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measured language in which the Founder division of this article, to make such of the system indulged, even against char practical deductions with regard to station. The answers," It is not meet to the duty of Protestant Christians in take the children's bread, and cast it to the present day, as may naturally be dogs,' and Let the dead bury the dead; drawn from the whole subject. but gothou and preach the kingdom of God,'

1. Thankfulness to Almighty God would be converted into proofs of insolence and imperiousness: while the sen

for the blessings of the Reformation, tences, 'I am not come to send peace up- is the first practical duty suggested on earth, but a sword;' 'I am come to by the volume before us. What do send fire on the earth, and what will I if

we not owe, as Englishmen, as Proit be already kindled; would be considered as avowals, that the Author of the doc- testants, as Christians, to the heroic trine cared not what consequences followed constancy and evangelical labours from his attempts to establish it. The of the reformers ! But for their efEpistles to the Galatians and the Corin- forts, who knows but some scourge thians would be eminently serviceable to the composer of such a work. They would similar to that of the Mohammedan detect the same disagreements occurring imposture might have been sent into among some principal agents in the cause the West, as it was into the East, (Gal. i. 11-14), as are objected to the unless, indeed, which is more proProtestants; the same divisions and con- bable considering the development of sacred ordinances not less gross. Nay, of European intellect, scepticism or the foulest charge of all, that men became deism had preoecupied its place? more immoral and vile after embracing the The anti-Christian corruptions of the reformed doctrine than ever before, would not be without its parallel from the very

one division of Christendom in the words of an apostle—such fornication sixteenth century were as gross, and among you as is not so much as named nearly as fundamental, as those of among the gentiles.' Yet who does not the other division of it in the seventh. see that all would be perversion and misrepresentation, and of no real weight ? As

But the mercy of God raised up it would be in the one case, so is it in the Luther and his fellow-labourers to other.” pp. 554, 555.

reform, instruct, and illuminate the The other passage is of a different European churches, instead of perorder: it is simple and natural, but ele- mitting some second Mohammed vated. It refers to the death of Luther. (or, shall we rather say some apostle

“Thus died in peace the man, who, of infidelity ?) to enslave and to debearing no higher office than that of an stroy them: and amongst all the Augustinian monk, and afterwards of a nations of Europe, there is not one Protestant professor of divinity, had shaken to its centre one of the most firmly which has such peculiar reasons for seated systems of despotism and delusion gratitude to God as our own. Where that the world ever beheld; who had pro- are now the churches of France ? voked, and for nearly thirty years together Where the awakened cities and defied, the utmost malice of those mighty powers, which had a little time before states of Austria ? Where the inmade the proudest monarchs to tremble quiring provinces of Italy? Where on their thrones ; while, for the suppres- the evangelical aspirations of Spain? sion of his principles, diet after diet of the And even if we compare our church German empire, aided by the representatives of the papal authority, met in vain. with those which still retain the His hand had been against every man that Protestant name, how superior our was engaged on the side of reigning error, grounds for praising God! For what and every such man's hand was against has been, and is, the state of the him; yet not one of them could touch a hair of his head to his hurt: he lived and Swiss reformed churches ; of the died unharmed, not only in the presence Genevese, the German, the Swedish, of all his brethren,' but in despite of all the Danish, the Norwegian, the his enemies. So marvellous is the provi- Dutch? Where is there so pure and dence of God; so inexhaustible is his store of means for accomplishing all his scriptural a national creed in effecpleasure;' and so secure, under all circum- tive operation as in our own coun. stances, is the man over whom the shield try? Where so bright an effulgence of his protection is extended.” p. 478.

of evangelical light ? Where, notWe proposed, as the last general withstanding any remaining civil


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disabilities, is toleration granted that, for the first half of his career, so amply to the varying modes of Luther could only gain a connivance Christian worship, or of religious limited by great hesitation and ineffort resorted to by tender or mis- decision; and then let him compare informed consciences? Where, with this state of things with the almost many deplorable exceptions, espe- unlimited range for every Christian cially in our cities, is education more and benevolent effort which our widely diffused ? Where is there a national freedom presents to us. system of doctrine and discipline Let him consider also the actual more freely admitting the practical resources and extent of the British revival of pure and undefiled re- empire; let him cast his eye on the ligion? Where are the Scriptures States of North America, planted

studied, or more purely by the hand of Britons, speaking expounded? We are aware, that their language, and propagating large, very large, deductions, must their religion; therr let him turn his be made from these statements; view to the crowded population of but still our present point, the duty the Eastern world, and behold half of gratitude to God, is not weakened a continent brought under the by the consideration of our failing sceptre, or open to the predominant to make a due use of the vast ad- influence of this country; next, let vantages we enjoy. Let the reader him enumerate, as he passes over consider only the position of this the map of the world, the colonies country in the present day with re- and possessions of the British crown spect to the conversion of the hea- scattered on the borders of the chief then nations, our civil and religious Pagan and Mohammedan nations; freedom, our wealth and resources, and when he has compared all this our extended commerce opening to with the diminutive power and cir. us an intercourse with every part of cumscribed limits of our empire, the world, our influence, the prin- three, or two, or even one century ciples of improvement which are back, he will be able to ascertain fermenting on all sides, the re- what causes we have for exuberant awakened spirit of religious inquiry, praise to Him who thus has singuthe establishment and progress of larly enlarged our opportunities of so many great societies for the dif- good beyond those of other nations. fusion of the Gospel, and the atten- We admit most fully that this tion which is fixed upon us by liberty and this power are not, after other nations, and he will discover all, the leading blessings of the Reabundant testimonies of the Divine formation itself: nor do we present mercy, and corresponding reasons them in this view. We admit

, and for grateful acknowledgment. expressly maintain, that the main

There are two points however, benefits of that signal revolution relative to our own country, which were the emancipation of the human occur to us as peculiarly demand- mind, the spiritual illumination and ing our thanksgivings, when we look instruction of man, the overthrow forward to the conversion of man- of religious ignorance and idolatry, kind - OUR LIBERTY, RELIGIOUS and the development of the peculiar AND CIVIL; AND THE EXTENT OF and vital doctrines of the grace and

Let the considerate satisfaction of Christ; and we strongreader reflect how, three centuries ly approve of Mr. Scott's remonback, every such attempt at good by strances on this subject: we agree individuals would have been crushed with him in protesting against those by the rude hand of power ; let him statements which would represent remember the tyranny by which the the chief blessings of the Reformapopedom secured its usurpation tion to be the mere principles of over the understandings and consci. Christian liberty and toleration. ences of mankind; let him recollect Unquestionably, its chief blessings

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consisted in the assertion of the principle was, that the Scriptures exclusive and paramount authority contain all things necessary to of Scripture, and in the knowledge eternal salvation ; whilst the Papists and diffusion of its pure and holyrested on human authority, the comdoctrines. But we still think that, mandments of men, the dictates of in subordination to these primary fallible tradition. Popery had closed, benefits, the liberty and the and still closes, the Scriptures to power granted to this country are the mass of mankind; Protestantism subjects of peculiar gratitude to God, has spread them wide as the sun. because, among many other reasons, Popery appeals to fathers, and counthey afford us the means of extend- cils, and decrees of the church; ing and propagating the saving Protestantism appeals to the one sutruths of His word to the ends of preme rule of faith and duty. Popery the earth. If abused indeed, these works by the arts of the schoolmen, privileges must turn to our deeper and the concealment or perversion condemnation ; and England, like of Holy Scripture; Protestantism Nineveh, and Tyre, and Babylon, by the simple exposition of the unmay become a monument of power adulterated word of God. We have and greatness overthrown. "But, but to look through the volume we if rightly employed, they are most have been reviewing, to see that the important means of blessing man- Scriptures were the chart of the kind with the light of evangelical reformers. The book of God was truth-so important, that England ever in their hands. Their subseems at this moment only to want mission to it was unconditional. the will, successfully to lead on They daily read it, and meditated the conquests of the Redeemer in upon its contents. It was wrought every land.

No considerable ex. into their whole system. A sacred ternal obstacles present themselves. awe filled their minds, when treatObstacles did we say? every ex- ing of the matters which the eter. ternal circumstance appears to admit nal God had revealed for the salvaand invite us to the holy effort. tion of mankind. They did not And this is the very reason which indeed reject the testimony of traleads us to hope, that the honour dition, the opinion of the fathers, may be granted to our country of the dictates of experience, or the aids conducting the blind and wander- of sound sense and learned criticism ing nations of the earth to the light when humbly applied to aid, under and rest of the Gospel.

the influence of the Holy Spirit, 2. But, to this end, it will be cssen- the just interpretation of the sacred tial that a right direction should be volume. But they assigned to none given to our endeavours and our of these an authority over the book prayers; and therefore we proceed which theywere intended to illustrate. to deduce, as a second practical They gave to none of them equal conclusion from the history before or similar force to the inspired text; us, the importance of keeping ever much less did they, in practice, realive in our minds, the great prin- ject that text, and preach the ciple of all the reforned commu- decrees of fathers and councils. It nities. The experience of the whole is almost impossible to conceive, church of Christ for eighteen cen- now that the impresssion of the turies loudly proclaims, that all past has so nearly spent itself, how essential error, leading to the ruin generally the holy writings were of the souls of men, and of the unknown, neglected, perverted, alprosperity and even existence of most lost, when Luther first arose. Christian communities, has had its If we cast a view at the Romish rise in the neglect of the Holy preachers of the last century, or Scriptures. Here then thereformers even at their discourses in the pretook their ground. Their grand sent, what ignorance of the Scriptures, what distortion of facts, what circles, and the technical phraseomere follies do we see imposed upon logy of a party, take them off their hearers; the great argument from the broad, unsophisticated of each portion of the sermon is tenor of the Divine word, whicha not the word of Christ, but the will not be cramped by human word of Tertullian, Augustine, Je- schemes; and which will not stoop rome, or Bernard. All intelligent to petty definitions, or flow in the use of the oracles of God seems confined channels men may prepare neglected as if by common consent. for it; but which, rising above and And here we cannot but observe, beyond all mortal minds, bears the that the Protestants have not been impress of its Divine Author, and free from this defect, though in a dif- can only be adequately expounded ferent manner; that is to say, from at in its general spirit, its mighty times perverting, as well as neglect- principles, and its undisputed docing, the blessed Scriptures. The trines of pardon, justification, and Church of Rome may be said, in boliness, after the model of the practice, virtually to have denied Apostles and primitive teachers of them all authority; the Protestant the Gospel. The Bible is a book Church has occasionally weakened of principles and of motives; and the simplicity of their testimony, all our subsequent advances in by over-straining particular pas knowledge are not to supersede sages, by carrying its simple practi- that book, but to be referred to it cal theology to metaphysical refine-as alone containing the elements of ment, by magnifying the doctrine Divine truth, and to be kept suborof a few texts to the disparagement dinate to its unerring decisions. of the fair bearing of the whole 3. But besides the great prinrecord, by neglecting the propor- ciple of the reformed bodies, these tion, the scope, the spirit of the historical records teach us the imdifferent parts of Divine truth. Pro- portance of insisting strongly on bably no class of Protestants is those doctrines of the Scripture which wholly free from this error. We appear peculiarly adapted to the speak not now of the Socinians in circumstances of the times in which our own country, or of those who we live. No one portion of revealed are termed Rationalists, or Neo- truth indeed is to be inculcated to logists, in Germany: (we shall ad- the omission of the rest; all must vert to this last fatal corruption be in unity and symmetry; and we presently:) but we are speaking trust that none of our readers will of the vast body of Protestants misunderstand our remarks on this who build on the great foundation subject. But there may be some of the sacrifice of Christ, and who particular doctrine or precept of reyet, for want of a more adequate velation, which, being more directsubmission of the whole heart to ly opposed to the prevailing notions, every part of the holy volume, are has been lost sight of, and yet may at times guilty of taking away from be peculiarly adapted to correct the its genuine efficacy. Let Protest- predominant errors and evils of ants, then, return more and more

At the time of the Reto Scriptural divinity. Let the fair formation, the remedial doctrine and simple meaning of all the words demanded was that which went of the Holy Ghost, be more entirely directly to counteract superstition, admitted and reverenced. While the fond notion of the merit of they condemn, and avoid, the sys- works, the inventions of purgatory, tematit . dereliction of Scriptural the intercession of saints, the invotruth in the Church of Rome, let cation of angels, the obligation of not the authority of names, and the pilgrimages, mortifications, scourgfashionable tenets of the day, and ings, in short, all the false refuges the current sentiments of their own and satisfactions which were accu

the day:

mulated for appeasing conscience, rally speaking, now again admitted and acquiring the favour of God. to be the foundation of all hope ; Under the superincumbent load of though we agree with Mr Scott these human contrivances, the true (p. 37) in the fear that mere indoctrine of pardon was buried; the difference and carelessness of mind, very idea of what justification meant as well as a real understanding of had vanished; an infused habit of the doctrine of pardon, have their grace was the tenet substituted for share in producing that admission. it, from the days of St. Augustine Still the admission is made, and to the time of Luther; and in this the truth is proclaimed; and we potion the Council of Trent reposed. are therefore called to push on to In like manner the doctrine of good the next spiritual conquest. A very works, as the fruit of faith, and fol- important struggle in the present lowing after justification, had not day is respecting the doctrine of the only been perverted, but the very Holy Spirit. At the Reformation notion of what good works really this was less contested. The press were had perished. Works of moral of the conflict in a superstitious age duty to God, according to the tenor was on justification ; but the prevaof his holy law, were superseded by lent disease of our own times is selfsuperstitious performances, by pe- sufficiency in matters of religion,

ringing of bells, oblations, presumptuous inquiry, scepticis , attendance at mass, or abstinence reliance on the powers of human from certain foods. On this false reason, learning abused to the perfoundation was reared all the super- version of Divine truth, a rage for structure of tyrannical impositions criticism and refinement, and the on the conscience, excessive claims pride of intellect. We condemn of ecclesiatical power, and blind the ancients in a mass without submission to the dominant church. giving them a hearing. We fancy Luther opposed to this fabric the ourselves to be enlightened, and one simple, scriptural tenet of justi- without any parallel in attainments. fication by faith only in the infi- We are amazed that our ancestors nitely meritorious sacrifice of Jesus should have been so long deluded, Christ. The vast building fell be- and are little aware that our own fore the force of truth, and on its follies, though of another character, ruins the essential doctrine of gra- may be quite as gross and more tuitous forgiveness was once more fatal. With an admixture of superraised, to the glory of the Saviour, stition, vital piety could consist and for the salvation and conso- debased indeed and fettered, but lation of the souls of men.

still living, and uniting the soul In the present day, and indeed with Christ, by the influence of in every period, an unrelaxed jea- his Spirit; but with pride, and selflousy over this mighty truth must conceit, and a mind puffed up with be exercised. It is only within the vain knowledge, the power of relilast thirty years that, in our own gion is at once extinguished and church, we have recovered the lost. ground lost on the subject of justi- Now, the specific for this infecfication, by the gradual defection of tious moral malady seems to be the so many of our clergy from the Scripture doctrine respecting the purity of our reformed articles, operations of the Holy Ghost; the which the school of Archbishop necessity of an entire submission of Laud began, and the prevailing ini- the understanding to his teaching; quity and vice of the court of the the effects of his influences in the Second Charles consummated. We regeneration and progressive sancti. thank God that the meritorious fication of all the powers of the soul; death of the Son of God is, gene- our dependence upon him for every CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 302.


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