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1827.]

respecting manumission, he shall performed according to the rules
have no other alternative than that laid down, should be declared legal
of " submitting to his majesty the and valid. The Jamaica Assembly,
expediency of enacting them by on bringing in the bill, omitted this
direct royal authority." The con- proviso, and it does not appear
tumacious resistance of Demerara, whether the defect was afterwards
which called forth these observa- supplied. But if not, it will be
tions, having been followed by all doubtful whether any connubial
the colonial legislatures without rights whatever are conferred on
exception, there seems now to be the parties, by the mere permission
no alternative but that of either of the marriage ceremony. Besides
yielding to the waywardness of the this, the plan of referring cases of
colonists, and abandoning a mea- slave marriage, not to a protector,
sure, the forlorn hope of humanity, as Lord Bathurst proposes, but to
to which the government is so deep- an assembly constituted as is a
ly pledged ; or of “ submitting to Jamaica parish vestry, is throwing
Parliament the expediency' of such ridicule on the whole affair,
giving effect by a positive enact and interposing such obstacles, as
ment to its own declared but con- would render an appeal of this kind
temned wishes.

not only undesirable, but almost
4. The legalizing of the marriage hopeless as to its result, and would
of slaves.-A clause has been in- also discourage slaves from making
troduced into the Jamaica Act, re- it.-Lord Bathurst required that a
quiring and authorising any clergy- record should be kept of the mar-
man only (and not other ministers riages of slaves; and indeed, with-
as in Lord Bathurst's draft), to so- out such a record, the ceremony of
lemnize the marriage of slaves who marriage must be of little value.
have been baptized, and who pro. The Assembly of Jamaica have
duce the permission of the owner in omitted this provision also; an in-
writing. If an owner refuses his dication that the real object which
consent, the slaves desirous of inter- they had in passing this law, was
marrying may, if they both belong not to give a legal validity to mar-
to the same owner, but not other- riage, but to furnish their friends
wise, appeal to the vestry, who are at home with an argument in their
required to inquire into the cause of favour, drawn from their apparent,
refusal, and decide whether such but delusive, compliance.
marriage shall take place or not. 5. The prohibition of Sunday
This law makes no provision for markets and Sunday labour.
slaves desirous of intermarrying, No notice is taken of the sub-
who belong to different owners. ject of Sunday labour. A feeble
And as a considerable number of attempt at compliance on the sub-
slaves in Jamaica already have ject of Sunday markets is made by
wives, or at least reputed wives, and a clause which limits them to the
children, on neighbouring estates hour of ten o'clock. But such a
belonging to different owners, the limitation is obviously wholly im-
effect must be that such unions will possible, while slaves have no other
not be legalized, however long they day allotted to them by law, in
may have lasted. Indeed, it can- lieu of Sunday, for their marketings;
not strictly be said that any mar- and for the other uses to which the
riages of slaves are legalized by the Sunday is at present necessarily
mere permission or authority given applied. The law, as it now stands,
to the clergyman to perform the would be too oppressive to be en-
marriage ceremony. Lord Bathurst forced; and therefore, we presume,
seems to have thought so, for he it was enacted in its present form.
had introduced a proviso into his It is necessarily, therefore, extinct
draft, that all marriages of slaves, before its operation commences, and

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must be felt to be so by every man in that no Christian master will so far Jamaica. That slaves should travel forget himself, as to claim indemwith their heavy loads ten, fifteen, nity for that which his religion must twenty miles to market, effect their have taught him he ought never sales, and make their purchases, by to require." ten in the morning, is too absurd to 6. Granting to the slave a legal be thought of, and if the law were right of property, and establishing enforced, would be one of the most banks for their savings. severe and oppressive enactments in The Assembly of Jamaica have the Jamaica statute-book. But it framed a clause which inentions the cannot be enforced, while Sunday property of slaves, but leaves out continues to be desecrated as the all the effective provisions for the ouly day fixed for the purposes of security of that property which are universal traffic, among the slaves contained in the Trinidad Order. of the island. It will not do to The clause is a mere apology fot say that markets may be held on refusing to admit the proposition of another day, unless that day is given Lord Bathurst on the subject ; and to the slave as Sunday is now given the slave is left precisely in the to him, for the purpose of marketing. same helpless and unprotected state, It was one of Mr. Canning's most as to all essential rights of property, distinct and unambiguous pledges in which he was before the act was to parliament and the public, that framed. Sunday markets and Sunday labour 7. Prohibiting the separation of should be abolished, and equivalent families by sale. time in lieu of the Sunday be given Lord Bathurst's requisition on to the slave. And the equity of this point is extremely moderate, this proceeding, even if we admit far too much su to serve any subthat slavery, as an institution, may stantial purpose of amelioration. lawfully exist, is so manifest at first He proposes that no slave having sight, that one stands astonished a husband, or wife, or child andera at the obstinate resistance almost certain age; or reputed husband, every where 'made to its adoption.or wife, or child, the property of the Lord Bathurst has stated the case same owner ; shall be levied on, with a clearness and force which or sold by legal process, unless are irresistible, even on West-In- together in one lot, and to the same dian principles. “The master," his purchaser. The obvious defect of lordship says, “ is entitled to the this provision is, that it is limited labour of the slave for six days in to slaves sold by legal process, and the week, but he is not entitled to does not extend to voluntary sales more; and out of the profits of the by the master; and that it exclades six days' labour the slave must be from its operation slaves married, supported. The seventh must be- but belonging to different owners. long to the slave entirely for his The only provision that appears to own profit and advantage. I can have been made on the subject, is perceive no difference in principle to render more precise the old law, between the practice of purchasing by which, when slaves are levied food for Negroes, who are exclu- upon in execution, if mothers and sively employed for six days in the children under ten years of age are service of their masters, for their seized together, they shall also be support during the whole week; sold together. Some of the arguand of appropriating an adequatements employed in discussing this portion of time, during the six days, question, will throw light on the for the cultivation of their grounds.” state of feeling, among even the « The master is not deprived of the higher classes in Jamaica. Mr. service of his slave-on any day ex- Brown said it would be very hard cept Sunday, and it is to be hoped, upon a man who owed a small sum of 501., to have a whole family sold by population in his Majesty's Cothe marshall. (The hardship inflict, Tony of Berbice,' to have effect ed on the slave is made no account from the 1st of November, 1826. of.)—Mr. Batty proposed that fa. We must confess that we have read: milies should not be separated by some parts of this paper with feel. voluntary sale. - Mr. Hilton ob- ings of deep regret We fully adjected to this, (and his opinion pre- mit that the ordinance which has vailed,) that it would be violating been promulgated in Berbice, by the rights of property to dictate the command of his Majesty, is a to the master how he should dis- great improvement on the previous pose of it: he had a right to sell state of the law in that colony; and one, or more, of his slaves, accord- thus far, therefore, we contemplate ing to his wants and inclinations, it with satisfaction and gratitude. in the same way as he had to dis. We rejoice when any thing is done pose of any other property. even to abate, though in a slight

8. The abolition of the driving degree, the malignant evils of the whip, and of the flogging of women, slave system, and still more when, and the modification of punishment, as in the present instance, much is

It was not even proposed that done. But it is impossible for us driving in the field, or the flogging to view, without sorrow and alarm, of females should be abolished, the progressive deviations which but merely that the cat should be this document exhibits from the substituted for the cart-whip, both principles originally propounded, to coerce labour and to inflict pue and the pledges originally given, nishment ; and that, in the whipping by his Majesty's Ministers; and the of women, there should be no inde- progressive concessions which it too cent exposure. Both these propo. plainly indicates to some of the sitions, however, were rejected. The worst prejudices, and the most unprohibition of the driving whip, and reasonable objections of the colothe flogging of females, and the nists. The final result of these record of punishments, have been omissions, modifications, and conrejected, not only by Jamaica, but cessions, we have now embodied in by Barbadoes and the Bahamas. the ordinance of Berbice, which

" There is, however, another falls 'nearly as far below the Tri. branch of the subject," continues nidad Order, as the Trinidad Order the Anti-Slavery Reporter, “ which fell below the pledges of Mr. Canis perhaps still more important; ning, and of the Colonial Departnamely, what Government have done ment itself, in May and July, 1823.". in those colonies where their power of legislating is unfettered by assemblies of planters. We say more Tothe EditoroftheChristian Observer. important, because on the fidelity I beg permission to lay before the with which Government may have readers of the Christian Observer, redeemed their own solemn pledges, the following remarks upon a subin cases where they have had free ject which has been often noticed scope for action, must mainly rest in your pages; I mean, the appliour hopes of such a result as shall cation of the curse of Canaan to satisfy the wishes of the nation, and the circumstances of modern Negro the claims of humanity and justice. Slavery. They are copied from an We are enabled to form some judg- American Journal, but deserve to ment on this point by the promul- be reprinted in this country, on gation of their latest edition of the account of the apology which is so code of Colonial Reform; we mean, often made for the slave trade and

the ordinance for promoting the slavery; as if in the first place these religious instruction, and bettering outrages upon humanity are, without the state and condition of the slave any question, a fulfilment of Scriptural prophecy; and further, as Acts vii. 45.) The destruction of though a prediction of necessity Tyre and Carthage, and the subju-, rendered it lawful to fulfil the thing gation and oppression of their depredicted.

scendants, may

also be noted. The A. B. C.

whole taken together, proves that “ In your last Number, there is the Canaanites have passed under an extract from a Lecture of Dr. oppressions that accord well with Collyer, on the prophecy of Noah the prediction. (Gen. ix. 25, 27), which considers “ 2. If we pass beyond the Cathe slavery of the Africans as a part naanites, who are expressly deof its fulfilment. This view of it signated, and apply the prediction is so common, that I may perhaps to other branches of Ham's debe thought singular in objecting to scendants, why not apply it to all ? it. That the Africans have suf- Why select some, and pass over fered much from slavery and op- others? Nimrod, the founder of pression, I readily admit ; and this Babylon and of a mighty kingdom, fact may have led to that inter- was a grandson of Ham. The propretation of the prophecy, which phecy does not well apply to that extends it beyond the descendants branch of Ham's family. The same of Canaan, to those of Ham ge- may be said of the Egyptians. nerally; and especially to those They were once a powerful people, branches of his family that settled and under some of their kings, as in Africa. There is indeed a vari- Shishak, and Necho, had an exous reading sometimes quoted, that tensive dominion. (1 Kings xiv. ; appears to favour this; but there 2 Chron. xii. 2, 3, and xxxv. 20.) is so general an agreement among The same may be said of Ethiopia versions with the received text, that under some of its kings, and for a there is reason to believe that the considerable period. (2 Chron. xiv. reading referred to is the result of 9; xxi. 8.) We may, it is true, an attempt to suit the text to the find a state of things among some condition of the African part of other branches of Ham's family, Ham's family.

that suits the prediction : but does “I object to considering African this agreement authorize us to say, slavery as a fulfilment of this pro- it is a fulfilment? I doubt it. We phecy, and especially of making it may find a state of things among the prominent part of the fulfil- some of the descendants of Shem ment, for the following reasons :- and Japheth, that suits the predic

“ j. We have a clear and dis- tion,—the long oppression of the tinct fulfilment of the prophecy in Jews, and the slave trade carried the case of the descendants of Ca. on from the northern parts of Asia, naan, the person designated in the as well as from Africa; but none prophecy. They were the Canaan- apply the prophecy to these cases ! ites. The place of their settlement “ 'The fulfilment of the prophecy is clearly designated. (Gen. x. 15 is clear, while we confine it to the -20.) It is the country afterwards Canaanites ; but when we go bepromised to Israel; and the Ca- yond them, and apply it to the naanites are the people the Israel- other branches of Ham's family, ites were commanded to destroy, we get into difficulty. If I am not when their iniquity should be full. mistaken, the argument from pro. (Gen. xvi. 16–21.) Most of them phecy is often weakened and inwere destroyed or brought into sub- jured by applying it to cases that jection, in the time of Joshua,

in some respects agree with the (Joshua xi. 19, 20; x. 1-24,) and prophecy, but which, when carethe rest were brought into subjec- fully examined, do not appear to tion in the days of David. (2 Samuel have been at all referred to. viii. 1-14; 2 Chron. viii. 7-9; “ Before closing I may remark,

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1827.] On Administration of the Sacrament to condemneu Uru... that I have known many persons, Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. and among them some professors of religion, who, hearing this pro- Though the subject on which I phecy of Noah applied to African propose to offer a few remarks, has slavery, have considered it as justi- been noticed in some former Numfying slavery. Yet on the suppo- bers of your publication, I consition that the prophecy did in- ceive it to be one of those which clude African slavery, it does not should not be lost sight of, till the follow that slavery is consistent with practice so justly objected to is religion. God foretold the slavery relinquished. It is truly gratifying of Israel in Egypt (Gen. xv. 13, to mark the purity and simplicity of 14), and the awful judgments he that religious system, and that ecwould inflict on the Egyptians, for clesiastical establishment, which, as their guilt in doing what it was members of the Protestant Church foretold they would do. God fore- of England, we adopt; but it is no told the death of Christ, whom the less painful to witness any practices Jews took and by wicked hands connected with that church which put to death (Acts ii. 23), and may give ground for the suspiawful were the judgments inflicted cion, that the spirit of Popery still on the Jews for that crime. (Matt. lurks within her pale, and has a xxiii. 35-38.) Christ foretold the practical influence on the ministepersecutions his followers would rial acts of her clergy. This susmeet. (John xvi. 22.) The re- picion, I must reluctantly admit, jection of the Gospel by the Jews will appear to be not wholly withwas foretold (Acts xxviii. 25–27), out foundation, if we may credit and their dreadful doom for so do- the reports which are given in the ing. The great apostacy that would public journals of the ordinary take place in the church, (2 Thess. transactions which precede the exi. 1--12; Rev. xvii. xviii.) and ecution of criminals. I am aware, the destruction that awaits those (because I have it from high authothat partake in the unrighteous- rity,) that these reports must not ness is foretold. If a matter's be read with too implicit a reliance being foretold justifies it, then the on their accuracy. As dying speeches greatest of all crimes are justifiable; and confessions are notoriously mafor they are foretold.

nufactured and printed long be“ Christ's command to us is, to fore the unhappy culprits have consider every man as our neigh- ascended the scaffold, so there is bour (Heb. X. 29—37), and to a sort of preliminary routine of re• love him as ourselves;' and to do ligious preparation, which is supin all things to others as we would posed to apply to all persons under have them do to us. Now if any the near expectation of the last thing may be considered as too fatal award of the law; and which plain to need proof, which still is perhaps sometimes detailed by some have denied, (and we should reporters, more from imagination or be at a loss to fix on the truth that tradition, than from circumstances never has been denied,) we think which have actually occurred. In that the above rules of Christ, in this state of things, it seems by their spirit, do condemn slavery: no means impossible that many a which is one of those hard condi- culprit may be reported to have retions that nothing but necessity ceived the sacrament previously to can make any submit to.”

his execution, who at the same time has not been deemed by the chaplain a fit subject for the administration of that holy ordinance. A clergyman in Kent, recently

through the medium of the press, CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 306.

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