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Francfort and the Carolin books, and affirmed that according to the scripture and the fathers adoration was due to God alone. Several private persons also taught and asserted the fame scriptural doctrine. Claude, bishop of Turin, (9) declares that 'we are not commanded to

* go to the creature, that we may be made happy,

* but to the creator himself: and therefore

* we mould not worship dead men j they are 'to be imitated, not to be adored: let us toee'ther with the angels worship one God.' Agobard, archbishop of Lyons, (1) wrote a whole book against images, and fays that c angels or

* saints may be loved and honored, but not be

* served and worshipped: let us not put our 'trust in man, but in God, lest that prophetic

* denunciation should redound on us, Cursed is 'the man, who trusteth in man,' Many other (2) bishops and writers of Britain, Spain, Italy, Germany, and France, professed the fame sentiments: and this public opposition of emperors

Cave Hist. Litt. ad Ann. 820. etiam Dupin. ibid. Cave. ibid.

(1) AngelijVelhominesHinc- ad Ann. Si3. ti, amentur, honorcntur, cha

ritate, non servitute: Non po- (2) Spanhem. ibid. Sect. 3. namus spem nostram in homi- Usserius de Eccles. Christian, ne, fed in Deo, ne forte redun- fucceflione & statu. Cap. 2. det in nos illud prophetictim, Allix's Remarks upon the anMaledictus homo qui confidit cient churches of the Albjin homine. Lib. de Imag. Cap. genfe;. Chap. 8 & 9. 30. apud Spanhem. ibid. Vide

(3) Spanrors and bishops to the worship of saints and images in the eighth and ninth centuries appears to be meant particularly by the loud voice of this first angel flying aloft, and calling upon the world to worship God. In another respect too these emperors and bishops resemble this angel having the everlasting gospel to preach unto every nation; for in their time, and greatly by their means, (3) the Christian religion was propagated and established among the Saxons, Danes, Swedes, and many other northern nations.

8 And' there followed another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because me made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.

As the admonitions of the first angel had not the proper effect upon the kingdom of the beast, the second angel is commissioned to proclame the fall of the capital city. (ver. 8.) And there followed another angel, faying, , Babylon is fallen is fallen, that great city. By Babylon was meant Rome, as all authors of all ages and countries agree: but it was not prudent to denounce

the

(3) Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 2.

(4) Mede

the destruction of Rome in open and direct terms: it was for many wife reasons done covertly under the name of Babylon, which was the great idolatress of the earth, and enemy of the people of God in former, as Rome hath been in later' times. By the fame figure of speech, that the first angel cried that the hour of his judgment is come, this second angel proclames that Babylon is fallen; the sentence is as certain, as if it was already executed. For greater certainty too it is repeated twice Babylon is fallen, is fallen; as Joseph said (Gen. XLI. 32.) that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice, because the thing is ejlabliJhed by God, and God will Jhortly bring it to pass. The reason then is added of this sentence against Babylon, because Jhe made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath, or rather of the inflaming wine of her fornication. Hers was a kind of a Circean cup with poisoned liquor to intoxicate and inflame mankind to spiritual fornication. St. John in these figures copies the ancient prophets. In the fame manner, and in the fame words, did Isaiah foretel the fate of ancient Babylon, (XXI. 9.) Babylon is fallen, is fallen: And Jeremiah hath assigned much the same reason for her destruction, (LI. J.) Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand, skat made .vol. HI. . S »H

all the earth drunken : the nations have drunken of her wine, therefore the nations are mad. As by the first angel calling upon men to worship God, we understand the opposers of the worship of images in the eighth and ninth centuries, so by this second angel proclaming the fall of mystic Babylon or Rome, we understand particularly (4) Peter Valdo and those who concurred with him the Waldenses and Albigenses j who were the first heralds, as I may fay, of this proclamation, as they first of all in the twelfth century pronounced the church of Rome to be the apocalyptic Babylon, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth; and for this cause not only departed from her communion themselves, but engaged great numbers also to follow their example, and laid the first foundations of the Reformation. Rome then began to fall; and as the ruin of Babylon was completed by degrees, so likewise will that of Rome; and these holy confessors and martyrs first paved the way to it.

9 And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man

worship

(4) Mede p. 517, 722, Sec. ecclesiæ, nuncupasse earn BaFred. Spanhem. Hist. Christian, bylenem, ac confusionis omnis Sæc.i2.Cap.6.--recessisleadoc- matrem; &c. Sect 4. Thuani trina etpraxi recepta Romans Hist. Lib. 6. Cap. 16. Eorum Worship the beast and his image, and . - receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand,

10 The fame shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb:

11 And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever, and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.

12 Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus.

13 And I heard a voice from heaven, saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord, from hence forth , Yea, faith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours, and their works do follow them.

But

hsecdogmataferebantur;Eccle- bylonicam meretricem ejsi, &c. siam Romanam, quoniam veræ p. 221. Edit. Buckley. Christi sidei renunciaverit, £a

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