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secure to you hereafter the possi- Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. bility of repentance? Who can promise that the mercy which has In reference to the discussion in been deliberately slighted, shall your Number for last October, not eventually be withheld ? that p. 389, the argument in my mind, God will not at length, according has never been—" Did our Lord to his own awful declaration, “ laugh eat the Passover at the usual time at your calamity, and mock when appointed by the Jewish Law, or your fear cometh?"

did he anticipate that great national 2. The admonition: “ If the Lord type by eating it the day before ?" be God, follow him; but if Baal, but, “Was the memorable supper then follow him.” Think not to which he eat with his disciples the unite the pleasures of sin with the Passover Supper, or was it not? Or hope of the Gospel ; to be at the did he eat it the night before his same time the servants of righte- passion, or did he never eat it? Was ousness and of iniquity; if it be the correct Passover-day the day on right that you should take this which He suffered, or was it the world for your portion, be at ease day before ?" in the pursuit of it: let no appre- On points like these, I agree with hensions of futurity, no alarms of your correspondent A. B. C. that it conscience, check you in your is not so material that we should course. But “ if the Lord be God,” satisfy our minds, either for the let it be your determination to negative or the affirmative, as that serve him; not with a mixed, and we should forbear citing as a fact, doubtful, and partial obedience, but what we are not reasonably assured with the undivided purpose of the is such, for the sake of some inheart ; honouring him in the means ference, however pleasing or useful, of grace, obeying him in the Go that we purpose to ground upon it. spel of his Son, seeking earnestly For the arguments that Christ for the blessings of his Spirit, re. suffered on the day and hour of pentance unto life, the remission eating the Passover, I refer your of sins, the purifying of the mind, readers to Kennedy's Chronology, the quickening and effectual power The direct text against Kennedy's of that grace, which God alone can view of the subject, “ With desire bestow, and which, through faith in I have thus desired to eat this Christ Jesus, he is willing to impart Passover with you before I suffer," to every one who sincerely and his arguments thus paraphrase :diligently seeks it. Do not err, my “I have greatly desired to institute beloved brethren: do not deceive this my Passover instead of the yourselves by the persuasion that legal one before I suffer;" and the you follow God aright when your course of his reasoning is the same service is merely nominal, however as we use against transubstantiafair ; let it be the worship and de- tion.

X. Y. Z. votion of the soul. “ Serve him with a perfect heart, and with a willing mind.” Such was the dying advice of David to his son ; and the argu. Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer, ment by which he enforced it may be addressed with equal propriety I have no disposition unnecessarily to every one among us : " If thou to prolong the discussion on Gal, seek Him, He will be found of i. 7; but your correspondent I. O. Z. thee : but if thou forsake Him, He having, in your Number for March, will cast thee off for ever."

cited various authorities in answer to certain philological objections urged by me against our common version of the clause 8 kestvallo, it appears to me due to the subject to allo to the new Gospel repro, examine the value and amount of bated by him; but I still think, those authorities; and the inquiry that, having used the former, he may deserve the attention of your would naturally have repeated it, readers on more general grounds. and not changed it to allo, had he

· But it is necessary, in limine, to meant to express the sense conreplace the question at issue on its veyed by our version, and that proper footing : for 1. 0. Z., in re- simplicity and perspicuity of style butting those objections, seems to required it.-20. In support of the think, that he has sufficiently vindi- adversative signification assigned to cated the correctness of that ver- El Men, your correspondent brings sion ; and your other readers may forward the names of Pareus, also, like him, lose sight of the true Hoogeveen, Whitby, Leigh, and merits of the case. I would then Parkhurst. Far am I from underremind them, that these philological valuing the lights afforded us by objections are but of minor import- such writers; but he who would ance, and that were we to wave make their knowledge his own, or them altogether, the great insur- satisfy his own mind as to the truth mountable difficulty would still re- of any particular position, which main behind; and that is, the re- they may lay down, must search pugnance, as I conceive, of the for himself, and examine on what clause so translated, to the plain grounds such position is founded. scope and tenor of the Apostle's Now, they give us various passages, remonstrance. For after denounc- in which el un occurs; and I. O Z. ing the new doctrine into which his will do well to analyse those pasnew converts had been seduced aš sages for himself. For my own another Gospel, is it probable that part I cannot see any sufficient he should in the same breath pro- reason for assigning to el un an adnounce it not another, thereby versative signification in any one of blunting the edge of his expostu- them. In all (except 1 Cor. vii. 17, lation—that he should use the ex- on which I will touch again), this pression merely to retract it, and to compound particle appears to me contradict himself? This glaring plainly to have its ordinary excepinconsistency commentators have tive sense of nisi, with the usual vainly endeavoured to explain away grammatical government, a general by various glosses, which the words negation preceding it, from which of the original will by no means Et un makes a particular exception. admit of, and still less those of In some of them indeed el un is our English translation, and which disjoined from the negative by an amount to a virtual surrender of intermediate member, as in Matt. that translation as untenable. What- xii. 4; Gal. ii. 16; but still I conever then becomes of my philologi- ceive that the force of the negative cal objections, the case is but little is carried forward, and that el un mended.

retains its proper exceptive significaThose objections, however, I still tion. The English idiom does not think sound and valid. - 1st. In admit of this construction, but reanswer to the first, I. 0. Z. cites quires the repetition of the negative, the authority of Budæus for the in- if the exceptive be used; and this discriminate use of @repov and allo, has led to the assigning of an adverand produces a very apposite quo- sative sense to ei un in these and tation from 2 Cor. xi. 4. I do not similar instances. But this does not, here call Budæus's authority in I submit, convey correctly the prequestion, but do not see its bear. cise sense of the Greek. In Gal. ing on my objection. I allow that ii. 16, for instance, the Apostle St. Paul might with equal propriety does not mean so much to assert have applied the epithet repoy or the affirmative of the proposition, CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 306.

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namely, that à man is justified by passages above cited, will probably the faith of Jesus Christ, as to deny agree with me, that, if either of the that he can be justified by any particles el un or olla is to be conother means. Now the exceptive sidered as losing its proper signifisense of el un alone conveys the cation, and assuming that of the latter turn of thought, the adversa- other, it is adla, and not el pen. tive gives the former, as if the order But. (what is most to our purpose) of the words had been diraibural in the particular passage under our av putos et spywv vouov, alla da consideration (Gal. i. 7.) he exπιστεως Ιησου Χριστου, instead of oυ pressly leaves the matter in doubt, δικαιουται ανθρωπος εξ εργων νομου, giving both translations thus : εαν μη δια πίστεως Ιησού Χριστου. . « Sed sunt sive exceptive, tantumThe proper use of alla or al un modo sunt, qui vos conturbant,” &c. depends upon this, whether the It is true that he here gives us, as predicate be affirmative or negative: the exceptive sense of el un, not alla might, it is true, have been nisi, but tantummodo, but these used in the latter form; but el pon is are plainly equivalent ; for whether not admissible in the former, nor is we make the Apostle to pronounce ever used in like cases, but alla, as the new doctrine not another in Rom. ix. 11, 16, 32; 2 Tim. i. 9; Gospel, only there be some that Tit. iii. 5, which I would offer to trouble you,' or to say, “ except the consideration of I. O. Z. And that there be some that trouble this shews sufficiently that a pen you," comes precisely to the same cannot be confounded with alla, thing. Nor is Leigh much more nor has ever, properly speaking, the decisive: in his Critica Sacra, under adversative signification. The opi- & un, he says indeed, " It is either nions of learned men on nice philo- an exclusive particle, and so it is. logical questions of this kind, de- taken for only; or else adversative, livered it may be without mature and so it is taken for but : and thus consideration, cannot, and ought not it is used in many Scriptures;" and to be relied upon implicitly. But he then cites our passage among 1. 0. Z. takes credit for their au- several others; but he does not dethorities farther than he is warranted. cide in which of the two senses Hoogeveen in particular, whose above noticed it is to be there. authority on the subject of the understood. Moreover, Whitby Greek particles is of most weight, himself (another of your corresponis treating of the exceptive, rather dent's authorities), in his Paraphrase, than the adversative, signification of renders el un by but that, in the El un, in the section from which passage before us.

What weight your correspondent's passages are are we then to attach to Beza's cited; and, though he observes, non placet, who objects to this after giving a few instances, “ In translation on account of the intalibus exemplis sæpe reddi potest sertion of quod, that? If it is to be per alla," subjoining the parallel taken as conclusive against this passages (Matt. xvii. 8; and Mark translation, it is equally so against ix. 8); yet it is not clear, in what the other. But in fact Beza's ob. sense he takes alla itself, whether jection does not appear to stand adversatively or exceptively; for it supported by the usage either of must be remembered, that in his Greek or Latin writers. In forms section on alla ( v.) he con- of expression analogous to that beversely assigns to axla the excep- fore us we find quod omitted. Thus tive signification of a un. we find Cicero (1 Tusc. 75), thus ceptive quoque,” he remarks, “ac- expressing himself — “ quid aliud cipitur post negationem, et exponi- agimus quum a voluptate, id est a tur per el un;" and the intelligent corpore, &c. revocamus animum, reader, on comparing the parallel quid, inquam, tum agimus, nisi

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animum ad scipsum vocamus ?” might end in the conversion of the Whence we may conclude, that, if unbelieving party; and he then he had had to express the sense, adds, el jin Škaora WS EJepiger > which I attach to the Apostle' s κυριος, έκαστον ως κεκληκεν ο διος words, he would have said, “ quod övra #eplaateira. Now I submit, non est aliud, nisi sunt" (not "nisi that these particles are here most quod sunt"), " qui vos-conturbant," naturally to be taken in their distinct &c. Similarly had the passage cited by and primary meanings, and rendered, Hoogeveen from Aristophanes been if not, and that thus they best carry put indicatively, instead of impera- on the train of the Apostle's intively, it would have stood thus:- structions, which will run thus : ovèev allo (Torecc.) ec un 'oOLES “ For what knowest thou, O wife, where, according to Beza, we ought whether thou shalt save thy husto have had

band? Or how knowest thou, O I beg 'to add but a few words man, whether thou shalt save thy more upon 1 Cor. vii. 17, in which wife? If not,” (that is, if the unbethe force of el rem appears to me to lieving party should not be conbe misinterpreted. The Apostle verted, still) “ as God hath distrihaving discouraged the separation buted to every man—as the Lord of husband and wife on the ground hath called every one so let him of unbelief, though he allows of it walk." That is, in every event, the in the case of the unbelieving party Apostle discourages the notion, desiring' it, gives this reason for that Christianity interfered with the their remaining together, that it relations of civil society,


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suppression of Sunday markets

and Sunday labour; 6. The conferA LATE Numberof the Anti-Slavery ring on slaves a legal right of acMonthly Reporter contains some quiring, preserving, and transmitting very important notices of the recent property; 7. The prohibition of the proceedings in the colonies, chiefly separation of families by legal prothose which have arisen out of the cess; 8. The abolition of the driving instructions transmitted during the whip, the regulation and record of last year by Earl Bathurst to the punishments, and the abolition of different governors, on the subject female flogging. By most, if not of the reforms to be submitted to all of the assemblies, the bills, the colonial legislatures. We re- founded on those recommendations, commend our readers to read the on being presented, were promptly whole of the paper; our limits not and unceremoniously rejected. In allowing of our copying more than thus rejecting, however, (without the following particulars.

the slightest reserve, and with The propositions of Lord Bathurst furious tirades about that constituwere, i. The establishment of a tional liberty which they are daily protector and guardian of slaves; outraging in the persons of others,) 2. The admission of the evidence of the whole of the propositions laid slaves in courts of justice; 3. The before them by his Majesty, the giving to slaves a power, under cer- Assemblies appear to have been tain regulations, of purchasing their quite sensible, that there was peril Freedom; 4. The legal institution of in adhering to their former declaramarriage among the slaves; 5. The tions against all improvement of their slave code. They accompany The unbending resistance with their rejection of Lord Bathurst's which this fair, moderate, and reabills with a resolution to revise their sonable proposition has been met slave laws, in the view of introduc- by them all, is a decisive proof of ing such ameliorating, changes as the utter hopelessness of the willing might be compatible with their own adoption, by the colonists, of any dignity as independent legislators, measure which tends, however reand with the safety of the colonies. motely, to the extinction of slavery. We shall see presently how their It is impossible to conceive any professed purpose has been carried measure leading to that end which into effect. We shall select for our would be attended with less possireview the largest of the colonies.. bility of any private loss or public

Jamaica.-1. The establishment inconvenience than that which of a protector and guardian of slaves. makes manumission the effect of

This proposition has been reject- the steady industry of the slave. ed; and all the colonial legislatures, The experience of the Spanish we believe, have been equally un- colonies has proved its perfect yielding on this point.

safety; while the provision which 2. The admission of the evidence secures to the owner the full value of slaves in courts of justice. of his slave takes away the very

The proposition of Lord Bathurst slightest ground of complaint on on this subject was, that all slaves the score of uncompensated reform. of whom any clergyman, or catholic And yet this is a measure to which priest, or minister duly licensed, an uniform and unqualified and should certify that they understood most determined resistance has the nature of an oath, should be re- been made in all the colonies. The corded and received as competent colonies, therefore, are here brought witnesses in all courts, civil or cri- into direct conflict with his majesty's minal,with the exception of civil suits government. Lord Bathurst has in which the owner was interested, pressed the measure upon them in and capital charges against

free per- the very strongest terms. “ No sons. The objections to this last system of measures," be observes, exception are obvious enough; but will satisfy the feelings of this the proposition of Lord Bathurst, country or execute the purposes of however defective, is a large ad- the House of Commons, which does vance in the progress of improve- not contain some direct provision, ment, when contrasted with the some acting principle, by which the provisions which the Jamaica As- termination of slavery may be grasembly have adopted on this sub- dually accomplishcd.” The giving ject. In the first place, the testi- to the slave the right of purchasing mony of slaves is to be admitted his freedom, his lordship declares to only in criminal cases ; nor can it be “a vital part of the question” be received at all without a certifi- which “ cannot be dispensed with:" cate of baptism. Slaves are His majesty's government, he tells cluded entirely from giving evidence the colonists, “ stand pledged to in civil suits; and in all cases a take such measures as may ultivariety of obstacles are interposed mately, though gradually, work out so as to make the enactment almost the freedom of the slaves ;” and inoperative.

they may be assured, “ that, from 3. The giving to slaves a power the final accomplishment of that under certain regulations of pure object this country will not be dichasing their freedom.

verted.” So decided is bis lordship This proposition is absolutely and on this point, that he assures the entirely rejected in Jamaica, and, local authorities of Deinerara, that we believe, in all the other colonies if they should persist in declining having legislatures of their own. . to admit the proposed regulations


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