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retire from several parts of the city, so that he resolved to | by the people, who had been harassed by the ambition of make the Fauxbourg St. Antoine the scene of his attack. contending parties. But he was a man little worthy of the On the 2nd of July, 1652, Condé was stationed with his love of his subjects. He had been educated in the school forces in the principal street of the fauxbourg, having the of Mazarin, and was heard to declare that he preferred town, with its gates shut against him, on the one extremity Turkish despotism to European forms of government. He of his line, and the royal army under Turenne at the other. | insulted on the justice-seat those who presumed to decide Mazarin and the young Louis the Fourteenth were on the against his wishes; and he insulted the cause of morality height which now contain the Cemetery of Père la Chaise, and virtue by the unblushing and unconcerned licentiousspectators of the ensuing action, the young monarch being ness of his life. But still he possessed many qualities most anxious to witness the defeat of the prince who had which have seldom failed to prove attractive to the French rebelled against him. The gate of St. Antoine was imme- | nation: he loved military renown, and conducted sieges and diately under the Bastile, the guns from which commanded battles with a degree of sumptuous array that has rarely the three roads diverging from the gate. This position, been equalled. All his court used to accompany him in his into which Condé had been induced to throw himself by a campaigns; and the latter became a sort of national show or miscalculation of his opponents' movements, was such that holiday. Louis's ostentation was excessive. France had it seemed hardly possible he could escape being cut to never seen a court so brilliant and costly. The language and pieces. The contest commenced by a triple attack, made the dresses of all at court were regulated by strict etiquette,against him by divisions of the royal army, headed by three laws which, as it has been said, “silenced the affections, personal enemies of his. The attack from the left was stilled the natural sentiments, and induced dissimulation." defeated by the prince's valour; and he then turned his The palaces of his predecessors were not magnificent enough attention to the central street, where the attack was led on for Louis; he enlarged them,-repaired the old ones, and by Turenne in person, and a fierce encounter ensued. built new. The expense of constructing the palace of Turenne was afterwards asked, “ Did you see Condé during Versailles alone, is said to have amounted to more than the action ?"-"I must have seen a dozen Condés," was the 1,200,000 livres, and to have occupied from 20,000 to 30,000 reply; “ he multiplied himself." The contest on the right workmen. The most extravagant projects were formed, for was no less severe: the nobles of the prince's party were embellishing Versailles. At one time the river Loire, at nearly all slain, among the rest La Rochefoucauld, the another the Bievre, at a third the Eure, was proposed to celebrated author of the Marims. Condé, beaten at be conducted by artificial canals to Versailles. The lastevery point, now made a circuit round the city, endeavouring mentioned river was to be brought from a distance of eight to obtain an entrance at some one of the gates. He was leagues; and superb aqueducts, almost equal to those of the refused entrance at all of them, except at the last and trying Romans, were commenced. A regular camp was formed moment, when the gate of St. Antoine suddenly opened near the scene of operation, from which no one was suffered and admitted him, and a fire of guns from the Bastile drove to go out, under heavy penalties ; nor was any one permitted the royal troops from the three roads which had been the to speak of the maladies and deaths which occurred among scene of their attacks. This unexpected succour came the workmen, from the intensity of their work, and the through the aid of Mademoiselle de Montpensier, daughter exhalation of the soil. But a war which broke out caused of the Duke of Orleans. An attachment existed between these works to be abandoned, and they were never afterher and Condé; and when she knew of the distressed state wards resumed, the money squandered on them being thus of the latter, she went, assisted by an enraged populace, rendered useless. All his ministers seemed to vie with each who were irritated at seeing a rash but generous prince other in pouring the incense of tlattery into his ear. The sacrificed to Mazarin, to the municipal officers, and assisted provost of the merchants at Paris also lent himself to the in obtaining from them the order for opening the gate of same object, and that, too, at the public expense; for he St. Antoine. She herself directed the firing of the guns, established an annual gratuity or pension of 440 livres to and is said to have applied the first match with her own the rector of the University, on condition that he would, hand.-More than three thousand men perished in this every year on the fifteenth of May, pronounce a panegyric unhappy encounter.
on Louis the Fourteenth. Of all the miseries that afflict humanity, few are more dreadful than civil war, where brother fights against brother,
REVOCATION OF THE EDICT OF NANTES. and father against son,-forgetting kin and country in the But there is a blot more serious than all these on the heat of party strife. The situation of Paris and its environs fame of Louis the Fourteenth: we allude to his treatment was miserable in the extreme. The armies of Turenne of the Protestants. The reader will remember that the and of Condé alternately poured their infliction on the un- Edict of Nantes, notwithstanding some subsequent changes, offending peasantry. It was represented to the parliament still guaranteed something like liberty of conscience to the by one of the city authorities, that the excesses of the Protestant inhabitants of France. The Court of Rome, soldiers were so great, and the devastation so public, that constant in its project of exterminating the Protestants, all the houses and farms in the vicinity of Paris had been watched all favourable opportunities for doing so, and ruined and rendered totally useless. The soldiers, not con availed itself of them. The confessors of Louis, who were tent with provisions, had pillaged the furniture and farming all Jesuits, and his minister Louvois, who befriended the implements, seizing the cattle, and demolishing the houses, Jesuits on account of their accommodating religion and in order to obtain the materials of which they were built. relaxed morals, combined together to induce Louis to Laporte, a contemporary writer, says, “The misery of the revoke the Edict of Nantes, an edict which was considered people was distressing; and in every place through which a kind of Magna Charta by the Protestants. La Chaise, a the court passed, the poor peasants ran there for shelter, Jesuit confessor to Louis, when he was on the point of thinking themselves there in security from the outrages of death, said to the monarch—“Do not again take a Jesuit the soldiery. They also conducted their starving cattle for your confessor :-ask me no questions respecting it, there, not daring to let them graze in the meadows. for I cannot answer them." The Jesuit, probably, in his When their cattle died, they died themselves, for they had last moments, spoke from a sincere feeling of what was the then nothing to subsist on but the charity of the court, future interest of the king. But his words were slighted; which was but limited, each one thinking of himself first. for Louis took into that office Le Tellier, one of the most They had no covering from the heat of the day, or the cold crafty and cruel of the order. winds of night, but beneath sheds and awnings. When The first attempts of the Jesuits were to draw away mothers died, their children died soon afterwards; and I children from their obedience to their Protestant parents, saw, upon the Pont de Melun, where we went some time in order that they might be educated in the Catholic faith; after, three dead children lying upon their dead mother. and thus sow the seeds of discord between the various All these miseries sensibly touched the queen-regent: she members of a family. This was at first done secretly; but even, as it was said at St. Germains, sighed over them, and in 1661 a law was made, by which boys at fourteen and said that those who had caused them would have an awful girls at twelve years of age were considered capable of account to render to God ;– forgetting that she herself was being converted (although it had hitherto been decreed that the principal cause." There is a simplicity in this narration they were unable to judge of religious matters at this age). which speaks much for its truth.
Children were encouraged by the Jesuits, with the aid of SPLENDOUR AND POMP OF LOUIS'S COURT.
caresses and money, to profess Catholicism, and that once done, they were retained in it by violence.
The next step At length the time arrived when Louis the Fourteenth, was to decree that the chiidren, thus pretendedly converted, having gained his majority, commenced governing in his might marry without the consent of their parents, and that own right; an event which was looked upon with great joy they should not be disinherited for so doing. Those chil
dren who, after this mock conversion, ventured to return to persecution: the hospitals which the Protestants had es the faith of their fathers, were first punished by imprison- tablished in Paris were suppressed, and the furniture and ment, then by being sent to the galleys, and subsequently funds given to the Hôtel Dieu (the principal hospital in by confiscation of their property.
Paris); and what was still more cruel, Catholics were forA cruel state of domestic war was constantly kept up bidden to receive sick Protestants into their houses. Several between parents and their children; for, by two successive attempts were made by miscreants, excited, as is supposed, orders in council, parents were obliged to support their con- by others, to destroy the Protestant cemeteries. verted children, and were forced to pension or salary them, The work of conversion (if it may be called such) proaccording as they grew up; thus embittering some of the ceeded all this time. The king gave up part of his revenue most cherished feelings of the human heart; for how could for the express purpose of buying converts. A regular a child love and respect his parents, when he was taught market price was fixed, averaging about six livres per to hold himself superior to them? These iniquitous steps head, for those who consented to change their faith:--" he were soon followed by others. In 1664, an order was issued, converts themselves were pleased with this golden elodischarging converted persons from all liability for their quence, less learned than that of Bossuet but much more debts to Protestants. Gradually those offices which had persuasive.” We may readily believe that those who thus been considered by the Edict of Nantes open to the Pro- sold their religion for a trifle had no great respect for it. But testants were given to Catholics only. Priests who could it was a far different and more distressing sight to see be gained over from Protestantism to Catholicism were tender infants inveigled away. We have said that fourteen loaded with benefits; while those who adhered to their years of age for boys and twelve for girls were deemed an faith were by degrees oppressed in various wars; at first age when they might be converted: this period was aftermean and paltry, and afterwards more serious. For twenty- wards altered to seven years in each sex, and subsequently five years these persecutions gradually augmented; and, to five; so that, at five years of age, a child might be taken in order to give some idea of their nature, we will first forcibly from its Protestant parents, placed into the hands speak of the treatment adopted towards the Protestant of Catholics, and the parents obliged to pay a regular sum clergy, and afterwards to the Protestant laity. The attacks for its support. When a person, whether adult or child, against the liberty of the clergy proceeded soinewhat in the had once consented to this sort of conversion, they were for following order:- They were first forbidden to deliberate ever after bound to the Catholic religion under dreadful in their synors, unless a royal judge was present. It was penalties: if they obtained the name of relapses, they were interdicted to them to sing psalms, except in the temple, or condemned to the galleys. to bear the name of pastors. They were then denied the The finishing stroke to this series of persecution was privilege of preaching each in more than one place, and directed against the churches themselves. Several attempis were forbidden to wear robes. The next step was to prevent had been made by the most brutal of the populace to fire the ministers of one province from corresponding with those the Protestant churches; but it was not till the Edict of of another. Afterwards it was declared unlawful for them Nantes was revoked that it became legal so to do. Six to sing psalms in their churches while a Catholic proces- hundred Protestant churches were demolished, and the sion was passing near, or to preach while the bishop or Protestants then repeated their prayers and sang their archbishop was visiting the diocese. . Another decree inter- hymns in fields, and in holes and corners. They had dicted any increase in the number of ministers. If a Pro- neither pastors nor churches, and could only exercise their testant pastor received a convert from Catholicism, the religion by stealth. Why, it may be asked," says Duformer was condemned to perpetual banishment. Another laure, in his Histoire de Paris, “why did not these unforroyal edict ordered that no minister should preach more tunates flee from an ungrateful country, a cruel government, than three years; and that he should not preach within six which had for so many years heaped constantly-accumulatleagues of any church which had for any reason been ing oppression on them? Why, when they had been robbed destroyed. Lastly, on October 22, 1685, the Edict of of their liberty, of their rights, when they had been excluded Nantes was revoked, and all the Protestant ministers in from employments, and from the exercise of their talents France were ordered to leare it in a fortnight; any one and industry,—when their children had been torn from returning being liable to sentence of death, and a reward of them, and taught to detest their parents ;-why, when 5500 livres being offered to any one who should discover a strife had been excited between the members of the same Protestant priest in France.
family,—when a despotic control over their consciences, Meanwhile the Protestant laity experienced a full share of and an absolute empire over their thoughts, had arisen,the bitter persecution of the court. (For most of these acts when, finally, everything that an imagination fruitful in were committed by the court and the Jesuits: the parlia wickedness could devise had been hurled against them,ment had but little power at that time.) It was customary why, it may be asked, did they not escape by tlight from so at that time for manufacturers and artisans to receive many outrages, persecutions, and sufferings " The answer certain privileges and monopolies before they could pursue to this question is, that they remained in the country, bound their avocations. About 1664 these privileges began to be to it by ties of home and kindred, until nature could bear denied to Protestants, by which their talents and their no more; and then they emigrated to other countries; industry were paralyzed.' The next step was to forbid jus and it was not until more than 100,000 of the most intellitices, farmers-general, excise superintendants, &c., to give gent and industrious citizens had taken refuge in foreign any subordinate offices to Protestants. This was followed lands, that Louis perceived his error, and found out that by an ordinance decreeing that all Protestants holding legal the financial resources of the country were suffering through offices should instantly yield them up. The weavers, hatters, a series of acts which he had intended should only intluembroiderers, and other artisans, of the Protestant religion, ence tlie religion of his subjects. England received an were forbidden to take apprentices; and Catholics were like- | immense number of the expatriated French, chiefly silkwise forbidden to take Protestant apprentices. The next manufacturers; as did the north of Germany; and these thing attacked was the privilege of Catholics and Protest two countries derived a benefit from the circumstance, only ants marrying together, and, afterwards, the privilege of equalled by the loss which the French nation sustained. Protestants marrying at all, under a penalty of 3000 livres.
MANNERS OF THE PARISIANS IN THE SEVENTEENTH All persons of the Protestant persuasion holding any offices whatever were ordered to give them up. The booksellers
CENTURY and printers were next attacked by being forbidden to con It frequently happens that the manners and the tone of tinue their employments, under pain of confiscation of all moral feeling among a people can be gathered from pictures their goods. This was followed by a similar ediet against painted about the period of which we are speaking. Duphysicians, surgeons, apothecaries, and all members of the laure has instanced an engraving which he thinks strikmedical profession, who, if Protestants, were forbidden to ingly illustrates many of the Parisian customs and follies in exercise their profession. The edicts then proceeded to the time of Louis the Fourteenth. The print represents a higher ground, and expelled Protestant members of parlia- view of the Pont Neuf. On one part of the bridge (which ment from their seats. Protestant academies and schools contained houses) were duellists fighting in open day: were gradually mown down in a similar way:—first, nothing some of the combatants are wounded, and lie extended on but reading, writing, and arithmeti
were to be taught; the ground; while others are fighting with fury-the pasthen, that there should be but one school and one school sers-by looking on with indifference. At another part are master in each town; then, that the Protestant churches numerous beggars, the women with children in their arıns, should be the only school-rooms; and, lastly, that_the and the men running, with their hats in their hands, by the schools and colleges should be abolished altogether. Even doors of some splendid carriages which are passing along, hospitals and cemeteries did not escape this unhallowed soliciting alms. Further on are seen some robbers, who
appear to have booty with them. Near the statue of Henry | thus making necessary the appointment of regents. This the Fourth is a mountebank, surrounded with gazers ; and is generally a misfortune; for in a country governed on not far from them are men quarrelling and fighting. On monarchial principles, the name, the position, and the the opposite side of the way is a dentist, mounted on a prerogative of a king have weight with his subjects; but a stage, exercising his avocation, surrounded by a crowd: a regency is apt to be swayed by contests of an ambitious woman and a child are lifting the cloak of one of the spec- character, frequently for those who had wished to obtain tators, and putting their hands in his pockets. Vendors of the appointment of regent. We thus find that Mary de wine and of provisions are seen at their stalls; and near Medicis, widow of Henry the Fourth, was, with her Italian them is a person who has been robbed, drawing his sword councillors, continually embroiled during the minority of on the robber, and the watch just coming to interfere. In Louis the Thirteenth; and that Anne of Austria, widow of the middle of the street are seen soldiers, armed with hel the last-named monarch, was, under the guidance of mets, cuirasses, and long pikes.
Mazarin, equally involved in stormy disputes during the There exists also a long letter, written about the same minority of Louis the Fourteenth: lastly, on the death of period by a foreigner residing in France, a few extracts that monarch, the Duke of Orleans, his nephew, was from which will assist in conveying some notion of Paris appointed regent during the minority of Louis the Fifteenth. and the Parisians at the termination of the seventeenth cen This last appointment was fully as much contested and tury :-" It is scarcely too much to say that all Paris is one envied as the preceding. The Jesuits, by whom Louis the huge hotel: everywhere may be seen public-houses, taverns, Fourteenth had been surrounded nearly all his life, wished and hotels: kitchens are steaming at all hours, because the to retain the power which they had acquired by instilling people eat at all hours. The tables are abundantly sup the same despotic ideas into the young king's mind as had plied: the Parisians drink out of small glasses, but very
influenced the mind of the old monarch; and for this frequently; and they never drink without inviting their purpose they had persuaded Louis the Fourteenth, in his companions to do the same. The common people are seldom last moments, to make a will by which he declared that the intoxicated, except on saints' days, when they do no work. Duc de Maine, one of his illegitimate sons, should be There are no people in the world more industrious, but appointed regent during the minority of Louis the Fifteenth, who possess so little, because they spend their all on their since the Jesuits had intluence over him. On the other back and their belly; and yet they are always content.
hand, the nobles of France had been greatly humbled by There are many persons who, when they go from home, | Louis the Fourteenth, and, thirsting to regain their power, neglect to close their doors, for they scorn robbers; all their they looked forward to the Duke of Orleans, an ardent and patrimony being on their backs. The females are very ambitious prince of the blood royal, to lead them back to fond of cherishing little puppies, whom they treat with the their ancient power and prosperity: they therefore looked utmost tenderness : the more ugly these dogs are, the more with hope at the probable appointment of the duke to the are they prized. The women have the privilege of going regency. On the day after the death of the old monarch, masked whenever they please, that they may conceal them- | therefore, the parliament assembled, to hear the will read, selves : with a mask of black velvet on their faces they will the opposing parties looking with anxiety for the fulfilment go to church (as if to conceal themselves from God) just as of their wishes. The will being read, it was found that a they would to a ball or to the theatre. . The tailors council of regency was appointed, the members of which of Paris have more trouble to invent than to cut out; for if consisted of the old ministers. The Duke of Orleans was a dress lasts longer than the life of a flower, it becomes out appointed its president; but the majority of the members, of fashion : it thus arises that there are large numbers of with the Duke of Maine at their head, were in the Jesuit dealers who live by buying and selling cast-off clothes : and
interest: moreover, the latter was to have the care of the persons can, at a small expense, exchange their own dress young king's person. The parliament, who disliked the for another.
Politeness is more studied in France Jesuit supremacy, without hesitation declared these provithan in any other country: persons of quality exhibit it
sions null, broke the testament of Louis the Fourteenth ere with much taste; citizens mingle affectation with it; and the he was cold in his coffia, and proclaimed the Duke of common people acquit themselves with some mixture of
There now ensued a series of contests between the Jesuits ness.
Luxury and good living might be two bene on the one hand, and the regent on the other, which ended fits rather than evils, if it were only the rich who lived in the ascendancy of the latter; and Orleans then began to splendidly; but emulation has made the same taste pass to examine into the state of the kingdom. The financial others, to whom it is ruinous. It would thus seem that condition of the country was very deplorable: the expensive Paris is approaching continually towards its end, if it be wars of the preceding reign, and the expulsion of the true, as an ancient has said, that Excessive expense is a industrious Protestants, had reduced the national exchequer sure sign of a dying city. But it is probable that now,
to the lowest ebb. Various schemes were proposed to get when lacqueys and cooks begin to wear scarlet and plumes, rid of the difficulties. One of the ministers proposed a and that gold and silver are become common upon their national bankruptcy, by which all those who had lent clothes, we shall see this excessive luxury terminate, there money to government would lose it; but the iniquity of being nothing which makes gilded robes so much despised such a transaction was too glaring to permit its adoption. by the rich as to see them on the persons of the low-born. Instead of this, the coin was called in, and a new coinage
If you ever go to Paris, take care never to go into a issued, the weight of each piece being one fifth less than shop where they sell trinkets or useless things. The dealer the former weight, which fifth passed into the national gives you a description of all his merchandize, and talks so treasury. After this, one of the most extraordinary schemes fast and so much, and so flatters you, that he induces you that ever disturbed the brains of a nation was seized insensibly to purchase something. When you enter his on with avidity by all parties as a means of recruiting the nashop, he begins by showing you everything that you do not tional treasury: this was the celebrated Mississippi scheme, want, and afterwards that which you do want, and he talks
of which we shall shortly give an account in a separate you over, so that you spend all your money in purchasing article. things for more than they are worth. It is by these means
REIGNS OP LOUIS THE FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH, AND that he pays himself for the assiduity and the continua!
GRADUAL APPROACH OF THE REVOLUTION. trouble which he takes in uselessly showing, a hundred times a day, his merchandize to those inquisitive persons When Louis the Fifteenth attained an age which qualified who wish to see all without purchasing any .
him for the performance of regal duties he entered on the Everything may be bought at Paris, except the art of keep- | kingly power. But here commenced a striking illustration ing a secret: the French say that that is the business of a of the evils which follow from weakness of character. Louis confessor." With many of the vices incident to a great had been educated inder the care of an amiable, but mild city still remaining amongst them, the Parisians have since and weak man; and as there was a natural timidity in the wiped off many of those blots on their character.
young king's character, that timidity was aggravated rather
than alleviated by a somewhat similar character in his . CONTESTS DURING THE MINORITY OF LOUIS FIFTEENTK.
tutor. It has been said by an historian of France—“DiffiIn the year 1715, Louis the Fourteenth sank into the dence is the great bane of the privately educated, especially grave, worn out with old age, sickness, and domestic troubles, when they are afterwards to mingle with persons not on all and was succeeded by his great-grandson, under the title equality with them. It matters not whether they descend of Louis the Fifteenth. It happened unfortunately for or ascend; Louis the Fifteenth could no more set himself France, that Louis the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and at his ease in the company of his courtiers, than an upstart Fifteenth, all came to the crown during their minority, I could have done in the same society. Bashfulness becomes
irresolution in one born to influence and to act; and this say a word on the impossibility of a monarch leading an mo apparently venial quality was the chief cause of all the moral life without sowing the seeds of evil both to himself crimes and follies of the reign." The Regent Orleans and to his subjects. had mingled the most licentious conduct and protligate There were no political events in this reign which partimanners with a good deal of energy and spirit in political | cularly a fiected the city of Paris. Constant wars were affairs. But Louis the Fifteenth allowed his weakness being carried on against various states of Europe, someof character to be worked upon by his dissolute courtiers; times to the advantage, but more frequently to the disadhis bad traits were brought out; his good ones were stitled; vantage of France. These, however, do not form any part and in process of time he became one of the most con. of our present subject. On the 10th of May, 1774, Louis temptible monarchs that ever sat upon an European throne. the Fifteenth died, his death having been accelerated by His dissolute lise fully equalled that of the regent; but the his dissolute life; and he was succeeded by his grandson, latter, in addition to political affairs, occupied a portion of his Louis the Sixteenth, then about twenty years of age. His time in cultivating science and the fine arts : Louis the father had, unlike his grandfather, been a man of pious Fifteenth, not content with shaking off the burden of politics, and inoral character, and the young Louis was bred up in and transferring it to any crafty minister who was willing to an abhorrence of vice and immorality. But a storm was accept it, occupied some of his spare time in making pastry lowering which his virtues could not dispel. He had not and soups in a kitchen which he had built for himself. been one year seated on the throne before complaints and This unworthy state of things was one of the causes which disturbances arose, which continued with but little interled to the French revolution. Right-thinking and moral mission, until a brutal rabble brought him to the scaffold. men, however much they might reverence monarchy, could The eventful history of the late years of his reign, in which not shut their eyes and ears to the iniquitous proceedings the city of Paris played a conspicuous part, will form part of the courts of Louis the Fourteenth and Fifteenth ; and of the subject of another Supplement, in which we shall a dissatisfied feeling was thereby engendered. This feeling, endeavour to give a rapid glance, at both the revolutions as frequently happens, fell heavily on one who did not which France has since that time undergone. deserve it; for Louis the Sixteenth, who was a mild and The population of Paris, about the beginning of the last amiable, though not a talented monarch, was doomed to century, is supposed to have amounted to rather more than suffer for the errors of his predecessors. We shall have half a million. By the year 1760 it had reached 570,000. hereafter to mention some of the other causes that led to By the end of the reign of Louis the Sixteenth it is supposed the revolution; but we wished on the present occasion to that the population amounted to 630,000.