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the Persian camp by night, made a great slaughter of the men, and wounded Mardonius himself. All this ill success obliged him shortly after to return into Asia, with grief and confusion at his having miscarried both by sea and land in this expedition.

Darius perceiving too late, that Mardonius's youth and inexperience had occasioned the defeat of his troops, recalled him, and put two other generals in his place, Datis, a Mede, and Artaphernes, son of his brother Artaphernes, who had been governor of Sardis. The king's thoughts were earnestly bent upon putting in execution the great design he had long had in his mind; which was to attack Greece with all his forces, and particularly to take a signal vengeance on the people of Athens and Eretria, whose enterprise against Sardis was perpetually in his thoughts.

THE CHARACTERS OF MILTI.

1. THE STATE OF ATHENS.

ADES, THEMISTOCLES, AND ARISTIDES. Before we enter upon this war, it will be proper to re fresh our memories with a view of the state of Athens at this time, which alone sustained the first shock of the Per sians at Marathon ; as also to form some idea beforehand o the great men who shared in that celebrated victory.

Athens, just delivered from that yoke of servitude, which she had been forced to bear for above 30 years, under the tyranny of Pisistratus and his children, now peaceably enjoy ed the advantages of liberty, the sweetness and value which were only heightened and improved by that shor privation. Lacedæmon, which was at this time the mistres of Greece, and had contributed at first to this happy chang in Athens, seemed afterwards to repent of her good offices and growing jealous of the tranquillity she herself had pro cured for her neighbours, she attempted to disturb it, by er deavouring to reinstate Hippias, the son of Pisistratus, in th government of Athens. But all her attempts were fruitles and served only to manifest her ill-will, and her grief, to se Athens determined to maintain its independence even Sparta itself. Hippias hereupon had recourse to the Pei sians. Artaphernes, governor of Sardis, sent the Atheniai word, as we have already mentioned, that they must re-e: tablish Hippias in his authority, unless they chose rather 1 draw the whole power of Darius upon them. This secor attempt succeeded no better than the first, and Hippias w: bliged to wait for a more favourable juncture. We sha nresently, that he served as a conductor or guide to th in generals, sent by Darius against Greece. ns, from the time of the

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quite another city than under her tyrants, and displayed a very different kind of spirit. . Among the citizens, Miltiades distinguished himself most in the war with the Persians, which we are going to relate. He was the son of Cimon, an illustrious Athenian. This Cimon had a half-brother by the mother's side, whose name was likewise Miltiades, of a very ancient and noble family in Ægina, who had lately been received into the number of the Athenian citizens. He was a person of great credit even in the time of Pisistratus; but being unwilling to bear the yoke of a despotic govern.nent, he joyfully embraced the offer made him, of going to settle with a colony in the Thracian Chersonesus, whither he was invited by the Dolonci, the inhabitants of that country, to be their king, or, according to the language of those times, their tyrant. He dying without children, left the sovereignty to Stesagoras, who was his nephew, and eldest son of his brother Cimon; and Stesagoras, dying also without issue, the sons of Pisistratus, who then ruled the city of Athens, sent his brother Miltiades, the person we are now speaking of, into that country to be hịs successor. He arrived there,

and established himself in the government in the same year Darius undertook his expedition against the Scythians. He atended that prince with some ships as far as the Danube ; and was the person who advised the Ionians to destroy the bridge, and return home without waiting for Darius. During his residence in the Chersonesus, he married Hegesipyla, daughter of Olorus, a Thracian king in the neighbourhood, by whom he had Cimon, the famous Athenian general, of whom a great deal will be said in the sequel. Miltiades, havng for several reasons abdicated his government in Thrace, embarked and took all that he had on board five ships, and set sail for Athens. There he settled a second time, and acquired great reputation. At the same time two other citizens, younger than Miltiades, began to distinguish themselves at Athens, namely, Aristides and Themistocles. Plutarch observes, that the former of these two had endeavoured to form himself upon the model of Clisthenes, one of the greatest men of his time, ad a zealous defender of liberty, who had very much contributed to the restoring it at Athens, by expelling the Pisistratida out of that city. It was an excellent custom among the ancients, and which it were to be wished might prevail

& Herod. 1. vj. c. 34, 41.

Cor. Nep in Mil. c. 1-3. After the death of Miltiades, this princess had by a second husband a son, she was called Olorus, after the name of his grandfather. and who was the sather of Thucydides, the historian. Herod

Plot. in Arist. p. 319, 320, et in Them. p. 112, 113. An seni sit ger. Resp. 789, 791.

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the Persian camp by night, made a great slaughter of the men, and wounded Mardonius himself. All this ill success obliged him shortly after to return into Asia, with grief and confusion at his having miscarried both by sea and land in this expedition.

Darius perceiving too late, that Mardonius's youth and inexperience had occasioned the defeat of his troops, recalled him, and put two other generals in his place, Datis, a Mede, and Artaphernes, son of his brother Artaphernés, who had been governor of Sardis. The king's thoughts were earnestly bent upon putting in execution the great design he had long had in his mind; which was to attack Greece withi all his forces, and particularly to take a signal vengeance on the people of Athens and Eretria, whose enterprise against Sardis was perpetually in his thoughts.

1. THE STATE OF ATHENS. THE CHARACTERS OF MILTI

ADES, THEMISTOCLES, AND ARISTIDES. Before we enter upon this war, it will be proper to refresh our memories with a view of the state of Athens at this time, which alone sustained the first shock of the Persians at Marathon; as also to form some idea beforehand of the great men who shared in that celebrated victory.

Athens, just delivered from that yoke of servitude, which she had been forced to bear for above 30 years, under the tyranny of Pisistratus and his children, now peaceably enjoyed the advantages of liberty, the sweetness and value of which were only heightened and improved by that short privation. Lacedæmon, which was at this time the mistress of Greece, and had contributed at first to this happy change in Athens, seemed afterwards to repent of her good offices; and growing jealous of the tranquillity she herself had procured for her neighbours, she attempted to disturb it, by endeavouring to reinstate Hippias, the son of Pisistratus, in the government of Athens. But all her attempts were fruitless, and served only to manifest her ill-will, and her grief, to see Athens determined to maintain its independence even of Sparta itself. Hippias hereupon had recourse to the Persians. Artaphernes, governor of Sardis, sent the Athenians word, as we have already mentioned, that they must re-establish Hippias in his authority, unless they chose rather to draw the whole power of Darius upon them. This second attempt succeeded no better than the first, and Hippias was obliged to wait for a more favourable juncture. We shall see presently, that he served as a conductor or guide to the Persian generals, sent by Dar against Greece.

Athens, from the time of the recovery of her liberty, was

quite another city than under her tyrants, and displayed a very different kind of spirit. . Among the citizens, Miltiades distinguished himself most in the war with the Persians, which we are going to relate. He was the son of Cimon, 'an illustrious Athenian. This Cimon had a half-brother by the mother's side, whose name was likewise Miltiades, of a very ancient and noble family in Ægina, who had lately been received into the number of the Athenian citizens. He was a person of great credit even in the time of Pisistratus: but being unwilling to bear the yoke of a despotic government, he joyfully embraced the offer made him, of going to settle with a colony in the Thracian Chersonesus, whither he was invited by the Dolonci, the inhabitants of that country, to be their king, or, according to the language of those times, their tyrant. He dying without children, left the sovereignty to Stesagoras, who was his nephew, and eldest son of his brother Cimon; and Stesagoras, dying also without issue, the sons of Pisistratus, who then ruled the city of Athens, sent his brother Miltiades, the person we are now speaking of, into that country to be his successor. He arrived there, and established himself in the government in the same year Darius undertook his expedition against the Scythians. He attended that prince with some ships as far as the Danube ; and was the person who advised the Ionians to destroy the bridge, and return home without waiting for Darius. During his residence in the Chersonesus, he married • Hegesipyla, daughter of Olorus, a Thracian king in the neighbourhood, by whom he had Cimon, the famous Athenian general, of whom a great deal will be said in the sequel. Miltiades, having for several reasons abdicated his government in Thrace, embarked and took all that he had on board five ships, and set sail for Athens. There he settled a second time, and acquired great reputation.

c At the same time two other citizens, younger than Miltiades, began to distinguish themselves at Athens, namely, Aristides and Themistocles. Plutarch observes, that the former of these two had endeavoured to form himself upon the model of Clisthenes, one of the greatest men of his time, and a zealous defender of liberty, who had very much contributed to the restoring it at Athens, by expelling the Pisistratidæ out of that city. It was an excellent custom among the ancients, and which it were to be wished might prevail amongst us, that the young men, ambitious of public employ-. ments, particularly a attached themselves to such aged and experienced persons as had distinguished themselves most eminently therein ; and who, both by their conversation and example, could teach them the art of acting themselves, and governing others with wisdom and discretion. Thus, says Plutarch, did Aristides attach himself to Clisthenes, and Cimon to Aristides ; and he enumerates several others, and among the rest Polybius, whom we have mentioned so often, and who in his youth was the constant disciple and faithful imitator of the celebrated Philopemen.

a Herod. l. vi. c. 34, 41. Cor. Nep. in Mil. c. 1-3.

6 After the death of Miltiades, this princess had by a second husband a son, who was ealled Olorus, after the name of his grandfather, and who was the räther of Thucydides, the historian. Herod.

c Plat. in Arist. p. 319, 320, et in Them, p. 112, 113. An seni sit ger. Resp. p. 790, 791.

Themistocles and Aristides were of very different dispositions ; but they both rendered great services to the commonwealth. Themistocles, who naturally inclined to popular government, omitted nothing that could contribute to render him agreeable to the people, and to gain him friends ; behaving himself with great affability and complaisance to every body, always ready to do service to the citizens, every one of whom he knew by name ; nor was he very nice about the means he used to oblige them. Somebody talking with him once on this subject, told him, he would make an excellent magistrate, if his behaviour towards the citizens was more impartial, and if he was not biassed in favour of one more than another: “God forbid,” replied Themistocles, “ I “ should ever sit upon a tribunal where my friends should “ find no more credit or favour than strangers.” Cleon, who appeared some time after at Athens, observed a quite different conduct, but yet such as was not wholly exempt from blame. When he came into the administration of public affairs, he assembled all his friends, and declared to them, that from that moment he renounced their friendship, lest it should prove an obstacle to him in the discharge of his duty, and cause him to act with partiality and injustice. This was doing them very little honour, and judging harshly of their integrity. But, as Plutarch says, it was not his friends, but his passions, that he ought to have renounced.

Aristides had the discretion to observe a just medium between these two vicious extremes. Being a favourer of aristocracy, in imitation of Lycurgus, whose great admirer he was, he in a manner struck out a new path of his own ; not endeavouring to oblige his friends at the expense of justice, and yet always ready to do them service when consistent with it. He carefully avoided making use of his friends recommendations for obtaining employments, lest it should prove a dangerous obligation upon him, as well as a plausible pretext for them to require the same favour from him on a Discere a peritis, sequi optimos Tacit. in Agris.

Cic. de Senect. Pat. An seni sit ger. Resp. p. 896, 807

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