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Artaxerxes's threats would be equally impotent: that, let what would be the consequences, they would never give up their fellow-citizen ; and that they depended on the protection of the gods.

Hippocrates had said in one of his letters, that his services were due entirely to his countrymen. And indeed, the instant he was sent for to Athens, he went thither, and did not once stir out of the city till the plague was quite ceased. He devoted himself entirely to the service of the sick ; and to multiply himself, as it were, he sent several of his disciples into all parts of the country, after having instructed them in what manner to treat their patients. The Athenians were struck with the deepest sense of gratitude for this generous care of Hippocrates. They therefore ordained, by a public decree, that Hippocrates should be initiated in the greater mysteries, in the same manner as Hercules the son of Jupiter; that a crown of gold should be presented him, of the value of a thousand staters, amounting to five hundred pistoles French money; and that the decree by which it was granted him, should be read aloud by a herald in the public games, on the solemn festival of Panathenæa : that the freedom of the city should be given him, and himself be maintained, at the public charge, in the Prytaneum, all his lifetime, in case he thought proper: in fine, that the children of all the people of Cos, whose city had given birth to so great a man, might be maintained and brought up in Athens, in the same manner as if they had been born there.

In the meantime the enemy having märched into Attica; came down towards the coast, and advancing still forward, laid waste the whole country. Pericles still adhering to the maxim he had established, not to expose the safety of the state to the hazard of a battle, would not suffer his troops to sally out of the city; however, before the enemy left the open country, he sailed to Peloponnesus with 100 gallies, in order to hasten their retreat by making so powerful a diversion; and after having made a dreadful havoc (as he had done the first year) he returned into the city. The plague was still there as well as in the fleet, and it spread to those troops that were besieging Potidæa.

The campaign being thus ended, the Athenians, who saw their country depopulated by two great scourges, war and pestilence, began to despond, and to murmur against Pericles ; considering him as the author of all their calamities, ás he had involved them in that fatal war. They then sent a deputation to Lacedæmonia, to obtain, if possible, an accommodation by some means or other, firmly resolved to

a The Attic stater was a gold coin weighing two drachms. It is in the oriRinal Xpuowy XINWv.

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make whatever concessions should be demanded of them: however, the ambassadors returned back without being able to obtain any terms. Complaints and murmurs now broke out afresh: and the whole city was in such a trouble and confusion, as seemed to prognosticate the worst of evils. Pericles, in the midst of this universal consternation, could not forbeár assembling the people; and endeavoured to soften, and at the same time to encourage them, by justifying himself. “The reasons, says he, “which “ induced you to undertake this war and which you all ap“proved at that time, are still the same; and are not changed « by the alteration of circumstances, which neither you nor “ myself could foresee. Had it been left to your option, to « make choice of peace or war, the former would éertainly “ have been the more eligible: but as there was no other “ means for preserving your liberty, but by drawing the “ the sword, was it possible for you to hesitate? If we areci« tizens who truly love our country, will our private misfor“ tunes make us neglect the common welfare of the state. Every man feels the evil which afflicts himself, because it is

present ; but no one is sensible of the good which will ré* sult from it, because it is not come. Have you forgotten « the strength and grandeur of your empire? Of the two

parts which form this globe of ours, viz. the land and sea, you have absolute possession of the latter; and no king, nor any other power, is able to oppose your fleets. The question now is, whether you will preserve this glory and this empire, or resign it for ever. Be not therefore grieved be

cause you are deprived of a few country houses and gar« dens, which ought to be considered no otherwise than as “ the frame of the picture, though you would seem to make “ them the picture itself. Consider, that if you do but pre

serve your liberty, you will easily recover them ; but that “ should you suffer yourselves to be deprived of this blessing,

you wil loose every valuable possession with it. Do not *** Show less generosity than your ancestors; who for the sake *** of preserving it, abandoned even their city: and who, “ though they had not inherited such a glory from their an

cestors, yet suffered the worst of evils, and engaged in the “ most perilous enterprises, to transmit it tu you. I confess ** that your present calamities are exceedingly grievous, and

I myself am duly sensible and deeply afflicted for them. But * is it just in you to exclaim against your general, merely for “ an accident that was not to be diverted by all the pru“ dence of man; and to make him responsible for an event, « in which he has not the least concern? We must submit “ patiently to those evils which Heaven inflicts upon us, and

vigorously oppose such as arise from our fellow-creatures:

“As to the hatred and jealousy which attend on your prosperi"ty,they are the usual lot of all who believe themselves worthy s of commanding. However, hatred and envy are not long

lived, but the glory that accompanies exalted actions is im“ mortal. Revolve therefore perpetually in your minds, how « shameful and ignominious it is for men to how the neck to " their enemies, and how glorious it is to triumph over them; " and then, animated by this double reflection, march on to “ danger with joy and intrepidity, and do not crouch so tamely “ in vain to the Lacedæmonians; and call to mind, that those " who display the greatest bravery and resolution in dangers, “ acquire the most esteem and applause.'

The motives of honour and fame, the remembrance of the great actions of their ancestors, the grateful title of soveréigns of Greece, and above all, jealousy against Sparta, the ancient and perpetual rival of Athens, were the usual motives which Pericles employed to influence and animate the Athenians, and they had hitherto never failed of success. But on this occasion, the sense of present evils prevailed over every other consideration, and stifled all other thoughts. The Athenians indeed did not design to sue the Lacedæmonians any more for peace, but the mere sight and presence of Pericles was insupportable to them. They therefore deprived him of the command of the army, and sentenced him to pay a fine, which, according to some historians, amounted to 15 talents a, and, according to others, 50.

However, this public disgrace of Pericles was not to be very lasting. The anger of the people was appeased by this first effort, and had spent itself in this injurious treatment of him, as the bee leaves its sting in the wound. But he was nõt now so happy with regard to his domestic evils; for, besides his having lost a great number of his friends and relations by the pestilence, feuds and divisions had long reigned in his family. Xanthippus his eldest son, who himself was extremely profuse, and had married a young wife no less extravagant, could not bear his father's exact economy, who allowed him but a very small sum for his pleasures. This made him borrow money in his father's name. When the lender demanded his debt of Pericles, he not only refused to pay, but even prosecuted him for it. Xanthippus was so enraged, that he inveighed in the most heinous terms against his father, exclaiming against him in all places, and ridiculing openly the assemblies he held at his house, and his conferences with the Sophists. He did not know that a son, though treated unjustly, (which was far otherwise in his case) ought to submit patiently to the injustice of his father, as a citizen is obliged to suffer that of his country.

a 15 or 50,000 French crowns.

The plague carried off Xanthippus. At the same time Pericles lost his sister, with many of his relations and best friends, whose assistance he most wanted in the administration. But he did not sink under these losses ; his strength of mind was not shaken by them; and he was not seen to weep or show the usual marks of sorrow at the grave of any of his relations till the death of Paralus, the last of his legitimate children. Stunned by, that violent blow, he did his utmost to preserve his usual tranquillity, and not show any outward symptoms of sorrow.

But when he was to put the crown of flowers upon the head of his dead son, he could not support the cruel spectacle, nor stifle the transports of his grief, which forced its way in cries, in sobs, and a flood of tears.

Pericles, misled by the principles of a false philosophy, imagined, that bewailing the death of his relations and children, would betray a weakness inconsistent with that greatness of soul which he had ever shown; and that on this occasion, the sensibility of the father would sully the glory of the conqueror. How gross an error! how, childish an illusion ! which either makes heroism consist in wild and savage cruelty ; or, leaving the same griet and confusion in the mind, assumes a vain outside of constancy and resolution, merely to be admired. But does martial bravery extinguish nature? is a man dead to all feeling, because he makes a considerable figure in the state the emperor Antonius had a much juster way of thinking, when on occasion of Marcus Aurelius's lamenting the death of the person who had brought him up, he said; a“ Suffer him to be a man, for neither.

philosophy nor sovereignty renders us insensible.”

Fickleness and inconstancy were the prevailing characteristics of the Athenians; and as these carried them on a sudden to the greatest excesses, they soon brought them back again within the bounds of moderation and gentleness. It was not long before they repented the injury they had done Pericles, and earnestly wished to see him again in their assemblies. By dint of suffering, they began to be in some measure inured to their domestic misfortunes, and to be fired more and more with a zeal for their country's glory; and in their ardour for reinstating its affairs, they did not know any person more capable of the administration than Pericles. He, at that time, never stirred out of his house, and was in the utmost grief for the loss he had sustained. However, Alcibiades and the rest of his friends intreated him to go abroad, and show himself in public. The people asked him pardon for their ungrateful usage of him; and Pericles, mova

a Permitte illi ut homo sit: neque enim vel philosophia rel imperium tollit affectus. Jul. Capitol. in vit Antonini Pii.

ed with their intreaties, and persuaded that it did not become a good citizen to harbour the least resentment against his country, resumed the government.

About the end of the second campaign, some ambassadors had set out from Lacedæmon, in order to solicit the king of Persia's alliance, and engage him to furnish a sum of money for maintaining the fleet : this reflected great ignominy on the Lacedæmonians, who called themselves the deliverers of Greece, since they thereby retracted or sullied the glorious actions they had formerly achieved in her defence against Persia. They went by way of Thrace, in order to disengage, if possible, Sitalces from the alliance of the Athenians, and prevail with him to succour Potidæa. But they here met with some Athenian ambassadors, who caused them to be arrested as disturbers of the public peace, and afterwards to be sent to Athens, where, without suffering them to be heard, they were put to death the same day; and their bodies thrown on a dunghill, by way of reprisal on the Lacedæmonians, who treated all who were not of their párty in the same inhuman manner. It is scarce possible to conceive how two cities, which, a little before, were so strongly united, and ought to have prided themselves upon show ing à mutual civility and forbearance for each other, could contract so inveterate an hatred, and break into such cruel acts of violence, as infringe all the laws of war, humanity, and nations; and prompted them to exercise greater cruelties upon one another, than if they had been at war with Barbarians.

Potidæa had now been besieged almost three years; when the inhabitants, reduced to extremities, and in such want of provisions that some fed on human flesh, and not expecting ány succours from the Peloponnesians, whose attempts in Attica häd all proved abortive, surrendered on conditions. The circumstances which made the Athenians treat them with lenity, were, the severity of the weather, which exceedingly annoyed the besiegers; and the prodigious expense of the siege, which had already cost a 2,000 talents. They therefore came out of the city with their wives and children, as well citizens as foreigners, with each but one suit of clothes, and the women two, and only a little money to procure them a settlement. The Athenians blamed their generals for granting this capitulation without their order; because otherwise, as the citizens were reduced to the utmost extremities, they would have surrendered at discretion. They sent a colony thither.

« The army which besieged Potidæa consisted of 3,000 men, exclusive of the 1,600 who had been senit under the command of Phormio Every soldier received (daily) two drachms, or twenty pence (French, for master and man ; ad those of the gallies had the same pay. Thucyd. I. ji g. 182. 6 About , 280,000 sterling.

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