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of the wrongs he had received from that general, the Ephori recalled him. Lysander was at that time in the Hellespont. The letter of the Ephori threw him into great consternation. As he principally feared the complaints and accusations of Pharnabasus, he made all the haste he could to come to an explanation with him, from the hope of softening him, and making his peace. He went for that purpose to him, and desired, that he would write another letter to the Ephori, intimating that he was satisfied with his conduct. But Lysander, says Plutarch, in such an application to Pharnabasus, forgot the a proverb, “Set a thief to catch a thief.” The satrap promised all he desired, and accordingly wrote such a letter in Lysander's presence as he had requested, but he had prepared another to a quite different effect. When he was to seal it, as both letters were of the same size and form, he dexterously put that he had written in secret into the place of the other, without being observed, which he sealed, and gave him.
Lysander departed well satisfied, and being arrived at Sparta, alighted at the palace where the senate was assembled, and delivered Pharnabasus's letter to the Ephori. But he was strangely surprised when he heard the contents, and withdrew in extreme confusion and disorder. Some days after he returned to the senate, and told the Ephori, that he was obliged to go to the temple of Ammon to acquit himself of the sacrifices he had vowed to that god before his battles. That pilgrimage was no more than a pretence, to conceal the pain it gave him to live as a private person in Sparta, and to submit to the yoke of obeying; he, who till then had always governed. Accustomed long to commanding armies, and to the flattering distinctions of a kind of sovereignty exercised by him in Asia, he could not endure that mortifying equality which put him on a level with the multitude, nor reduce himself to the simplicity of a private life. Having obtained permission not without great difficula ties, he embarked.
As soon as he was gone, the kings, reflecting that he held all the cities in dependence upon himself, by the means of the governors and magistrates who had been established by him, to whom they were also indebted for their unlimited authority, and that he was thereby effectually lord and master of all Greece, applied themselves vigorously to restore the government of the people, and to depose all his creatures and friends from any share in it. This alteration occasioned great tumults at first. About the same time, Lysander, being apprized of the design of Thrasybulus, to
a The Greek proverb is, “ Cretan against Cretan," as the people of Crete passed for the greatest cheats apd liars in the world.
re-establish the liberty of his country, returned with the utmost diligence to Sparta, and endeavoured to engage the Lacedæmonians to support the party of the nobility at Athens. We have before observed, that Pausanias, from a more noble spirit of equity and generosity, gave peace to Athens, and by that means, says Plutarch, clipped the wings of Ly. sander's ambition,
YOUNG CYRUS, WITH THE AID OF THE GRECIAN TROOPS.
ENDEAVOURS TO DETHRONE HIS BROTHER ARTAXERXES. HE IS KILLED IN BATTLE. FAMOUS RETREAT OF THE TEN THOUSAND.
I am about to relate in this place. We see on one side a young prince, in other respects abounding with excellent qualities, but abandoned to his violent ambition, carrying war from a distance against his brother and sovereign, and going to attack him almost in his own palace, with the view of de priving him at once of his crown and life. We see him, I say, fall dead in the battle at the feet of that brother, and terminate by so unhappy a fate, an enterprise equally glaring and criminal. On the other hand, the Greeks who follow hima, destitute of all succour, after the loss of their chiefs, without allies, provisions, money, cavalry, or archers, reduced to less than 10,000 men, with no resource but in their own persons and valour, supported solely by the ardent desire of preserving their liberty, and of returning to their native countries; these Greeks, with bold and intrepid resolution, make their retreat before a victorious army of 1,000,000 of men, traverse 5 or 600 leagues, notwithstanding vast rivers and innumerable defiles, and arrive at last in their own coun. try through 1000 fierce and barbarous nations, victorious over all obstacles in their way, and over all the dangers which either concealed fraud or open force reduce them to undergo.
This retreat, in the opinion of the best judges and most experienced military men, is the boldest and best conducted exploit to be found in ancient history, and is deemed a perfect model in its kind. Happily for us it is described with the utmost minuteness by an historian, who was not only eyewitness of the facts he relates, but the first mover, the soul
a Post mortem Cyri, neque armis a tanto esercitu vinci, neque dolo capi po tuerunt; revertentesque inter tot indomitas nationes et barbaras gentes, per tanta itineris spatia, virtute se usque terminos patriæ detenderunt. Justin to
of this great enterprise. I shall only abridge it and abstract its most material circumstances; but I cannot omit advising young persons, who make arins their profession, to consult the original, of which there is a good translation extant, though far short of the admirable beauties of the text. It is very difficult to meet with a more able master than Xenophon in the art of war, to whom may be well applied here what Homer says of Phænix the governor of Achilles, “ a That he was equally capable of forming his pupil for elo quence or arms. Μύθων τε ρητής έμεναι, σχηκτηρά σε έργων.
SECT. I. Cyrus raises troops secretly against his brother Artaxerxes. 13,000 Greeks join him. He sets out from Sardis, and arrives at Babylonia after a march of six months.
We have already said, that young Cyrus, son of Darius Nothus and Parysatis, saw with pain his elder brother Artaxerxes upon the throne, and that at the very time the latter was taking possession of it, he had attempted to deprive him
of his crown and life together. Artaxerxes was not insensii ble of what he had to fear from a brother of his enterprising
and ambitious spirit, but could not refuse pardoning him to the prayers and tears of his mother Parysatis, who doted upon this youngest son. He sent him therefore into Asia to his government; confiding to him, contrary to all the rules of policy, an absolute authority over the provinces left him by the will of the king his father.
c As soon as he arrived there, his thoughts were solely intent upon revenging the supposed affront he had received from his brother, and to dethrone him. He received all that came from the court with great favour and affability, to induce them insensibly to quit the king's party and adhere to him. He gained also the hearts of the Barbarians under his government ; familiarizing himselt with them, and mingling with the common soldiery, though without forgetting the dignity of the general ; and these he formed by various exercises for service in war. He applied particularly to raise secretly in several places, and upon different pretexts, a body of Grecian troops, upon whom he relied, much more than upon those of the Barbarians. Clearchus retired to his court after having been banished from Sparta, and was of great
a Iliad. 1. ver. 443.
6 A. M. 3000 Ant. J C. 404. Diod. l. xiv. p. 243-249, et 252. Justin. l. V. c. 11. Xenoph. de Cyri Exped li. p. 243--248, CA. M. 3601. Ant. J. C. 403. VOL. II.
service to him, being an able, experienced, and valiant captaina. At the same time, several cities in the provinces under the government of Tissaphernes revolted from their obedience in favour of Cyrus. This incident, which was not an effect of chance, but of the secret intrigues of that prince, gave birth to a war between them. Cyrus, under the pretence of arming against Tissaphernes, assembled troops with less reserve ; and to amuse the court more speciously, sent grievous complaints to the king against that governor, demanding his protection and aid in the most submissive man
Artaxerxes was deceived by these appearances, and believed that all Cyrus's preparations were directed against Tissaphernes alone, and continued quiet, from the assurance of having nothing to apprehend for himself.
6 Cyrus knew well how to take advantage of the imprudent security and indolence of his brother, which some people conceived the effect of his goodness and humanity. And indeed in the beginning of his reign he seemed to imitate the virtues of the first Artaxerxes, whose name he bore. For he demeaned himself with great mildness and affability to such as approached him ; he honoured and rewarded magnificently all those whose services had merited favour ; when he passed sentence of punishment, it was without either outrage or insult ; and when he made presents, it was with a gracious air, and such engaging manners, as infinitely exalted their value, and implied, that he was never better pleased than when he had an opportunity of doing good to his subjects. To all these excellent qualities he ought to have added one no less royal, and which would have put him upon his guard against the enterprises of a brother, whose character he ought to have known; I mean a wise foresight, that penetrates the future, and renders a prince attentive to prevent or frustrate whatever may disturb the tranquillity of the state.
The emissaries of Cyrus at the court were perpetually dispersing reports and opinions amongst the people, to prepare their minds for the intended change and revolt. They said that the state required a king of Cyrus's character ; a king, magnificent, liberal, who loved war, and showered his favours upon those that served him ; and that it was necessary for the grandeur of the empire to have a prince upon the throne, fired with ambition and valour, for the support and augmentation of its glory.
c The young prince lost no time on his side, and hastened the execution of his great design. He was then only 23 years old at most. After the important services he had done
Plat. in Artas. p. 1013.
Q A, M. 3602. Ant. J. C. 402.
the Lacedæmonians, without which they had never obtained the victories that had made them masters of Greece, he thought he might safely open himself to them. He therefore imparted to them the present situation of his affairs, and the end he had in view: convinced that such a confidence could not but incline them the more in his favour.
In the letter he wrote them, he spoke of himself in very magnificent terms. He told them he had a greater and more royal heart than his brother; that he was better versed in philosophy and the knowledge of the Magi, and that he could drink more wine without being disordered in his senses, a very meritorious quality amongst the Barbarians, but not so proper to recommend him to the good opinion of those to whom he was writing. The Lacedæmonians sent orders to their fleet to join that of the prince immediately, and to obey the commands of Tamos his admiral in all things, but without the least mention of Artaxerxes, or seeming in any manner privy to his design. They thought that precaution
necessary for their justification with Artaxerxes, in case affairs should happen to terminate in his favour.
The troops of Cyrus, according to the review afterwards made, consisted of 13,000 Greeks, which were the Aower and chief force of his army, and of 100,000 regular troops of the barbarous nations. Clearchus, the Lacedæmonian, commanded all the Peloponnesian troops, except the Achæans, who had Socrates of Achaia for their leader. The Beeotians were under Proxenus the Theban, and the Thessalians under Menon. c The Barbarians had Persian generals, of whom the chief was Ariæus. The fleet consisted of 35 ships under Pythagorus the Lacedæmonian, and 25 commanded by Tamos the Ægyptian, admiral of the whole fleet. It followed the land-army, coasting along near the shore.
Cyrus had opened his design to Clearchus alone of all the Greeks, forseeing aright that the length and boldness of the enterprise could not fail of discouraging and dismaying the officers, as well as soldiers. He made it his sole application to gain their affections during the march, by treating them with kindness and humanity, conversing freely with them, and giving effectual orders that they should want for nothing. Proxenus, between whose family and Xenophon's an ancient friendship subsisted, presented that young Athenian to Cyrus“, who received him very favourably, and gave him an employment in his army amongst the Greeks. He set out from Sardis at length, and marched towards the upper pro
a By the knowledge of the Magi, amongst the Persians, was meant the science of religion and government
6 Qu rentes apud Cyrum gratiam ; et apud Artaxerxem, si vicisset, venia patrocinia cum nihil adversus eum aperte decrevissent. Justin. I v. cit. Xenoph. Cyri. Exped. I. i. p. 252
d Xenoph. I. üi. p. 294.