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PREFACE.

It has long been a subject of regret with all who chiefly from the missionary accounts published in take an interest in the diffusion of Christianity Germany, together with copies of several of his among the heathen, more particularly in our East- manuscript sermons. In transmitting these docuern empire, that a fuller account of the venerable ments, Mr. Horst expressed his hope of sending the Swartz, the most celebrated missionary of modern rest of the narrative in the following year. This times, than has hitherto appeared, should not have design, however, was unhappily frustrated by his been presented to the world. The general outline, own premature decease; and Mr. Kohlhoff was and the more prominent events of his history, to- too much occupied with the labors of the mission gether with various extracts from his journals and to be able to fulfil his intention. To the materials letters, have, indeed, been extensively circulated, thus imperfectly furnished from India, Dr. Buchaboth in this country and on the continent; but his nan added a series of extracts from the Reports of commanding views and principles as a Christian the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge reteacher, the interior springs and motives of his con- lative to Mr. Swartz; but his various labors in the duct, together with much both of his public and cause of Christianity in India, and the failure of private correspondence, and with many important his health, prevented him from making any further and interesting particulars of his life, more espe- progress in this work. cially with reference to some of the native princes, From the period when my attention was first diand to the government of India, and its grand and rected to the promotion of Christianity in India by instructive impression as a whole, have been as yet the prize Essay, proposed by Dr. Buchanan to the bat imperfectly and partially communicated. University of Oxford, I have been deeply interested.

One of Mr. Swartz's most eminent fellow-labor- in the character of the apostolic Swartz. Finding, ers, the late Mr. Gericke, long cherished the inten- therefore, while preparing the life of Dr. Buchanan, tion of thus honoring the memory of his revered that he had collected some materials for that of the predecessor. "I think it my duty,” he observes, in great missionary, I requested the executors of that a letter to a mutual correspondent in England, " to zealous and munificent friend of missions, to allow write the life of our late worthy friend, Mr. Swartz, me the use of those papers in compiling a fuller though he himself was againsi it, and never would memoir of Mr. Swartz. This request having been consent to commit to paper any particular passages kindly granted, my next object was to add to the in his life, which Dr. John and myself often begged collection from every quarter. My first application him to do'; but my time is too much taken up, both was to the Society for promoting Christian Knowwith the business I always had, and with the care ledge, conceiving that its manuscript records might which I have, since Mr. Swarız's death, of his con- contain much that would illustrate the spirit and gregations between Tanjore and Cape Comorin. I character of its revered missionary. It was, howintend, however, to do it still, if God spares my life. ever, stated in reply, that the Society was not aware In the mean time, I have satisfied my German of the existence of any such papers; and that whatfriends with a narrative of his last days and dying ever it had deemed proper for publication in the hours. I had only to write what I saw and heard, letters of Mr. Swartz, had been regularly printed being then with him at Tanjore.” The preceding in its annual reports; a reply, the correctness of extract was written about three years after the death | which, however it may excite surprise or regret, is of Swarız, and in little more than two years from confirmed by the absence of any other incidents that time, Mr. Gericke was himself removed from than those contained in the published reports, in the the world, without accomplishing the work for sketch of the life of Swarız by another member of which he was in many respects peculiarly quali- the Society,* to whom, as it appears from his acfied.

knowledgments, permission of access to its archives The same cause which prevented this excellent was some years afterwards liberally afforded. man from fulfilling so gratifying a duty, equally Failing as to this source of additional materials, precluded Mr. Kohlhoff, the pious coadjutor and I had recourse to my much esteemed friend the successor of Mr. Swartz’in the mission at Tanjore, Rev. Dr. Steinkopff, at that time foreign secretary from doing more than transmitting to the Society, to the Bible Society, to procure from the German in whose service he was engaged, an 'enlarged and missionary correspondence, published at Halle, detailed account of the closing scene in the life of such extracts from the journals and letters of Mr. his venerable friend and father.

Swartz, as he might deem best calculated to proThe late Dr. Buchanan, when requested, while mote my object in a memoir of his life and characa: Calcuita, to write the life of Swartz, replied, that ter, Dr. Steinkopff inost readily undertook this independently of his want of leisure, the good'mis- task; and after making various inquiries of his sionary had left no papers, and had ever deprecated friends at Halle, engaged the assistance of Mr. posthumous praise. When, however, a few years Falcke, a native of Hanover, who had been reaferwarıls, he visited Tanjore, he was so impressed commended by the Rev. Dr. Knapp, professor of and animated by what he saw and heard of Mr. divinity in that university, to be employed as a misSwartz, amidst that Aourishing scene of his Jabors, sionary by the Society for promoting Christian that he made many inquiries of Mr. Kohlhoff and Knowledge, in making the proposed selections. his brethren respecting their eminent predecessor, This pious young man was detained for several and engaged them to transmit to him the result of months in England, in the year 1821, by a severe their recollections and researches. About three accident, during which time he completed a series years after his return to Europe, Mr. Kohlhoff and of such extracts, the translation of which was suMr. Horst fiulfilled this promise, by sending to Dr. perintended by Dr. Steinkopff. He was afterwards Buchanan some valuable materials for the biogra- admitted to holy orders by the Lord Bishop of Lonphy of Swartz, comprising a narrative of his life from his birth'in 1726 to the year 1758, compiled

The Rev. E. W. Grinfield.

don, and embarked for India, where he arrived that it has not been in my power to obtain from his about the middle of the following year, and was worthy successor, John Hudleston, Esq., during stationed at the Society's mission at Vepery, near many years a member of the Court of Directors, Madras. There he labored for some time with his correspondence with the venerable missionary. Christian simplicity and benevolence; but, to the That gentleman was Resident at Tanjore at the great regret of the congregation, died prematurely time when one of the most important public inciin the year 1824. The selections translated for my dents of his life occurred. I refer to the adoption use extended from the year 1760, up to which period of the late Rajah of Tanjore, by the reigning my previous materials reached, to 1796, and com- prince, and the appointment of Mr. Swarız as his prised the short account of the life and death of guardian, Mr. Swartz, published by Dr. Knapp, at Halle, in Though I should gladly have enriched my work 1799, in his "Recent History of the Protestant with the private leiters in the possession of Mr. Missions for the Conversion of the Heathen in the Hudleston, their loss, so far as the interesting transEast Indies."

action in question, is concerned, has been amply It is necessary to give the preceding account of compensated by the liberality of the Right Honorthese extracts from the German missionary corres- able Charles Grant, President of the Board of Conpondence, in consequence of the appearance, a few trol, and of the Honorable Court of Directors of years afterwards, of a work entitled, “Remains of the East India Company, through the kindness of ihe Rev. C. F. Schwartz, consisting of his Letters one of its members, N. B. Edmonstone, Esq., who and Journals, with a sketch of his Life." This allowed me the fullest access to the records of our publication, though deficient in narrative, afforded Indian government. To those distinguished perto the English reader fuller details of the proceed- sons I beg to offer my warmest thanks, as well as to ings of that eminent missionary, and particularly B. S. Jones, Esq. under-secretary to the India Board, of his intercourse with the heathen, than had been and to Thomas Fisher, Esq.. searcher of the repreviously known. It was, however, restricted to cords at the India House,' who afforded me the his journals of five years, from 1768 to 1772, with readiest facilities and the most valuable assistance an account of his journey to Hyder Ali at Seringa- in extracting from those authentic sources of inforpatam, in 1779, and a few letters to his friends at malion many very important letters and documents, Halle and in London. The Sketch of Mr. Swartz's illustrative at once of the ability, integrity, and life prefixed to the “Remains," was no other than eminent usefulness of the pious missionary, and of that which has been already mentioned as published the high and honorable principles, and the benefiby Dr. Knapp, to which were added some extracts cent influence, of our East Indian authorities, buth from the Reports of the Society for promoting at home and abroad. Christian Knowledge, and from the sermon preach To Colonel Blackburne, who in early life was ed by Dr. Kerr, at Madras, on occasion of the well acquainted with Mr. Swartz, and who during opening of the monument erected there to the me- many years immediately succeeding his death filled, mory of the revered missionary,, by the Court of with great ability, the station of Resident at the court Directors of the East India Company.

of Tanjore, similar acknowledgments are due, for While, therefore, the volume just referred to par- his kindness in permitting me to peruse some pritially anticipated the history of the few years which vate memorials of the principal transactions in it embraced, it left a wide field, before and after, which Mr. Swartz was engaged during the reigns almost untouched, which it was my anxious wish to of the Rajahs Tuljajee and Ameer Sing, as well occupy. Various circumstances contributed to re- as for some interesting anecdotes connected with tard the completion of this undertaking; but it may his history. not be unsalisfactory to observe, that the delay has I have deemed it expedient to introduce the folbeen the occasion of rendering it more worthy of lowing Memoirs by a brief sketch of the history of ihe subject, and of general reception, than it could Christianity in India, from its origin to the period have been by an earlier publication.

when Swartz arrived. The delay which has unaTo the kindness of the late Mrs. Chambers, wi- voidably occurred in the publication of this work, dow of William Chambers, Esq. formerly of Ma- renders it not unnecessary to observe, that this predras and Calcutta, and one of the earliest and most liminary part of it was written several years before esteemed correspondents of Mr. Swartz, by means the appearance of Mr. Grinfield's “ Sketches of the of my highly valued friend, the Rev. D. Wilson, Danish Mission on the Coast of Coromandel," comnow so deservedly elevated to the see of Calcutta, piled from the manuscript records which have been I am indebted for a series of letters from the excel- 1 already mentioned. My own materials for this inlent missionary to Mr. and Mrs. Chambers, and to troductory sketch were derived chiefly from Nieone of their near relatives, extending from the year camp,* and La Croze. To Mr. Grinfield's little 1769 to 1793, which, written with the confidence volume I with pleasure refer the reader for a someand affection of the most endeared and intimate what varied account of the early brethren of that friendship, display in the clearest and most unaf- mission. A few inaccuracies occur in it respecting fected manner, the genuine sentiments and feelings Mr. Swartz; but in a more recent compilation, in of his heart.

addition to some erroneous statements, a sentimenAnother much attached friend of Mr. Swartz, tal and romantic air is attempied to be thrown William Duffin, Esq., of York, added considerably around one, the very elements of whose character to this store of his Christian correspondence. Some were truth and simplicity. of the letters to this gentleman appeared in an early While correcting the last sheets of this work volume of the Christian Observer, as did those ad- another small volume has appeared, entitled, “ Medressed by the benevolent missionary to the children moirs of the Rev. Joseph D. Jænicke, a fellow of the late Colonel Wood. They now appear, with laborer of Schwartz at Tanjore, interspersed with some additions, interwoven into the history of his many original letters and notices of Schwartz.” — life, and are thus rendered both more interesting in this publication also, such is the necessary con and more instructive.

sequence of protracted preparations, a few of my My acknowledgments are justly due to the Right translations from the German correspondence are Honorable John Sullivan, for the communication of the letters of Mr. Swartz written to him in the * Historia Missionis Evangelicæ in India Orienyears 1784 and 1785, during the eventful period tali. Histoire, &c. from p. 5. Halæ, 1747, when he was the Résident at Tanjore. I regret t Histoire du Christianisme des Indes.

anticipated. To the merits of the devoted and in- j and kindness, immediately communicated them to defatigable Jænicke it will be seen that I have borne the author. ample testimony, and cordially recommend to the On the perusal of these much-desired documents, perusal of those who love genuine and exalted pie- it was particularly gratifying to him to find, that his iy, this fuller record of his labors, and of his Chris- own previous researches had anticipated allihe leadtian connection with the admirable Swartz.* ing facts which they contain relative to the great mis

It only remains for me, in concluding these pre- sionary. Mr. Hudleston's papers, as it was natural fatory observations to express the heartfelt delight, to suppose, chiefly refer to the two years from and, 'I trust, the edification, which I have derived March, 1785, to February, 1787, during which he from my long engagement in compiling the follow- was the Company's Resident at the court of Tanjore, ing Memoirs of him, of whom it may be justly said, and at the close of which the remarkable circumas of a distinguished Roman of old, " Plurimæ stances attending the request of the dying Rajah, consentiunt gentes, primarium fuisse virum"--or Tuljajee, to Mr. Swartz, to become regent of the ir language more appropriate to his character, country, and guardian of his adopted son, took " whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the place, as detailed in the following Memoirs. churches.” I can truly add, with one of the edi. Various other points connected with Tanjore and torst of Archbishop Leigoton's works," that I have its native princes are adverted to in these valuable nerer spent an hour either in transcribing or cor- letters, of which, had they been earlier communitecting for the press the letters or journals of this cated, the Author would have gladly availed himwonderful man, for such I would deliberately call self in the body of his narrative; but having from him, without feeling, amidst the interruption which various public and private sources obtained all the such an employment would naturally occasion, some substantial information which they contain, it would impressions which I could always wish to retain.” be superfluous to repeat it. May this record of the excellence of one who, to It is, at the same time, most satisfactory to him adopt the glowing expressions of a sont of his most to find his statements in every instance confirmed intimale friend, gained the love and veneration of by the unquestionable authoriiy of Mr. Hudleston. his heathen neighbors, and ensured the grateful ad- T'he veneration of that estimable servant and dimiration of the Chistian world,” be accompanied rector of the Company for the character of Mr. by that heavenly blessing, by which alone it can be Swartz, and his testimony to the high value and rendered subservient to the great purpose for which importance of his influence and example both to he lived ? May many go forth to preach the gospel the Government and the natives of India, as disto the heathen, animated by the same spirit, and be played in the papers confided to the author, far crowned with the same success! And may the exceed the conceptions, exalted as they were, which sacred cause to which Swartz was so eminently and he had previously formed of that eminent and exso consistently devoted, triumph over the ignorance, traordinary person ; and it is only an act of justice superstition, guilt, and misery, which oppress the to the memory of Mr. Hudleston to declare, that fairest portions of the earth in which real Christi- his correspondence with his revered friend contains anity is unknown, until that divine and saving truth proofs of his own integrity and disinterestedness universally prevail

, not only in India, but through- as a public servant, and of his benevolent and zealout the world!

ous regard to the welfare of the princes and natives Deanery, Salisbury, Dec. 2, 1835.

of India with whom he was officially connected, which are highly honorable to his character.

It appears from his papers, that Mr. Hudleston ADVERTISEMENT.

was the author

of the inscription on the monument

erected by the East India Company to the memory In the pretace to the first edition of these Me- of Mr. Swartz, at Madras, which comprises, in fact, moirs, it will be seen that the author expressed his an epitome of his character and labors; and that regret at having been unable to procure the Corres- he for some time cherished the intention of writing pondence of the venerable Swartz with Mr. Hudle-a memoir of his life, which he probably at length ston. He has now the satisfaction to state, that on abandoned, from his failure in obtaining adequate ihe recent demise of that highly respected gentle materials for the work. man, the whole of his papers relative to Mr. Swartz The author has only to add, that he has selected came into possession oi his executor, the Rev. H. some letters and extracts from Mr. Hudleston's H. Hayes, who, with the most obliging liberality papers, which, as he is unable to introduce them in

chronological order, he has inserted in an Appendix, * In this edition of these Memoirs, I have inserted and which, like every other part of Mr. Swarız's a few passages from the letters of Swartz, intro-correspondence with his friends, will tend still duced into ihis interesting little volume, together cence of that most perfect exemplar of the Chris

farther to illustrate the wisdom, piety, and benefiwith various additional extracts from the Germanian and the missionary, which has been exhibited Missionary Correspondence. + The learned and pious Dr. Doddridge.

since the primitive and apostolic age. , • The late Sir C. H. Chambers.

Deanery, Salisbury, April 20, 1835.

INTRODUCTORY SKETCH.

Extensive propagation of the Gospel during the first four centuries increase their ardor in the propagation of their re-
Subscquent docline-Slumber of the middle ages-Maritime dis- ligion in distant quarters of the world. Their
coveries of the Portuguese-Syrian Christians-Armenian Chris- efforts were powerfully seconded by the institution
tians—Roman Catholic Missions—Zeal of the Dutch-Danish Mise of the order of Jesuits, in the year 1540: a certain
sion-Ziegenbalg and Grundler-Patronage of the Tranquebar number of that celebrated society having been,
Mission by the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge from its commencement, devoted to the purpose of
Schultz, and other Danish Missionaries-Establishment of a Mis-
sion at Madras-Introduction of Christianity into Tanjore-Mis- extending the pale of the Romish church in heathen
sion at Cuddalore-Capture of Fort St. George by the French- nations.
Mr. Fabricius-Roman Catholic Churches and Mission Houses at When the Portuguese, at the commencement of
Vepery and Cuddalore, granted to the Protestant Missionaries at the sixteenth century, first established themselves
the peace, in 1748—State of the Danish Mission previously to the on the coast of Malabar, they found a community
arrival of Swartz-Recapitulation.-A. D, 4001750.

of native Christians who welcomed their arrival, The propagation of the gospel during the first brethren. These were the Syrian, or, as they have

and were prepared to receive them as friends and four centuries after the Christian era, presents a been generally called, after the Portuguese desigmost important and interesting subject of contemplation to every reflecting mind." A new and nation, the St. Thome Christians; whose uniform divine religion had revealed to mankind the know

tradition respecting their origin, represents them ledge of the will of God, the good tidings of a Re- as descended from the converts of the apostle St. deemer

, and the promise of immortal life and hap- Thomas in India, during the first century. The piness. Opposed as its spiritual principles and its correctness of this tradition, notwithstanding some moral precepts were to the prevailing, philosophy,

remarkable corroborations of its truth, has been no less than to the multiplied superstitions and the generally doubted.* Certain, however, it is, from corrupt passions of the Gentile world, the miracu- church, episcopal in its constitution, and deriving

authentic ecclesiastical records, that a Christian lous powers which distinguished the primitive ages a succession of bisbops from the patriarchs of of Christianity, and the piety and zeal of its early Babylon and Antioch, has existed on the coast, disciples, succeeded, under the guidance and bless from Cape Comorin to Cranganore, and in the inwith a rapidity, and to an extent, far exceeding terior of Malabar, more than fifteen hundred years. that which has been witnessed at any subsequent Syrian Christians, indicates their remote origin;

Every circumstance relative to the history of the period. It pervaded every province of the Roman while their situation, surrounded by the darkness empire, and even penetrated to regions beyond its of Hindoo superstition and idolatry, in the midst of widely extended boundaries; and while it tended to ameliorate the character of polished nations, and which they have, during so many ages, faithtully, to civilize the most barbarous people, it communi- though feebly, preserved the light of heavenly truth, caled to both, blessings infinitely more valuable renders them in a high degree interesting. than any which refer merely to the transient inte- and such the influence which they had obtained so

Such was the estimation in which they were held, rests of the present world.

The progress of the gospel during several suc- early as the ninth century, doubtless from the geneceeding centuries was slow and limited; while, in ral superiority of their moral character, that the too many instances, the pure light of divine truth native princes of Cochin and Travancore, in whose became gradually obscured, and in others utterly them various civil privileges, and their clergy ranked

territory they were principally established, granted overwhelmed and extinguished, by error, supersti- next to the Nairs, or nobles of the country. For a lion, and barbarism.

It was not till the tenth century, that Christianity long period they enjoyed an independent governmadle any effectual impression on the eastern and ment, ụnder their own native princes; and even northern states of Europe, nor was it before the when, in process of time, they became again subcommencement of the fifteenth, that it finally tri- ject to a heathen sovereign, they continued to be umphed over Paganism in that quarter of the governed in civil as well as ecclesiastical concerns, world. In the mean time, the conquests of the by the bishop of Angamala.t Turks and Tartars in Asia and Africa opposed an both in faith and practice, should in the course of

It cannot be a subject of surprise that corruptions, invincible barrier to the progress of the gospel in those continents; while the darkness and slumber ages have crept into this ancient church. We acof the middle ages paralyzed the efforts of Eu- cordingly find that the opposite errors of Nestorius ropean Christians for its extension in any part of of our Lord, together with various superstitious

and Eutyches concerning the person and natures the globe. The maritime discoveries of the Portuguese to- vailed among them. At the period, however, when

ceremonies and irregular observances, have prewards the close of the fifteenth century, by opening the fleets of Portugal first visited the shores of a new world to the nations of Europe, appeared to India, the St. Thome Christians, though tainted rouse their dormant energies in propagating the knowledge of Christianity. On the coast of Africa, in America and its islands, and in the islands and Bishop Heber and Archdeacon Robinson inmaritime provinces of Asia, the Spaniards and cline to favor the claim of the Syro-Malabaric Portuguese, armed by the authority and stimulated church to this apostolic origin. “Journal,” vol. ii. by the zeal of the court of Rome, distinguished 278, and the “ Last Days of Bishop Heber," p. 317, themselves in this sacred cause. The progress of in which the arguments of Paulinus, from his the Reformation, by giving an effectual check to

“ India Orientalis Christiana” in its support are abthe ambition of the Roman pontiffs, and by depriving stracted. For the less ancient traditions, see Tilthem of a considerable part of their spiritual do- lemont and La Croze. minion in Europe, might perhaps have tended to + Gibbon, vol. viii. p. 347.

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with the Nestorian heresy, were entirely ignorant, heathens around them, but to the Roman Catholics, of the great western apostasy, knew nothing of the from whose power they have been so happily exusurped supremacy of the Pope, and had never tricated. heard of the worship of the Virgin Mary, of tran Next in antiquity to the Syrian Christians are substantiation, purgatory, or any of the peculiar the members of the Armenian church, who, diserrors and corruptions of the Church of Rome. persed as they are throughout Asia, and engaged A circumstance so fatal to the proud and exclusive in commercial pursuits, are to be found in every pretensions of that see, could not but excite the part of India. They differ in various respects jealousy and alarm of its bigoted adherents. Hence both from the Greek and Latin church, and may in it was, that no sooner had the Portuguese established general be said to be free from essential error and themselves on the coast of Malabar, than the Romish corruption. They have places of worship at the clergy, and especially the Jesuits, who, with a zeal three presidencies of Calcutta, Madras, and Bomworthy of a purer faith, had flocked to make con- bay, as well as in the interior of the country, and verts in this newly discovered territory, instead of are supplied with ministers from Persia, and occaembracing the Syrian Christians as brethren, and sionally visited by bishops and archdeacons, under endeavoring by mild and benevolent methods to the superintendence of the patriarch of Echmiatzin. correct what might have been really erroneous in The numbers of the Armenian Christians in India their creed, to improve their general character, and do not exceed a few thousands, nor have they ever to protect them from the oppression of the neigh- appeared anxious to extend the pale of their comboring heathen princes under which they found munion. them suffering, determined on compelling them to The zeal of the Portuguese clergy, and of the vasubmit to the Papal jurisdiction, and to conform to rious missionaries of the Romish church, among the tenets and ritual of the Church of Rome. whom the justly celebrated Francis Xavier holds After a long series of intrigues, artifices, and per- the most distinguished place, effected the conversecutions, Menezes, archbishop of Goa, who pre-sion of thousands of the natives of India to the Rosided at a synod convened in the year 1599, at man Catholic faith. The greater number of these Diamper, near Cochin, succeeded in persuading converts were at Goa, and Cranganore, and in other the Syro-Malabaric churches to acknowledge the stations on the coast of Malabar, under the more supremacy of the Pope, and to submit to the Romish immediate influence of the Portuguese government; jurisdiction. The archbishop, at the same time, but the missions in Madura and Mysore, in Marava expunged the alleged Nestorian errors from their and the Island of Ceylon, on the coast of Coromanliturgy, and with the bigotry and intolerance which del and in the Carnatic, were, if we may credit the characterized all his proceedings, committed to the reports, more particularly of the Jesuit missionaries, flames the ecclesiastical books and ancient records eminently and extensively successful. Mony de of the Syrian church.

ductions must undoubtedly be made with respect to The triumph, however, of Menezes, was partial the numbers of Hindoo converts thus asserted by and temporary. The churches in the interior yielded the missionaries of the Romish church. But even only a forced and apparent compliance with his de- admitting to whatever extent the success of their crees; and about sixty years after the synod of exertions, the Anti-Christian and unworthy, meDiamper, the conquest of Cochin by the Dutch, thods to which the Jesuits had recourse, and the and the expulsion of the Portuguese from the merely external and nominal profession of Chrisgreater part of the coast of Malabar, afforded them lianity with which they were for the most part conthe opportunity of shaking off the Romish yoke, tented, tend to reduce to a very low scale' the estiand of regaining their ancient ecclesiastical inde- mate of their labors, in what must otherwise be pendence. This they have ever since maintained deemed a noble and most important enterprise. under a metropolitan bishop of their own nation, The expedient resorted to by Robest di Nobili, while the more numerous churches, chiefly on the chief of the Jesuits' College at Madura, in the sixeuast, have continued their comection with the teenth century, and one of the most eminent followPapal see; and except that they have been per- ers of Xavier, of adopting, together with his clergy, initted to retain the Syriac language in their liturgy, the dress, habits, and manners of the Brahmins, is are in strict conformity with the Romish churcha striking instance of those unwise and equivocal The numbers of these nativee Cristians, comprising attempts to conciliate the Hindoos, by compromisboth the purer Syrian and the Syro-Roman churches, ing the truth and simplicity of Christianity: This have been estimated at abuut two hundred thousand learned and zealous man, with the same well-inten

The independent part of the Syrian Christians, tioned, but mistaken policy, composed a work in who possess about fifty churches among the hills of Sanscrit, consisting of dialogues between a ChrisMalayala, having, upon their emancipation from tan and a Hindoo, in which, though the preponthe Portuguese dominion, acknowledged the juris- derance of argument is in favor of the Christian, diction of the Jacobite patriarch of Antioch, very the Hindoo, in order to convince his countrymen naturally admitted the doctrine of that church, in of the folly of idolatry, is made to reason powerfully direct opposition to their former Nestorian error. in support of the principles of pure theism. A In either case, however, the tenet seems to have translation of this work 'having been transmitted been little more than verbal. The apostles' creed from Pondicherry to the king's library at Paris, was the only one recited in their service ; nor did Voltaire, presuming it to be the genuine production they, in fact, essentially differ from the Catholic of a Hindoo, triumphantly appealed to it as a decidoctrine respecting the divinity of the Son of God. sive proof, that it was unnecessary and superfluous

Upon the subject of the sacraments, and in their to urge the doctrines of Christianity upon a people liturgical offices, they doubtless fell into many errors who were already so well informed as to the tenets and superstitions; but considering their long se- of natural religion. clusion from any more enlightened Christian com The failure of all such worldly expedients on the munity, the secession of the larger portion of their part of the Romish missionaries in India, is fairly brethren to the Romish church, and the incessant acknowledged by the Abbe Dubois; who, however, persecutions to which they were exposed, the de- strangely attributes it, not to the refusal of the distruction of their books, and their consequent want vine blessing to a method of proceeding so contrary of education, it is only wonderful that they have to apostolic principles and practice, but to the effect retained so much scriplural knowledge, and present of the divine predestination ! so striking and favorable a contrast, not only to the The decline of the Portuguese dominion on the

Number 30.

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