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by Wheatley, seems altogether in- only alms, but contains a prayer of capable of being sustained. oblation ; and that the revised pray
The only remaining rubric to be er-book of 1661, as we now have it, considered in the morning prayer, introduces the words, and oblations, is that after the suffrages, which but omits the prayer. follow the Lord's Prayer, in which These are no doubt strong reathe collects are ordered to be said sons for believing that the word, " all kneeling:" and this direction oblations, has in this passage a re(from all the foregoing notices it ference only to the bread and wine. would appear) must be understood Nevertheless there are not wanting to include the reader, especially as considerations of an opposite tenhe had been standing just before. deney: for it has been observed, In the corresponding part of the that in the unrevised prayer-book, evening prayer this direction is the rubric before the prayer of oblaomitted. But as the two services tion relates to two subjects; the bear an exact and uniform analogy poor man's box, and the due and to each other, that analogy must be accustomed “ offerings" to the cuheld a sufficient reason for supply- rate; from which phraseology it is ing it.
natural to infer that the word, alms, The next question to which I was in the revision intended to shall advert, relates to the words, supply the place of the poor man's * and oblations,” in the prayer for box, and the word, oblations, that the church militant before the com- of the due and accustomed offerings munion.
to the curate. This phrase is naturally connected Without undertaking to determine in our minds with the sentences at this question, it may be sufficient to the offertory, which prescribe a remark, in conclusion, that whichsuitable maintenance for those who ever interpretation be adopted, the serve at the altar ; and hence, as words may be properly retained. If our clergy derive no emolument by oblations be meant the bread from the sacramental offerings, it and wine offered up to God, the is usual to omit the sentences which expression of course ought not to relate to that subject, and also the be omitted. If, on the other hand, words, and oblations, in the prayer. the pecuniary collection which al
This practice, however, proceeds ways accompanies the administration on the presumption that the term, of the Lord's supper be intended, oblations, refers to the sacramental even in that acceptation of the word, offerings; and that these offerings there may still be a propriety in are intended by it to be consecrated reading it; for in most, if not in all, to God, for the use, in part at least, instances (I believe) the clerk and of his ministers. In opposition to verger, or other inferior officiating this constraction of the word, it is minister, is held to be entitled to a contended that it actually refers to share of it, and in some the price of the bread and wine, which are placed the bread and wine is defrayed out on the table in order to be offered of it, although no satisfactory reason to God, and to be accepted by him can be assigned for this practice, for this sacred use in the eucharist. except that offerings, made in the Of this meaning of the word, the house and during the worship of prayer of oblation, which was intro- God, are offerings to himself, and duced into the Scotch Prayer-book may fitly be laid out in his service. in 1637, is cited as a proof. It is Hence it appears that the words, added, that the first prayer-book of “and oblations," should be retained Edward the Sixth, mentions neither whenever there is a communion, alms nor oblations, but provides for although there is a propriety in offering up the body and blood; thatomitting the sentences, which rethe Scotch Prayer-book mentions late to the maintenance of the clergy. I will only further advert to two written. They should be read in points connected with the admini- the singular number, that each in stration of the Lord's supper, as di- dividual may apply them to himself; rected by our church.
and, in proportion to his faith, receive One is, the omission of the greater the whole comfort of them; which part of the notice of a communion, is the precise course observed by the which, however frequent, is wholly high priest in the Jewish service, unauthorised and irregular.
who is directed to address the whole The other relates to the practice congregation in the singular number, becoming more and more necessary, with probably the same intention. of delivering the bread and wine to (Num. vi. 23–26.) Where the conmore than one communicant at each gregation is small, the usual practice repetition of the blessing. The would naturally, as it should in proprecedent afforded by many of our priety, be retained; but in large bishops, in the rite of confirmation, communions, where constant reis strictly applicable; they being petition would be too protracted, under an obligation, equally with monotonous, and uncdifying, it the inferior clergy, to conform liter- would seem desirable to leave the ally and exactly to all the directions minor arrangements to private disin our prayer-book. But, in fact, cretion, only adhering to the strict the language of the rubric is not so letter of the rule, and to the exact rigorous upon this subject as is ge- language of the prescribed form. nerally supposed. It only commands As uniformity of practice is dethe minister, when he delivers the sirable, where the rule is uniform, bread or the cup to any one, to use I trust you will not think the time the form which there follows, but of your readers ill employed in atdoes not say that he must repeat it tending to the foregoing remarks, severally to each. The direction which I will close with a prayer, would therefore be sufficiently com- that all who habitually employ these plied with, if, immediately on de- hallowed formularies may also, in livering the sacred symbols to as the language of our invaluable Limany persons as the circumstances turgy, “ hold the faith in unity of of the congregation may seem to spirit
, in the bond of peace, and in require, the minister should read the righteousness of life."
D. D. appointed words exactly as they are
Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer.
of the African part of the slave
population; a sentiment which, if it Towards the close of your Review argue any thing beyond the operaof Mr. Trew's “ Appeal,” in the tion of that prejudice which preNumber for November, you state vails around him, would seem to (p, 690), “Casting our eyes again indicate, that a very extraordinary over Mr. Trew's pamphlet, we find degree of intellectual and moral de we have omitted to notice a pas- basement had followed their subjecsage which we had marked for ob- tion to West-Indian bondage.” servation, but which is too import- Now, sir, I conceive, that this ant to be omitted. It is that (p. 9.) observation is not warranted by the where Mr. Trew expresses himself passage in Mr. Trew's pamphlet to discouragingly of any good to be which it refers. Mr. Trew there effected by the religious instruction says:
“ No one who has witnessed the ing him to read. This, Mr. Trew mental imbecility so often apparent thinks, in the majority of cases, is in the aged African, or the tardy impracticable; though he admits, development of his faculties to the that “ exceptions will be sometimes reception of Divine truth, would be found to this rule.” And surely if bold enough to recommend, as we reflect seriously upon this statepracticable, bis instruction by means ment, we must admit its correctness. of letters. Exceptions, it is true, I have been highly delighted by the will be sometimes found to this rule, account given by Mr. Ellis respectbut they are rarely to be met with.” ing the proficiency, which many of
When Mr. Trew penned the above the aged Sandwich Islanders had passage, be bad, I doubt not, in made in reading and writing; but I recollection sufficient proof of all must ever look upon the mighty which he has stated; and with events which have transpired there, which, I will venture to assert, and among the other islands of the every pious missionary in the West South Sea, as extraordinary: and Indies will fully concur. For 1 we must remember that those old would ask, is there no difference men, if you will allow me the phrase, between instructing men advanced had wind and tide in their favour; to upwards of fifty years, and those whereas, it is not so as yet with the just advanced to manhood ? Can aged Africans. they who have been “ accustomed The authorities which you have to do evil,” for fifty or more years, cited, therefore, against the passage “ learn to do well” with the same in the Appeal, from Mr. Bickersteth facility, as they who have not ad- down to Sir George Collier, carry vanced to half that age in iniquity ? no conviction to my mind. In fact, of the number of those who are they do not bear upon the main brought to the knowledge of the point at issue. They shew, indeed, truth in England, bow many are what I am sorry to observe, is not brought to that saving knowledge fully admitted by all men; namely, when they have passed the age of that Africans possessing the same fifty? And if the number be small advantages as Europeans, are as in this highly favoured land, can we capable as they of being Christianised expect, in ordinary circumstances, and civilised; and this the author of more success or even as much the Appeal would be the last man among the aged Africans?
to question. Not that the tardy development Referring again to the Review of their faculties to the reception of (p. 682), I find this passage: “ Even Divine truth, should cause the mini- Mr. Trew does not venture to hint ster of Jesus Christ to remit his dili- a hope, that the money will be apgence. He ought, as you sugges plied in any such way as we should to hope even against hope; and no consider to be education in this one acquainted with the respected country.” author of the “ Appeal”—his un- This leads me to ask, What is abating zeal-his patient and un- considered to be education in this wearied labours, to instruct and to country? Is teaching boys and girls conrert the aged African, as well as to read the Bible on the Lord's others, will suppose that he despairs day? If so, then Mr. Trew has more of making a saving impression upon than hinted, that this kind of eduhis dall understanding, and of fixing cation will be given in his Sunday his earthly affections upon God and school. (see pp. 12, 15.) And if in your Christ and heaven.
estimation he has not been suffiBut the main point of the passage ciently explicit on this head, it was in question, turns upon the instruc- doubtless wholly unintentional. By tion of the aged African by means the last advices, there were 447 of letters; or, in other words, teach- children (slaves) learning to read in
the schools established in Mr. time with the Sandwich islanders, Trew's parish, besides about 1700 we should see renewed in the former slaves of various ages receiving oral the same effects which our correinstruction in the main truths of spondent regards as almost miracu-, Christianity, at the times allowed lous in the latter. We are happy for that purpose on the estates dur- to find, that even 447 children of ing the week.
slaves, in a population of nearly That there are still impediments 26,000, are learning to read; and . in the way of Negro education, there we shall rejoice still more, if the can be no doubt : the most impor- prevailing prejudices on this subject tant of which is the prostitution of should interpose no obstacle to Mr. the Lord's day. But let all who Trew's benevolent efforts in the wish well to the Negroes, encourage parish of St. Thomas in the East, one another in supporting those and should not prevent the influence efforts wbich are practicable, and of his praiseworthy example, from pray, and hope, and labour, to bring extending to all the other parishes in a better state of things. And of the island. We have already exthus, whatever be our opinions as pressed our high sense of the value to the details of Mr. Trew's plan, or of his zealous and conscientious laof the sentiments conveyed in his bours. Appeal, we may join in his conclud. ing sentence, and never cease our endeavours until, through every Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. corner of the land, and throughout the colonies, “ the religious in. Allow me to call the attention of struction of the Negro Slaves be your readers for a moment, to the made to appear to every Christian inconveniences likely to arise from a duty of the most solemn obliga- the numerous emendations, which tion." -I am, sir, yours, &c. are continually made to the orthoJAMAICENSIS. graphy of our proper names.
This fashion was set by those learned We are by no means disposed men who first found out that Mato diminish the effect of our corre- homet was an incorrect way of spondent's apologetical explanation spelling the name of the false proof the passage in Mr. Trew's pam- phet of Mecca : the consequence of phlet, which called forth the remarks which discovery is, that his name in our Review to which he objects. and religion have perplexed all our There can be no doubt that the evil pretenders to good spelling ever habits of adults may be more in- since. But now, all our missionaries veterate than those of children: are turned new-modellers of names, but we suspect, that, with respect to and we can no longer recognise our the incapacity of the adult slaves of old acquaintances, the Cingalese, or Jamaica to acquire a knowledge of our friends in Otaheite and Owhy-. letters, it is a point which is refer- hee, under the disguise, which they able far more to their want of wear; as Singhalese, Boodhists, and time, than to their want of aptitude natives of Tahiti and Hawaii. It for instruction. If, even on the appears to me, however, that this. Golden Grove estate, the children improvement, if it be one, has not. are so occupied as to leave no time yet gone far enough, but that we for any thing beyond oral instruc- ought, in consistency, to reform all tion on a Sunday, what chance is the names in the Old Testament, to there that the adults should be al- recast the appellations of the oriental lowed leisure for such a purpose as sovereigns, whom we have hitherthat of learning to read? We be-. to been blindly contented to call lieve that, if the Jamaica islanders Artaxerxes and Darius; and to had the same command of their change the Latin names of Ulysses,
Achilles, Ajax, and others for the ornamental painting: and, as there Greek ones from which they are seems no chance of repairing what borrowed. I confess, that it appears is required from any other source to me hardly worth while to take so than the pew owners (the freehold much pains for so trifling an object. and presentation are vested in the The thing most to be desired in a corporation, who refuse assistance), proper dame is, not so much that it it has been thought, that it ought be accurately deduced, as that it be to be reduced as low as possible, fixed and uniform; and that'(I especially as the pew owners are think) would best be secured by not generally occupants, and many adbering to the inventions of our of them are also poor. As many first discoverers and navigators. other churches in different parts of Let them have the honour of fixing the kingdom may be similarly cirthe names which they introduce; cumstanced, it may be useful to for even a certain error is prefer- many other of your readers, lay able to uncertain correction. and clerical, as well as to the writer
D. D. of these lines, if some of your cor
respondents, learned in such matters,
will afford an answer to the followTothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. ing query:
Has a bishop power to order any I am desirous of learning the opi- repairs, except those necessary to nion of your readers upon the fol- prevent dilapidation ? lowing point of ecclesiastical law.
RICHARD HOOKER. The town of Liverpool is one parish; and, in consequence of its increasing population, from time to time new churches have been built. The acts Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. of parliament authorising such buildings were, thirty years ago, very “ It is a much easier thing to find loosely drawn up, and many incon- fault with a sermon, than to write veniences and defects are already a better,” said an old father of a felt in the older chapels, from the family to his children, who were dewant of reasonable and necessary scanting upon the afternoon homily powers. This is particularly the case which they had just heard in their with St. Ann's. The roof is in want parish church. “It is an easy thing of repairs, and there are no funds ex- to criticize the style, the voice, and cept voluntary contributions from the the manner of the preacher ; but, in pew owners; and, what has increased my opinion, the sermon was solid, the difficulty, the bishop has ordered though very plain ; and well suited, sundry internal decorations, which as I think, to the generality of our will equal the expense of repairing village flock. I heartily wish that the roof. In consequence of a non- either of you, my sons, should you compliance with the verbal com- go to the university, and afterwards munications of the bishop, a fiat has proceed to take Holy Orders, may been issued from the Ecclesiastical preach the same great truths which Court; and the church is in conse- we have heard to-day; and, if called quence closed, to the great discom- to minister before congregations posfort of many families.
sessed of higher intellect, may not Without impugning the conduct forget, in the polish of your style, of his lordship, whose diligence and the weighty matters of the Gospel. zeal excite our warmest acknow- When this little dialogue took ledgments, it is still thought that a place, I was a visitor, for a few days, bishop has no power to intermingle at my friend's country-house, and an order for necessary repairs with could not but be struck very forcibly CHRIST. OBSERY. No. 301.