land are cultivated, the remaining habits, language, &c., and but a portion, engrafted upon third being rock destitute of soil. Most of that, indeed, the original inhabitants. It is indeed true, that the Mal- which is under cultivation, has been formed artificially by tese language, as now spoken, greatly resembles the Arabian, levelling the rocks arid spreading all the soil that could be and in their wordy quarrels, they, like the Arabs, instead of spared from the valleys upon this foundation. Each of these abusing each other, vent the whole of their scurrility on the petty levels are surrounded by stone walls to prevent the fathers, mothers, and other relations of their adversaries; soil from being washed away; a succession of these walls, but this only proves that their language and habits were one above another, form terraces, froin the valleys upwards. derived from one common source with the Arabian.

The land is never suffered to rest, and consequently is too The Maltese men are of ordinary stature, strong, robust, precious to lay down for pasture; wheat is sown every alterand of a brown complexion; the women are rather below nate year with barley and clover. The seed is put in the the middle size, dark-eyed, delicate, and well made. Both ground in November, and the corn is cut in June, and hare great mobility of muscle, which well represents their trodden out by oxen. The barley is sown about the same time; rapidity of mental perception, and of moral sensibility. much of this is cut green for fodder, and the rest is left till They are affectionate, sincere, but jealous; sober, indus- May for seed. After this crop, the fields are sown with trious, and self-denying. The females are often mothers cotton, melons, cummin, sesam, &c. Peas, beans, Indian at thirteen years of age, and have proverbially a numerous corn, and other leguminous plants are substituted for barley progeny.

when the land seems to be exhausted. No oats are grown. The costume of the native women is a faldetta, or mantle The land is well irrigated, there being a cistern in almost of black silk brought over the head and partly hiding the face, and woru over a black silk shirt, with a white muslin Potatoes are fine at Malta, but soon degenerate, so that body. This is the universal dress of females in the middle it is necessary to have recourse every two or three years to class of life; those higher in condition adopt the English fresh tubers from England. The clover, or sulla, grows to bonnet, &c.; and the poorer persons vary from their country- the height of three or four feet

, bears a beautiful crimson women in variety of colour only. Between the English and tlower, and is much esteemed as food for cattle. Maltese male costume, the difference is confined entirely to Only sufficient corn for three months can be raised in the working classes; these wear a mixture of Spanish and Malta and Gozo, the remainder of the supply being drawn Italian garments, a black or coloured cap hanging half-way from Sicily and Russia; but a vast variety of fruits and down the back, a close fitting jacket with innumerable but- vegetables, which succeed the harvest, compensate, though tons, with a scarf folded round the waist. Their hair is cut feebly, for the insufficient supply of grain. There are close, except upon the temples, two or three long oranges, melons, particularly the water-melon, figs, the ringlets are cultivated with extreme care. The most severe prickly pear, apricots, almonds, grapes, apples, especially punishment to them is to deprive them of this ornament, at Gozo, and a variety of other European and Eastern which is done to criminals in prison. The Maltese women fruits. A few sugar-canes are raised at Gozo; the shaddock are much prettier than the Gozitans.

has lately been introduced into Malta; and we believe that The Maltese are very partial to the water. Their boats, there is no fruit or vegetable, peculiar to any other part of


every field.

the globe, that could not be brought to perfection here at The domestic stone palaces of Malta are inhabited by one or other season of the year.

families without resources, who would gladly welcome the The oranges are superior to those of any other country, English stranger. The hotels of the capital are as cheap and form an article of exportation to England. Of these, as they are luxurious. The climate is more brilliant than the egy, the blood and the mandarin are the choicest kinds. that of Greece or Italy, being free from the fatal miasms The egg-orange is most esteemed at Malta, but the blood in that are generated in those damp and undrained countries. London, on account doubtless of its curious appearance, The Maltese themselves are attached to the English; There are two fables as to the cause of its deep rich carmine their fortifications and their churches, and other works of colour; one, that it has been obtained by grafting the orange art, invite the traveller to their island; but let him beware upon a pornegranate stoek; the other, that the soil was so of remaining too long, unless he should be willing to thoroughly saturated with the blood of the knights, that the abandon his native country, for Malta and Gozo are still stains have not yet passed away. The true cause is not the islands of Calypso, and, after having been garrisoned known. The mandarin, so called from its resemblance to for three years at Valetta, the English soldier often becomes a Chinese bead-dress, is of a most exquisite odour, the unnerved, and has been seen to express unmanly regret essential oil of the peel possessing a more powerful aroma when ordered to embark for home. than that of any other kind. We have seen this variety in There is a fascination in such a climate which becomes the London market during the last season, under the name dangerous to moral power and mental action, and to the of the Tangierene orange, but all attenipts to export it dormant faculties of an uneducated man the effects are from Malta failed.

often fatal to future efforts : but, to the over-excited These islands do not produce more grapes than are intellect, whose powers have been unduly worked-to the sufficient for their own consumption, and but little wine is mind morbidly alive to the necessities of labour, and over made, and that at Gozo.

stimulated, even by its own feverish spirit of emulation, There are two principal kinds of cotton-plant at Malta, until it is too irritable to cease from work, and yet too one producing a white cotton, and the other a reddishi exhausted to work with vigour—to such as these Malta brown nankeen; both are annuals, the seed of which is would be a most healing climate, and how many minds in sown about the end of May, after the corn is off the land, this condition are there in highly civilized England. and the pod is gathered in the early part of September.

Go view the palace, rich in tapestried hall, In 1801 ihe value of the raw cotton produced in these

The Moorish window and the massive wall; islands amounted to about half a million sterling, and a

And mark the many loitering in the shade, lucrative exportation of a part of this to Marseilles, and the

In many-coloured garb and guise arrayed; manufacture of the remainder at home, employed and

Long-haired Sclavonian skipper with ihe red

And scanty cap, which ill protects the head; supported a large proportion of the inhabitants; but this

White-kilted Suliot, gay and gilded Greek, trade has declined from causes too numerous to mention

Grave turbaned Turk, and Moor of swarthy cheek :here; and it is the opinion of practical men, that nothing

And sainted John's contiguous pile explore, is likely to revive the 'cotton manufactures of the island

Gemmed altar, gilded beam, and gorgeous floor, The production of the raw material will still afford em

Where you emblazoned in mosaic see ployment to the poor.

The symbols of a monkish chivalry.

WILLIAM Stewart Rose. The goats of Malta are of a superior breed, very large, and produce excellent milk; of which cheese is made. But we must make an end. The Maltese are free, and Oxen and horses are brought from Barbary, but asses are

fit for freedom, being active in mind and body, glad to bred upon the island, and are remarkably fine. Sheep are work, glad to learn, sober, contented, obedient to the local very prolific, often producing four, and seldom less than laws, and attached to the English government which protwo, lambs at a time. Be are kept in large quantities, tects them: but they are very poor, yet cheerful midst and the honey is liquid, clear and aromatic. The raising want and suffering-calling their rock'il fiore del mondo, of the silk-worm and cochineal insect have both been the flower of the world, while it denies them bread to eat. attempted within the last few years, but neither have as yet Let us hope that their increasing intelligence will develop succeeded.

in them a power to produce important media for successful There is no public conveyance upon the islands, but comn.erce; and, possessing freedom, and peace, and plenty, communication between Malta and Gozo is kept up almost that they may bear these blessings with the same moderadaily by about a dozen provision-boats, and the produce of tion with which they have suffered the evils of political the interior is brought by carts to Valetta. The markets despotism and domestic want. are well supplied.


In a former Supplement we spoke of the commission which Malta is a colony of England, a commercial depôt for was appointed to set at rest the grievances of which the the neighbouring ports, and the centre of steam navigation Maltese had complained. By a spirit of economy which corin the Mediterranean, and yet is impoverished to the last responded to the expressed desires of the natives, the salaries degree. A man may dine, it is said, on fish, flesh, and of many of the English officials were reduced, and in some fowl for a half-penny-the difficulty is to get the half-penny. cases their places were given to the Maltese, and in The penny is divided into twelve parts called grains, and others they were totally abolished. It is now discovered a single grain's worth of cooked meat may be purchased by that these measures have led to the retirenient from the the poor. Many rarely taste bread, living upon innutritious island of many Englishmen, who spent pot only the profruits-and glad to eat of the hard beans of the locust-tree, ceeds of their offices, but also their private incomes, amongst the veritable "husks" with which the prodigal son would the people, and that the Maltese who have succeeded them fain have filled himself. We have seen the poor of Città | have not the means of circulating the same amount of Vecchia devour raw cabbage stalks, and boiled clover is capital. The former partial evil is now said to have been a positively the food of some at the most trying seasons of universal good; but by these timely concessions the disconthe year.

tened were at least disarmed of every handle for future Willing hearts and able hands want work, and their agitation, and, against any disappointment which arises capabilities are but little known. The Maltese workman. upon the adaptation of conciliatory measures, we ought to ship in gold and silver surpasses, in delicacy of execution, set off all that moral dissatisfaction which the refusal of every other in the world. Masterly manipulation in metal, the same might probably have entailed upon the parent stone, and wood, is an universal talent amongst them. The government. magnificent mosaic pavement of St. John's church has The commercial relations between Malta and Sicily are lately been repaired by men working for a shilling a day. at present interrupted by a want of right understanding They learnt to cut, inlay, and polish the smallest designs between their respective governments. There is no steam with extreme accuracy. The embroidery of the native communication, direct or indirect, between these islands; women would soon rival that executed by the ladies of the and although several steam-vessels pass close to the port of Turkish seraglio. The muscular system of the Maltese is | Messina, none put in for passengers, or even for letters. highly developed, not as to mass, but function. There is This broken correspondence is attributed to the court of the same difference between an English and a Maltese Naples, as the steam-boats which used to pass between artificer, as between the huge dray-horse and the Arab these places were Neapolitan, and have been removed since sieed ;- the one possesses strength, solidity, and enduring the English resisted the granting of a monopoly of the vigour, and the other surpassing delicacy of motion. Sepa- whole of the Sicilian sulphur trade to a French' merchant. rate paths are open for the industry of both.

Such a short-sighted policy can only put Malta to a tem.

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porary inconvenience, but the recoil upon Sicilian trade will the management of their own vessels they are admirable : not be transient. By the granting of a monopoly of the sul- in the use of the oar they are undoubtedly our superiors :: phur trade to a private individual, against an existing treaty, the inhabitants of the coast may almost be considered as and to the annihilation of our foreign trade therein, the amphibious; and the address of the boys on the Marina of English were forced back upon their own resources, and dis- | La Valetta in recovering a small piece of money from the covered in iron pyrites, which are a compound of sulphur bottom of the harbour, is among the most striking circumwith iron, sufficient of the former to supply the whole of our stances which arrest the attention of a stranger. An manufactures. Upon being compelled to rescind the mono- Englishman sees with wonder the driver of his calessa, poly, the king of Naples put a duty upon the exportation of during the most oppressive days of summer, running by the the sulphur, equivalent to the same, and has thereby only fur- side of his horse for miles together, and keeping up with ther stimulated the efforts of our Cornish miners. The duties him, whatever may be his pace. many cases so excessive as virtually to prohibit an open com are animated, are the figure and limbs of the Maltese.

hinning our with which merce, while they are the main support to an illicit trade. Strongly resembling the remains of Greek sculpture, they Almost the entire trade between Malta and Sicily is in fact afford a singular confirmation of the propriety of that model contraband. Not many weeks since the writer passed from which the ancients adopted as the scheine of perfection, Messina to Valetta, in a Sicilian speronaro, which was laden with respect to strength and beauty, in the human frame." with English manufactured goods and sugar. These arti The same writer gives the following graphic sketch of cles were being carried to Malta only to be smuggled back the capital; with which we must conclude." Malta, and again, in smaller quantities, to various places upon the coast its sister islands, which are made first, as viewed from the of Sicily. It is highly desirable that all these things should sea, present a heavy, undulating outline ; nor is there any, be placed upon a more solid foundation.

thing in the whole face of the country which can be called The Protestant church, which is being built at Valetta pleasing or picturesque, till you open the harbour of La by the munificence of the Queen Dowager, promises to be | Valetta. Here, indeed, a scene bursts upon you equally one of the most ornamental features of that capital. Its beautiful and imposing. Two considerable inlets, the chaste proportions and simplicity of detail will render it a largest of which forms a most magnificent port, almost ingraceful Grecian temple, and we shall look forward to the sulate the town, situated on a tongue of land, which, rising time of its consecration with the hope of being able to give inland from the sea, exhibits a series of the reader an account of that ceremony, together with a sing one above another, and crowned

singular drawing of the finished structure.

edifices, detached from the mass, which give a striking After mentioning a strong sense of retributive justice, and finish to the whole. Each side of the harbour is strongly an excessive sordidness of disposition, as the two most un. fortified with batteries that appear to grow out of the rock favourable points in the character of the Maltese, a writer of which they are composed. The south-east side, suffiin the Quarterly Review thus paints the fairer side of the ciently covered with forts and houses, is defended with a picture:

triple tier of guns, suggesting an image of power, which “Into the opposite scale must be cast piety, chastity, so- works of the first order often fail to convey to an inexperibriety, all the family affections, fidelity, courage, and indus- enced eye. The great visible length of the harbour, and its try. In Malta the usual effect of a hot climate in disposing windings, which leave you in suspense as to its real limits, to indolence has been counteracted by peculiar circum- fill the mind with undetermined ideas of extent; and the stances, and the scantiness of the soil has infused into these quantity of shipping of various nations, of different forms, islanders a portion of energy and activity not to be surpassed and bearing different tlags, together with the crowds upon by that of the inbabitants of our more northern regions. On the Marina, gives gaiety and animation to a picture, which horseback they are strong and courageous as ourselves; in can scarce be paralleled in the world."

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1 10 WA O Luote piny

Scale of Feet.

The part shaded with oblique lines is intended to represent the vast thickness of the walls ; that with perpendicular lines, the portions of

the pavement which still remain entire ; while the four inclosures are left a blank. The several proportions may be determined by
the scale.

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LONDON : Published by JOHN W, PARKER, West STRAND, and sold by all Booksellers,

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