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Lord Holland. In the latter part of the last century BRAMSHILL IN HAMPSHIRE.
Bramshill was the residence of the Rev. Sir Richard BRAMSHILL, the seat of Sir John Cope, Bart., is a Cope, B.D., Bart., and is now occupied by Sir John large and ancient mansion situated in the north-east Cope, Bart. part of the county of Hampshire, a little removed Mr. Nash, in his " Mansions of England in the Olden from the high road leading from London to Win- T'ime," has given two representations of Bramshill. chester. Being built on a bold eminence in a spa. In one is the porch, which presents a superb example cious park it presents a very commanding and of the curious admixture of styles in the Architecture attractive appearance. Large as it is at present, it of the reign of James the First. In the other the forms but the central part of the building originally terrace is represented, occupied by a company of designed; indeed there is a plainness and abruptness guests attired in the fashion of Charles the First's about the ends which seem to show that the mansion time, and playing at the now almost obsolete game of was not intended to be comprised within its present bowls. The terrace is formed by a recess extending limits.
along the south side of the mansion, with arcades This building is erected in the peculiar style that under the projecting wings, at each end, and is a marked the reign of James the First, in whose reign beautiful feature of the edifice, giving it a stately air it was built; and as there have been no attempts to of grandeur. “modernize it," it still remains nearly in the same These details will be sufficient to convey to the state as it was centuries back, and serves as a type of reader a general idea of Bramshill; but the characthe prevailing national taste of architecture at the teristic introduction, by Mr. Nash, of a party playing time of its erection, when much of our old Gothic at the once fashionable game of bowls, on the terrace manner was retained, with some Italian improvements of Bramshill, will furnish us with an opportunity to then newly introduced. Although the whole edifice give a slight sketch of that game. as at present existing forms but the central portion The game of bowls consisted of hurling or rather of the building originally designed, yet the centre bowling a ball on a smooth flat surface, each player itself has wings, one on each side of the entrance. endeavouring to obtain a certain object, of which we The wings, or projecting extremities, are rather plain, shall presently speak. Strutt was able to trace back and are constructed of brick, excepting that the nu the existence, or rather practice, of this game to the merous windows have stone dressings. The central thirteenth century. In a MS. of that century, in portion is built wholly of stone, and is very profusely the Royal Library, is a drawing in which are repredecorated. The portal leads to a vestibule or corridor sented two small cones placed upright at a distance of three divisions, enriched with an open carved from one another, and the business of the player parapet. The very elaborate ornaments which de seems to be to bowl at them alternately; the successcorate the exterior of part of the building are a ful candidate being he who could lay his bowl nearest mixture of Grecian and Gothic; and the whole cen to the mark. In another MS. of the next following tre is carried up in rich compartments with pilasters century is a representation of three persons playing from story to story, and surmounted by a pediment. at bowls: they appear to have a small bowl, or jack, From the pediment is continued a balustrade, perfo- which serves as a mark for the direction of the bowls. rated in quatrefoils. The interior of this noble man A flat and smooth plot of grass is the favourite site sion presents a suite of splendid apartments, fully for this amusement; or else a flat piece of ground equal to the wants of a noble or wealthy family. without grass, where the latter could not easily be
Bramshill was built for the highly accomplished procured. Until the latter end of last century bowland amiable Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, the ing-greens were to be found in most country towns of eldest son of King James the First; and his coronet | any note, and there were many in the vicinity of the still surmounts the pediment in the middle of the metropolis. But as bowling greens were, to a certain building. But it appears never to have been inhabited extent, public places, and as this game was at one by the prince. The earliest occupant of whom we have time a favorite sport among the higher classes, it was a distinct account was Edward, eleventh Lord Zouch, naturally to be expected that more private spots would of whom the following incident is related. Arch- be selected by those who were able to pay for them. bishop Abbott, who used to go into Hampshire, in This led to the construction of bowling-alleys, which, the summer, for the sake of recreation, was invited by being covered over, might be used when the weather Lord Zouch to hunt in his park at Bramshill, when would not permit the pursuit of the pastime in the he accidentally killed that nobleman's game-keeper, open air. Ladies were frequent spectators of the by an arrow from a cross-bow, which he shot at one sports carried on in these bowling-alleys. In an old of the deer. This accident threw the archbishop ballad or poem called “ The Squire of low degree," one into a deep melancholy, and he ever afterwards kept of the characters, a king of Hungary, promises his a monthly fast, on Tuesday, the day on which this daughter that, for her amusement, fatal accident happened: he also settled an annuity
An hundredth knightes, truly tolde, of twenty pounds per annum on the widow of the
Shall play with bowles in alayes colde. unfortunate man.
As these bowling-alleys occupied but little room, In 1625 the Lord Zouch just alluded to died; they became, in time, attached to many places of and it was probably of this nobleman that Fuller public resort in and near the metropolis; and general spoke, in his English Worthies, when he says : complaints were made, in the sixteenth and seven“Next Basing, Bramsell, built by the last Lord teenth centuries, of the demoralizing effects too Zouch, in a bleak and barren place, was a stately frequently produced thereby: the bowling-alleys bestructure, especially before part thereof was defaced came the resort of idle and dissolute characters, and with a casual fire,” How much damage this fire oc were the means of promoting a pernicious spirit of casioned, we have no means of knowing. In 1673, gambling among the younger and most unwary part Bramshill was the residence of Sir Andrew Henley, of the community. Bart. After this, but we do not know exactly at In playing the game of bowis, the players divide what period, Bramsbill came into the possession of themselves into opposite parties. Each player has the family of Cope, one of the members of which two bowls, numbered or marked so that he may built Holland House Kensington, now the seat of know them from those of his opponent. The first
player throws a small bowl or jack, to a distance of but other employments and other games,--the former twenty or thirty yards : this is to serve as a mark. more intellectual, and the latter more athletic:-have He then rolls one of his balls as near to the mark as almost superseded it at the present day. as he can: a second player follows, and endeavours to approach the jack nearer than his predecessor.
THE FORCE OF EXAMPLE. All the other players follow in their turn; or if there are only two, they bowl alternately, until all the bowls Every man will admit that example is better than are bowled out. As the game advances, there are precept, most men also are well convinced of the four objects held in view, to one or other of which great efficacy of example over the manners and the player directs his attention, according to the cir
morals of society, throughout its whole system of cumstances of the case: 1st, to place his ball as
connections and dependencies. near the jack as he can: 2nd, to drive away the
But there are few perhaps who see the full extent ball of the adverse player, when it lies between the of the obligation such an admission, or such a jack and one of his own: 3rd, to shield, with his conviction, carries home. It may perhaps be said to ball, one of the other balls of his own party, in order
be the most important of those truths, which a man to prevent it from being driven away by that of an
should take everywhere about with him, in the adverse player: 4th, to strike the jack itself, so as to
manner of those useful editions of works, which are bring it nearer to a ball previously thrown by one of called “pocket editions." In every moment of doubt his party.
When all the bowls are thrown, that one as to the propriety of this or that action, in the daily which is nearest to the jack counts one point, or if
occurrences of his life, let this conviction be ever the same party has two bowls nearer than any one present, warning him of the possible influences which thrown by the opposite party, he reckons two points.
it may exercise over the society with which he is A certain number of points, generally five, constitute
connected, and whether such influences will be to When the game is played in a bowling-their advantage, or otherwise, since he becomes in alley instead of a bowling-green, there is a block or
this sense the author of good or evil to a great mark placed at each extremity of the alley, at which portion or perhaps the whole of the circle, of which the bowls are directed.
he forms a part. The more elevated his station---the Such is the nature of the game of bowls. An old
more prominent his position, the greater the extent, writer has described it as “a pastime in which a man and more powerful becomes the influence, of his shall find great art in choosing out his ground, and example. Inferiors ever ape the manners, and too preventing the winding, hanging, and many turning
often the morals, of those above them. The lady's advantages of the same, whether it be in open, wilde maid ever imitates the worst part of her mistress's places, or in close allies; and for this sport, the
character-its foibles and its more serious faults. chusing of the bowle is the greatest cunning; your
My lord's gentleman is too often the fac-simile of flat bowies being the best for allies, your round
my lord, in the least amiable part of his character. byazed bowles for open grounds of advantage, and
It is a fatal tendency in human nature, to be sooner your round bowles, like a ball, for green swarthes affected by the allurements of vice than the attractions that are plain and level.”
of virtue, and hence we can easily perceive how neces. There are technical terms used in the game, to
sary it must be to strengthen the latter, by all the indicate the kind and merit of the throw, &c. But weight and authority that high station and prominent these we need not explain; and we only mention the
positions in life, can give to the force of example. circumstance here to account for some of the words in
But every man in this world has a certain sphere an old poem or address to the game of bowls, called A of action, from which he must necessarily borrow Parallel betwixt Bowling and Preferment, contained
much of example, but which also he has the power in one of the Harleian MSS. In these three stanzas,
of stimulating to improvement by his own, especially the word in italics are, or were, used in the game of
in those many instances where a man's conduct is bowls.
always left to the direction of his own good sense Preferment, like a game at boules,
and judgment; let him pause therefore and look To feede our hope, hath divers play:
round the world, and observe the paramount authority Heere quick it runns, there soft it roules;
of precedent, in all its doubts and difficulties. Let The betters make and show the waye
him consider then that every action which he performs On upper ground, so great allies
will in all probability, directly or indirectly, become Doe many cast on their desire;
a precedent for others, who either know and associate Some up are thrust and forced to rise,
with him, or look up to him, perhaps as a guide or a When those are stopt that would aspire.
Therefore when we attentively consider this subject,
will it be asserting too much to say, that every Are cherished by some favour's blaste:
individual in the great world around us, however Some rest in others cutting out
humble his station and circumstances, may, if he The saine by whom themselves are made;
chooses, become important and accessory to the Some fetch a compass far about,
promotion of general improvement, and therefore to And secretly the marke invade.
the best interests of his fellow men, and that nothing Some get by knocks, and so advance,
is more necessary to one who would conduce to this Their fortune by a boysterous aime;
end, than to consider the possible influence of his own And some, who have the sweetest chance,
example, in apparently the most trivial actions of a Their en'mies hit, and win the game.
life in which nothing is lost, and in which some of The fairest casts are those that owe No thanks to fortune's giddy sway ;
the greatest of errors and the most brilliant displays Such honest men good bowlers are
of virtue, may without doubt be attributed to the Whose own true biass cuts the way.
force of example. But bowls may now be almost reckoned as a game if we would converse pleasingly, we must endeavour to set of other days. It was a game for princes and nobles others at ease, and it is not by flattery that we can succeed two centuries ago: when given up by them, it was
in doing so, but by a courteous and kind address. —Mrs. still patronized by the middle and humble classes; SANDFORD.
GEMS AND PRECIOUS STONES.
to the diamond and to the natural magnet, on the I.
supposition that they were in fact the same substance, Pliny describes and blends the properties of the
diamond with the loadstone, except where they were Th’unfruitful rock itself, impregn’d by thee,
too manifestly opposed to each other to admit of such In dark retirement forms the lucid stone: The lively diamond drinks thy purest rays,
a combination. He nevertheless attempts to disCollected light, compact.
tinguish false from real gems, by a reference to their At thee the ruby lights its deepening glow, And with a waving radiance inward flames.
mechanical properties, and speaks of the electric From thee the sapphire, solid ether, takes
property possessed by some stones of attracting light Its hue cerulean; and of evening tinct,
bodies when rubbed; for instance, he mentions that The purple streaming amethyst is thiné. With thy own smile the yellow topaz burns.
he found carbuncles, some of a purple colour, others Nor deeper verdure dyes the robe of spring
red, which heated by the sun attracted straw and
Many superstitious accounts are handed down
to us from the ancients, of the extraordinary power A trembling variance of revolving hues As the site varies in the gazer's hand.-THOMSON.
of gems in effecting the cure of diseases, preventing
the occurrence of accidents, &c.: nor is it to be The rare and beautiful productions of the mineral wondered at that such virtues were attributed to kingdom thus described by the poet are well deserving these precious substances, at a period when every our attentive consideration. The vegetable world thing that was rare, or highly esteemed, obtained the displays a multitude of beauteous forms richly arrayed credit of working beneficial results, if worn as an in every variety of colour, and widely diffused through amulet, or taken as a medicine. out all lands. These invite our attention at every
All the treatises containing accounts of gems, from step, charming us with their loveliness and infinite that of St. Epiphanius, to that of the eminent Boyle, diversity of appearance. They spring up on the are devoted either to an explanation of the nature of surface of the earth, flourish for awhile, and then the twelve jewels in the breast-plate of the Jewish wither away. The sense of pleasure they afford is, High Priest, or to the praise of the medical virtues of like their own existence, an evanescent one, and the electuaries, confections, &c., made of gems. Boyle ease with which they may be obtained tends to make has a learned treatise on the origin and virtues of us less observant of their wondrous and delicate gems; and he was about the last writer on this structure.
subject, for the advancing state of science soon Gems may be called the flowers of the mineral proved the fallacy of such views. Even supposing world, for they exhibit greater brilliancy of colouring some of the precious stones to have possessed medithan any other production of the kingdom to which cinal virtues, the ignorance of the ancients would they belong and yet the sparkling beauties of many have rendered them, in their case ineffectual. Lapis of them may rather remind us of the dew-drop on
lazuli was said to be endowed with wonderful prothe flower than of the flower itself.
Unlike our vege
perties, and yet we read of the sudden death of many table treasures they do not readily present them to whom a dose of it was administered. From the selves to the eye and hand to be plucked without mention of the places in which the so-called lapis trouble or difficulty. They are not to be discovered | lazuii was found, there is no doubt but that blue without much persevering toil, nor to be extracted carbonate of copper, which is a deadly poison, was from their hiding place, deep in the solid rock, with. | mistaken for the true stone. out the exercise of patient skill and industry. An The term Gems has been applied to such mineral experienced eye is also wanting to distinguish them bodies as are remarkable above all others for their from the commonest pebbles; for their beauties are hardness, transparency, beauty of polish, or of colour, hidden by a dull rough covering which requires to durability, scarcity, and value; but it is extremely be ground away with much care, to the form most difficult to decide what precious stones or jewels favourable for displaying the brilliancy of the gem possess all the above properties, in a sufficient degree, and for receiving that exquisite polish which enables it to entitle them to the name of gems, or in other to reflect, refract, and otherwise modify the light in words it is very difficult to distinguish between a gem so extraordinary a manner. Precious stones are the , and a precious stone. All mineral bodies however hardest bodies in nature or art; consequently the which are transparent or semi-transparent, whose labour and perseverance required in working them specific gravity is greater than three, that of water are immense, and the unremitting labour of years is being one, and which are harder than quartz or rockfrequently employed to grind a rough diamond into crystal, and incapable of being scratched by them, its best form. The difficulty thus experienced, toge- may safely be called gems, together with a few others, ther with the great scarcity of gems, renders them whose rarity or beauty prevents them from being extremely valuable: indeed of all the known articles excluded, though they scarcely come up to the degree they contain the greatest value within the smallest of hardness just stated. bulk, so that a diamond or a ruby, not larger than a Gems cannot be made to form a distinct mineral nut, may be sold for a sum equal to a princely class, since in composition and properties they differ fortune.
so much from each other as to be widely separated in From the various names applied by the ancients to natural methods of classification, accordingly we do these bodies, it is often difficult to ascertain what not find them placed by themselves, in either of the particular stone is meant; for they had no better systems of mineralogical arrangements now in general mode of distinguishing them than by comparing their use, namely, those of Werner and Häuy. Daubenton several colours and markings, and noting their pecu- classified them according to their colour, but this, liar lustre or scarcity. Thus they often called the though the most palpable mode, is one of the worst same stone by many different names, on account of which could have been conceived, for so far is it the presence or absence of spots, veins, &c., or by the from being constant in one kind of stone, that almost number and position of such markings. Every every variety of colour is found in substances whose transparent blue stone they called a sapphire, and the properties are essentially the same; this is especially name of adamas or loadstone was given, by them, both the case with the sapphire and topaz.
The nomenclature of the ancients, with regard to ACCOUNT OF A REMARKABLE PERSIAN their precious stones, was, as we have before stated,
IDOL. exceedingly confused, and when a better distinction than that of mere colour was established, a new arrangement of names also became necessary. This was in part effected; but the retention of many of the old names, and the manner in which they are applied by various authors, still occasion much confusion on the subject.
Adhering strictly to the definition of gems given above, we may reckon the following as stones which distinctly merit the appellation. 1. The DIAMOND; 2. The SAPPHIRE; the oriental Ruby, oriental AMETHYST, oriental Topaz, and oriental EMERALD; for all these are really the same mineral differently coloured. 3. The CHRYSOBERYL, which has also many other names. 4. The SPINELLE, or BALLAS RUBY. 5. The ZIRCON JARGON, or HYACINTH, though this latter name is applied to several other gems. 6. The proper or occidental Topaz, which is of many colours, and has received many names. 7. The EMERALD and BERYL. 8. The GARNET. 9. QUARTZ, the different coloured varieties of which are distinguished as Amethyst, Prase or Chrysoprase, Onyx, Sardonyr, Calcedony, Cornelian, &c.
We purpose to give, in a short course of articles, a description of each of these gems, together with a notice of such bodies, as have (though inferior in hardness to quartz,) been ranked among gems by universal consent. We will then briefly consider the ingenious modes which have been adopted in the fabrication of what are called ARTIFICIAL GEMS. We will then enter into some details respecting the PERSIA may be deemed in many respects rather a curious art of the LAPIDARY; after which we will country of the dead than of the living; for everyconclude our subject with a notice of the GLYPTIC art, where are scattered the remnants of other days, or the art of SEAL-ENGRAVING.
showing the existence of a more flourishing state of the nation than that which now exists. But if we may
judge from the bas-reliefs and other monuments of SPANISH SHEEP DOGS
antiquity which still survive the lapse of ages, a state The shepherds of Mont Perdu, in Arragon, are particularly of religious belief formerly existed of as degrading a careful of their flocks, whose docility is remarkable. Not character as that which now holds a superstitious less so is the good understanding subsisting between the people in ignorance. It seems probable that the bassheep and the dogs. The celerity with which the shepherds relief represented above is connected in some way of the Pyrenees draw their scattered flocks around them is
with the ancient religion of the country, though to not more astonishing than the process by which they effect it is simple and beautiful. If they are at no great distance from what degree is uncertain. We will, however, shortly him he whistles upon them, and they leave off feeding and describe the spot from whence it is copied, and obey the call; if they are afar off and scattered, he utters a state the views respecting it of one of our most shrill cry, and instantly the flock are seen leaping down the intelligent modern travellers. rocks and scampering towards him. Having waited until At about two hundred miles south-east of the they have mustered round him, the shepherd then sets off city of Ispahan, the capital of Persia, is a plain called on his return to his cabin or resting place, his flock following him behind like so many well trained hounds. Their fine Mourgaub, the supposed site of the ancient city of looking dogs, a couple of which are generally attached to Pasargadæ; and over this plain are scattered numereach flock, have nobler duties to perform than that of chas ous remains of ancient buildings, such as altars, ing the fiock together and biting the legs of stragglers : temples, tombs, &c. At one part of this plain Sir they protect it from the attacks of the wolves and bears, Robert Ker Porter found a spacious marble platform, against whose approach they are continually on the watch, about a hundred feet square, at the corners of which and to whom they at once offer battle. So well aware are the sheep of the fatherly care of these dogs, and that they them
are four pillars. Each of these pillars seems to have selves have nothing to fear from them, that they crowd
been composed of three stones, surmounted by a around them, as if they really sought their protection : and
kind of cornice; and to have been originally about dogs and sheep may be seen resting together, or trotting fifteen feet in height. The north-eastern side of these after the shepherd in the most perfect harmony.-MURRAY, pillars is hollowed out into a concave form, and on Summer in the Pyrenees.
the opposite side of each pillar is an inscription near
In the middle of the area or platform THERE are few things so exhilarating to the spirits, espe
marked out by these four pillars, is a much larger one, cially in the season
of ardent and buoyant youth, as the evidently the most important part of the whole. It first visit to a foreign land. Amongst things purely plea- is a perfectly round column, as smooth as if it were surable, it is perhaps one of the most unalloyed gratifica- polished: the length of the shaft is not much less tions which occur in the course of our life. But, like all than fifty feet, but the lower part of it is totally other pleasures, it may be made, accordingly as we use it, buried in the surrounding rubbish: it is composed of a source of present vanity and future regret, or, on the other hand, of lasting and solid improvement. Our object four pieces of marble, the lowest of which occupies
Sir Robert Ker should be, not to gratify curiosity, and seek mere temporary nearly one half of the entire height. amusement, but to learn and to venerate,--to improve the Porter could not find any vestiges of a wall connectheart and understanding.–GRESLEY.
ing the four corners of the platform; and he con
cluded that, whatever might have been the nature of suffered much in various parts, but that which con. the building, it was open to the sky, and unprotected tains the figure is in tolerably good preservation. from the surrounding country.
Sir Robert Ker Porter conjectures that, from the 1: At some little distance from this is the block of peculiar appearance of this figure,—its vast quadmarble containing the bas-relief represented in our ruple wings,- its long and richly decorated robe,cut; and we have given the description contained in the horns on the head, which have long been held as the preceeding paragraph, in order to explain the a type of regal strength in the East, and the numerous probable nature of this isolated stone. It appears to symbols resting on the horns,—it probably represents have been in the centre of a rectangular platform, as a superior spirit, perhaps the tutelary genius of the is likewise the round column just described; but this country in general. He farther observes, that, with second platform appears to have been of larger the exception of the mitre, or symbolical head coverdimensions. The ruins which mark its boundary ing, “there is nothing I have ever seen or read of show it to have been a hundred and fifty feet long, which bears so strong a resemblance to the whole of by eighty-one broad. There are two rows of pedes- the figure on the pillar, as the ministering or guardtals, each composed of four stones, of a dark kind of ian angels, described under the name of seraphim or rock found in Persia: they measure from three to cherubim, by the different writers in the Bible; and, four feet in every direction, and our traveller supposes if we are to ascribe these erections to Cyrus, how that the largest were to support an elevated foor, readily may he have found the model of his genii, while the smallest were intended to sustain columns. either in the spoil of the temple of Jerusalem, which One only of the bases is formed of white marble, and he saw among the treasures at Babylon, or from the is about six feet square: it was probably intended to Jewish descriptions, in the very word of prophecy support the image of the deity of the temple, sup- which mentions him by name; and which, doubtless, posing this to have been the true character of the spot. would be in the possession of Daniel, and open to
At a few feet distant from one side of this plat- the eye of the monarch to whom it so immediately form is an isolated stone, consisting of a block of referred.” The passages in the Bible from whence a marble about fifteen feet high, and on one surface of comparison may be drawn between what are called this block is the bas-relief to which we allude. Sir cherubims and seraphims, and the figure described Robert Ker Porter examined this with great minute by Sir Robert Ker Porter, are chiefly the following: ness, and describes it fully. The bas-relief consists Exodus xxv. 18, 20. “And thou shalt make two cheof the figure of a man, clothed in a long garment rubims of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, which fits rather closely to the body, and reaches in the two ends of the mercy-seat. And the cherufrom the neck to the ankles. His right arm is put bims shall stretch forth their wings on high, covering forward, half raised from the elbow; and, as far as the mercy-seat with their wings, and their faces shall can be judged from the mutilated state of its extre- look one to another; toward the mercy-seat shall mity, the hand is open and elevated. The head is the faces of the cherubims be.” covered with a cap, close to the skull, reaching be 1 Kings vi. 23-27. “And within the oracle, he made hind almost to the neck, and showing a small por- two cherubims of olive tree, each ten cubits high. tion of hair beneath it. There is a circle just over And five cubits was the one wing of the cherub, and the ear; and three lines marked down the back of five cubits the other wing of the cherub: from the the head seem to indicate braidings. His beard is uttermost part of the one wing unto the uttermost short, bushy, and curled with great regularity; but part of the other, were ten cubits. And the other the face is so much broken that the contour only of cherub was ten cubits, and so was it of the other it can be distinctly traced. From the bend of the cherub. And he set the cherubims within the inner arm to the bottom of the garment, runs a border of house; and they stretched forth the wings of the roses, carved in a very beautiful style; from which cherubims, so that the wing of the one touched the flows a waving fringe extending round the skirt of one wall, and the wing of the other cherub touched the dress: the whole being executed with great pre- the other wall." cision. From the shoulders issue four large wings;
Chronicles iii. 13. “The wings of these two spreading on each side, reach high above the cherubims spread themselves forth twenty cubits; head; the others open downwards, and nearly touch and they stood on their feet, and their faces were the feet, The chiselling of the feathers is exquisite, inward." and constitutes, in some respects, the most remarkable Isaiah. vi. 1, 2. “In the year that King Uzziah died, feature of the production. From the crown of the I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and head project two large horns, supporting a row of lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it three balls or circles, within which are seen smaller stood the seraphims: each one had six wings : with ones. Three vessels, shaped somewhat like decanters, twain he covered his face, and with twain he covered rest upon these balls, and are surmounted by three his feet, and with twain he did fly." other balls. On each side of these, stand two small If the supposition of Sir Robert Ker Porter be creatures resembling mummies of the Ibis, but bent at correct, it forms a curious instance of the manner in the lower extremity. The figure from head to foot which the outward symbols of one form of religion is about seven feet in height: he stands on a sort came to be adopted by a people, the spirit of whose of pedestal about two feet from the ground; and religion was so very different; for the religion of above his head, on the block of marble is an in- Persia was, as may be supposed, a species of paganscription in arrow-headed characters *. This inscrip- ism. Cherubim, among the Jews, were only symbols ; tion is too minute to be introduced into our cut. but the sculptured figures of the ancient Persians
The pillar on which this figure has been sculptured were in all probability idols; and the reader will bear has a deep concavity running from top to bottom on in mind the vast difference between the two terms. the side opposite to that which is sculptured, the object of which does not easily appear. The pillar has
It was a clumsy and cruel contrivance of the Romans to The term cuneiform, or arrowheaded, is applied to the character
use hedge-hogs for clothes-brushes, and prepare thein for it, in which inscriptions are written on many antique remains in Persie. by starving them to death; our method of sweeping chimIt is supposed to have been a written language used in Persia be neys is not more ingenious, and little less inhuman. tween the times of Cyrus and of Alexander.