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12. to 31. The real farthing is held to be worth from We trust that all far-famed curiosities, which have 7s. to a guinea, according to its fineness and a factitious, undeserved value imputed to them, will clearness. It passed for some time, and is supposed be brought down to their proper level, and so cease to have been originally hoarded for its beauty and to impose upon ignorant and unthinking people; and peculiarity; it being the only copper coin of Anne's that such people, by the cheap and universal diffureign, excepting the halfpence, which are all patterns, sion of knowledge, will be less apt to be deluded by and were never circulated. The date of the real their own fancies, or by mere popular errors. farthing is 1714;-that of the patterns belongs to the year before or after ; excepting the ANNA REGINA, which is of the same year with the real farthing.
ON POISONS AND SECRET POISONING. The other two varieties, if such they may be called,
No. II. are similar, the one to the real farthing, and the other to one of the patterns. The pattern farthings of The most remarkable example of secret poisoning, in Queen Anne are also met with in fine gold and silver. recent times, was the Marchioness of Brinvilliers, who The above-mentioned copper or bronze coins were
lived at Paris in 1670. An officer named St. Croix, of executed by an eminent artist, of the name of Croker, good family but ruined reputation, having formed an and very few of modern date can compete with them intrigue with her, her friends procured his confinement in beauty.
in the Bastille, where he acquired from some Italians It is necessary for us to take notice of a small the art of compounding poison. On his liberation he medal, or token, of brass, of Queen Anne's time, of hastened to the marchioness, and imparted to her his which there are hundreds. It is about the size of a acquisition, as a means of revenging themselves and farthing but thinner. On the obverse side is an of bettering their ruined fortunes.
She eagerly execrable bust of the Queen, with a long scraggy entered into his views, and carried on the horri, neck, unlike that of this sovereign, with the super brothers, and sister, quickly perished. She is said
trade with a diabolical activity. Her husband, father, scription Anna DEI GRATIA. the royal arms in the shape of a cross; sometimes it to have disguised herself as a nun, and distributed is plain, but frequently found with roses between poisoned biscuits to the poor, in order to try the the shields; but all of bad workmanship. Their date efficacy of her poisons. Her career was cut short is generally 1711.. These are for the most part the by an accident. A glass mask, which St. Croix wore pieces which have caused such fruitless trouble and while preparing his poisons, fell off, and he was found vexation to the finders, and such tedium to the suffocated in his laboratory. A casket was also medallists, particularly the officers of the medal-room found there which was directed to Madame Brinof the British Museum, who have been expected to villiers, but opened by the police. It contained purchase them. These counters are undeserving of poisons sufficient to destroy a community, labelled notice, excepting to proclaim them as being of no differently according to their effects, as ascertained value at all.
by experiments on animals. St. Croix's servant was Before we quit these details, we will relate a few seized, tortured, and confessed the crimes of his anecdotes in point, on the subject of the farthings employers, in which he had aided. The marchioness themselves, and the vile tokens of brass.
escaped, but at last was captured, and having underA publican, having once procured one of the brass gone the torture with inflexible courage, was beheaded. tokens, placed it in his window as the real farthing of On her person was found a full confession and detai! Queen Anne. Credulous persons, far and near, came
of her horrible crimes. This punishment did not put to view this great “ curiosity;" and the publican still a stop to the crime of poisoning in France, which persisted in making the thing conduce to the advan was very common between the years 1670 and 1680. tage of his house, though a distinguished medallist
This led to the establishment of a tribunal at Paris, exhibited to him a reaf, but common, farthing of called the “chambre ardente" or “chambre de Queen Anne.
poison," which, soon becoming perverted into a state About the year 1814 a person in Ireland was engine, was abolished in 1680. Among the last punished with twelve months' imprisonment for persons punished by it were two women named La secreting one of these farthings. He was shopman Voisin, and La Vigoureux, and a priest named Le to a confectioner in Dublin, and having taken the Sage. These persons, having pretended to the gift farthing in business, he substituted a common one for of fortune-telling, met with great success, but not it; but, not keeping his own counsel, and offering it for content with this, they endeavoured to increase their sale, his master demanded the treasure as his pro
means by the secret sale of a poison, quaintly termed
Numbers of persons of perty; the shopman refused to give it up, was brought "poudre de succession." into the Recorder's court, and there received the high rank were in the habit of consulting them upon sentence mentioned above.
their fates, without ever suspecting their dealing in Some few years ago, a poor labourer and his wife poison. But they, having kept a list of their dupes, came toiling on foot from Yorkshire to London with on their arrest by the police denounced these persons one of the brass counters, in the hope of making their as having employed them as poisoners. Numbers of fortune by it, and at last found it entirely worthless. the highest rank were imprisoned until they could Another came all the way from Bedfordshire, with a prove
their innocence: the duchess of Soissons, real, but common, farthing of Anne for the same mother of Prince Eugene, was obliged to quit France, purpose. In the Numismatic Journal of 1836, we
and the Marshal Luxembourg was thrown into the are told that, in the summer of that year, a poor Bastille, where he remained many months. Many fellow travelled with one from Exeter to London, at persons of the commoner sort were executed, as were considerable expense, thinking to make his fortune the pretended fortune-tellers, after suffering cruel by the disposal of it:-he was offered a shilling for it. torments. There are, likewise, pattern half-pence of Queen
The nature of the poisons employed by these Anne, of seven different varieties, but none struck for secret poisoners is involved in great mystery. It is common currency. They are all very scarce; but the however probable that the ancients chiefly derived most frequent specimens are those, in which we find theirs from the animal or vegetable kingdoms, as the Britannia with a rose and thistle,
mineral poisons are, for the most part, of compa
ratively late discovery. Ancient authors speak | Henry the Sixth and the queen of Navarre were frequently of herlock, aconite, and poppy, but owing poisoned with gloves. A proposal was made to destroy to the deficient and confused botanical descriptions Elizabeth by anointing her saddle, aud Lord Essex of those times, it is doubtful whether they indicated by anointing his chair. Miss Aikin, ini her Memoirs of the same plants as ourselves by those names. Many Queen Elizabeth, says "The queen in mounting would old authors also bear testimony to the preparation transfer the ointment to her hand: with her hand she of an 'act poison from the sea-hare, while they all was likely to touch her mouth and nostrils, and, from agree in the poisonous nature of the venom of the the virulence of the poison, certain death would follow. toad, which was supposed to form one of the most The same author quotes a minute of council in the active ingredients of the poison used by Locusta. handwriting of Cecil
, " That no manner of perfume, The opinion of the poisonous nature of the toad has either in apparel, sleeves, gloves, or such like, or other. descended to comparatively recent times, and Sir wise that shall be appointed for her majesty's savour, Thomas Browne treats of it as one of the vulgar be presented by any stranger or other person, but that
Borelli Vallisnerri and others maintain the the same be corrected by some other fume," harmlessness of this animal, and say it is eaten with impunity, and modern naturalists recognise no poisonous species. The circumstance of this reptile pos TRIUMPHS OVER BODILY SUFFERING, sessing the power of occasionally ejecting an acrid
INCLUDING AN ACCOUNT OF THE MANDANS OF NORTE seeretion from its skin, which creates local irritation to the parts to which it is applied, may have aided in establishing the opinion of its poisonous nature. We have all admired the practical philosophy of the
There is great reason to believe that the ancients man, who, when sick of a painful disease, thanked formed their poisons by a combination of narcotic God that he was not subject to a still more painful plants: the composition of the “acqna della Toffana," one; and when under the pressure of the latter, and of the “eau de Brinvilliers," has been much dis- found cause for cheerfulness that he was not visited cussed. The former is usually supposed to have with both diseases at the same time. Akin to this been å preparation of arsenic, and the latter to have was the noble fortitude of the mariner, who, when a consisted principally of corrosive sublimate, The limb was carried away by a cannon-ball, congratulated celebrated “ poudre de succession" was supposed to himself that it was not his head. I do not say that consist of finely powdered diamond, glass, or enamel, any one can find cheerfulness in contemplating such but there has always been much difference of opinion Spartan spirits, but that there is a religious fortitude as to whether these substances are poisonous or not. which disarms the common ills of life of much of While many experiments are related to show their their power, and even enables the sufferer to find harmlessness, several modern authors have detailed enjoyment in the midst of them. fatal results which followed their exhibition. Cellini, The red mehi of the North American forests endure, in his Autobiography, says that his life was attempted with the most invincible apathy, all the forms of by diamond-powder, and the same substance has been torture which the ingenuity of their enemies can supposed to have been used for poisoning Henrietta, devise; nor can this apparent insensibility to pain and duchess of Orleans, in the reign of Louis the fear be referred to more callous frames, and nerves of Fourteenth, and of Sir Thomas Overbury. If it act
If it act obtuser feeling, but to the astonishing result of their as a poison at all, it must do so from the irritation its institutions, and the influence of their public opinion, hard particles produce ; and upon the same principle Place a sufficient motive, indeed, before a human the chopped hair, said to be used in Turkey, can only being, and the proper witnesses around him, and he act. Dr. Oppenheim thinks that corrosive sublimate may be disciplined to endure anything without showis the chief poison so frequently employed by the ing a subdued spirit. The most timid women have Turks, but Mr. Madden considers it to be, from its gone through the most awful operations of surgery tastelessness, arseuic. Professor Beckman says the without a groan, while the attendants have been poison used in the East, called “powst," is prepared carried out in a state of insensibility, unable even from the juice of the poppy.
to witness what another could triumph over in silent Dr. Beck states that secret poisoning has penetrated fortitude. even into the forests of America, for a celebrated Innumerable instances prove to us that nature has chief of the Omawhaws, named Blackbird, gained kindly endowed us with reason and mental vigour to an immense reputation by thus dispatching all who such an extent, that under the influence of right were opposed to him, by means of arsenic, which motive and training, no possible form of suffering can the villany of the traders supplied him with. The be presented, over which this power may not manifest, skill with which the natives of Africa and the Ame- and has not gained, a complete triamph. Of these rican Indians prepare the upas and other deadly examples, let us regard the blessed martyrs of our poisons is well known, and Beckman says, by the religion. These prove that this andaunted self. confessions of several culprits, the effects which possession, in every conceivable shape and degree of were supposed by the Africans to result from the agony, was not the result of a rare and peculiar temObeah magic are found to result from the influence perament, or want of sensibility, or the possession of of poison.
uncommon physical courage; that it was not because The credulity of former times is manifested in the there was no perception of danger, or susceptibility of belief of the manner in which poison might be ad- pain; this magnanimity, this impassibility to fear and ministered. Thus accounts of poisoned flowers, fruits, pain, and death, has been exhibited in nearly equal and gloves are frequent. Plutarch reports that Pary- people, of every age, each sex, and all conditions. satis, by anointing only one side of a knife with all the shades and varieties of natural and mental poison, and dividing a bird with it into two parts, difference of character were noted in the deportment poisoned statira with the one portion, and consumed of the sufferers; but they were alike in the stern the other herself with impunity. Livia poisoned the proof of a courage which defied death. The fact is fiys on a tree, whence her husband was accustomed proved by them, as strongly as a moral fact can be to pluck them. Tiput says that John of Castille was proved, that the mind of every individual might find poisoned by a pair of boots prepared by a Turk. in itself a native self-possession and vigour, to enable
it to display an entire ascendancy over fear, pain, and The first picture represents the interior of the death.
Medicine, or Mystery-Lodge of the Mandans, during Nor does this fact rest solely for support on the the first three successive days of the annual ceremony. history of martyrs. We could find examples of it The young men are seen lying around the sides of the in every department of history, and every view of lodge, their bodies covered with clay of different human character. The timid and effeminate white colours, and their respective shields and war-weapons man shivers, and scarcely credits hiş senses, as he sees hanging over their heads. The floor and sides of the the young Indian warrior of North America, smoking lodge are ornamented with green willow-boughs. In his pipe, singing his songs, boasting of his victories, the middle lies the old medicine-man, or mystery.man, and uttering his menaces, when enveloped in a slow who cries to the Great Spirit all the time, and watches of fire, apparently as unmoved, and as unconscious these young men, who fast and thirst four days and pain, as if sitting at his ease in his own cabin. nights preparatory to the torture.
Mr. Catlin, an American traveller and an artist, The second picture describes the Buffalo Dance, who has lately returned from a most successful expe- which took place at the same time, outside the lodge, dition into the far wilds of the west, confirms all pre- and to the strict observance of which the natives vious accounts of the undying fortitude of the Ame- attributed the supply of buffaloes for food during the rican Indians. Mr. Catlin having become fully con- following season.
The third picture represents the vinced that from various causes, which cannot here interior of the mystery-lodge, as it appeared to Mr, be touched upon, that these tribes are rapidly declining, Catlin on the afternoon of the fourth day. A number and that very many will in a few years become entirely of young men are seen reclining and fasting, as in the extinct, set out, to use his own words, "alone, unaided, first picture; others of them have undergone the torand unadvised, resolved (if my life should be spared), ture, and taken out of the lodge, and others yet are seen by the aid of my brush and pen, to rescue from in the midst of the most horrid cruelties. A scalpinge oblivion so much of their primitive looks and customs knife, hacked so as to render its edge like that of a as the industry and ardent enthusiasm of one lifetime saw, is passed through the muscular parts of the could accomplish."
body, through the soft parts of the legs and arms, He devoted seven years in visiting forty-eight sepa- and underneath the muscles of the breast and back; rate tribes, residing within the United States, and the wooden splints, or large flat skewers made of a strong British and Mexican territories. Besides purchasing wood, are passed through these holes in the flesh, an immense number of costumes and domestic native and the young men are hung up to the roof of the manufactures, he painted 310 portraits of distinguished lodge by ropes attached to the splints in the upper men and women of the different tribes, and 200 other part of their bodies, while heavy weights, as buflalo. pictures, descriptive of Indian countries, their villages, skins, war-weapons, &c., are hung upon the splints games, and general customs, which are at present in the arms and legs, so as to add to the agony of the being exhibited in the Egyptian Hall, London. Four sufferer. While thus suspended in the air, by means of these pictures represent the voluntary torture which of their own flesh, each young man is swung round the young men of the tribe called the Mandans by another with a pole, till he faints, and then he is . endured, so long as that tribe was in existence; but to let down. One is seen who has been let down, and make the narrative the more distinct, let us devote a got strength enough to crawl to the front part of the few words to their history.
lodge, where he is offering to the Great Spirit the The Mandans, otherwise called the See-póhs-ka-nu- little finger of his left hand, by laying it on a buffalomáh-ká-kee, that is, People of the Pheasants, wben skin, while another chops it off with a hatchet. In visited by Mr. Catlin, were a small tribe of 2000 souls, the right of this picture are all the chiefs and dignitaliving in two villages on the great river Missouri, 1800 ries of the tribe, looking on. miles above its junction with the Mississippi. The As a great favour, Mr. Catlin was admitted within Datives lived in earth-covered lodges, and their this lodge to witness these excruciating scenes; he villages were defended by strong picquets or stakes, painted the whole from life, and says that not so much eighteen feet high, and a ditch. The chief wore a as a groan was heard to come from the tortured, but splendid costume, with a head-dress of raven’s quills, hat the silence was so painfully intense, that he could and •carried two pipes of peace in his hand; but hear the rasped scalping-knife tearing rather than the second chief, named the Four Bears, was the cutting through the flesh of the young men, and that favourite and popular man of the nation. He wore a while tears were rolling down his face, and he felt head-dress of war-eagles' quills and ermine, extending almost too sick to paint the dreadful ceremony, the quite to the ground, and surmounted by the horns of young men were anxious to attract his attention, that he the buffalo and skin of the magpie. Mr. Catlin might represent them with the calm smile upon their records a peculiarity belonging to this tribe alone, features, which reigned triumphant over all these territhat about one in twelve, of both sexes and of all ages, ble trials. So far, however, were the Mandans from had the hair of a bright silvery gray, and exceedingly being essentially a cruel and a savage race, that they coarse and harsh, somewhat like a horse's mane. In received Mr. Catlin with every kindness and hospi1837, three years after Mr, Catlin's visit, the small- tality, and that enthusiastic traveller is eloquent in pux was introduced by some traders amongst the behalf of the better qualities of this annihilated tribe Mandans, and only thirty-one survived, and these of our fellow-creatures. were soon destroyed by their enemies, so that the The fourth picture represents what was called the whole race is now utterly extinct.
Last Race. After they had all been tortured in the In reference to the four pictures above mentioned, above manner in the mystery-lodge, the young men Mr. Catlin observes that the subsiding of the Flood were led out with the weights, buffalo-skins, &c., still was commemorated at an annual ceremony by the hanging to their flesh. A circle was formed, and each Mandans, and that at the same time all the young of the sufferers, taken by two athletic and fresh young men that had arrived at manhood during the pre men, one on each side, was forced to run round and ceding year went through an ordeal of voluntary round, till he tainted away. He was then dragged bodily torture, after which they were entitled to the with his face in the dirt yntil all the weights were disrespect of the chiefs and to the privilege of going on engaged from him, by tearing the flesh out, when war-parties.
they dropped him, and be lay to all appearance a
corpse, until the Great Spirit, as they said, gave him strength to rise and walk home to his lodge.
All that has been found necessary, says Mr. Flint, when speaking of other tribes, to procure this heroism, is that the children from boyhood should be constantly under a discipline, every part and step of which tends directly to shame and contempt at the least manifestation of cowardice, in view of any danger, or of a shrinking consciousness of pain in the endurance of any suffering. The males so trained never fail to show the fruit of their discipline. Sentenced to death, they almost invariably scorn to fly from their sentence when escape is in their power. If in debt, they desire a reprieve, that they may hunt, until their debts are paid: they then voluntarily return and surrender themselves to the executioner. Nothing is more common than for a friend to propose to suffer for his friend, a parent for a child, or a child for a parent.
A proof that this is the fruit of training, and not of native insensibility, is that this contempt of pain and death is considered a desirable trait only in the males. To fly, like a woman,-like her to laugh, and weep, and groan, are expressions of contempt which they apply to their enemies with ineffable scorn. The females, almost excluded from witnessing the processes of painful discipline by which the males acquire their mental hardihood, partake not of the fruits of it, and with some few exceptions, are shrinking and timid, like the children of civilisation.
The triumph obtained over 'bodily suffering is the most serene and sublime ascendancy of mind over matter, of the spirit over the body, it is the niost imposing spectacle we can witness, the clearest proof we can contemplate, that we have that within us which is not all clay, not all mortal. The instinctive practices of savage life, as well as the refined cruelties of a heathen civilisation, teach us that man can obtain this triumph over pain for his own sake; but Christianity enables him to triumph thus for the sake of others: and by accustoming the mind to the possibility of being ourselves subjected, from whatever cause, to suffering; to keep the heart in readiness to act its part for the sake of others, as well as for its own, by study. ing the supreme fortitude evinced by fellow.creatures of every age and nation, may save us from the enfeebling luxuries, the enervating habits, the effeminate and soul-undoing refinements that surround on all sides and would lull asleep the better energies of those young persons, at the present day, who are placed above the "stimulus of necessity.”
His gallant army's rich success,
The stranger came with homage meet,
The startled Bird took instant flight;
Darius turning to the crowd
On bended knee, with downcast eye,
Then said the king, with gladden'd brow, “Well, honest Gobryas, what say'st thou ?"
“O King, thy servant shall express
Then learn the end, and count thy cost!
That honest Gobryas construed well
And oh! that wicked men from hence
For then, when guilty souls would fly
THE SCYTHIAN PRESENTS.
When Persia, in her proud estate,
Then met the scatter'd tribes to form
High in the royal presence-room,
*** The incident on which the above fable is founded, is related, though
with some variations, by HERODOTUS, IV. 131 -2.