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dom to God, even the Father,” he will no the same Apostle, it appears, that this longer reign himself in person : ' (2) • If fellowship has an union antecedent to he shall be subject to the Father,” he itself: these are his words, ' If that which will no more preside over his church :' ye have heard from the beginning shall reand (3) • If“ God shall be all in all,” then main in you, ye also shall continue in the our salvation is not placed in the union, Son, and in the Father.” (1 John ii. 24.) sight, and fruition of him.' I will proceed What! shall the union between Christ to give a separate answer to each of these and his church cease at a period when he objections. The kingdom of Christ em- shall place before his glorious sight his braces two objects :--The Mediatorial spouse sanctified to himself by his own function of the regal office, and the regal blood ? Far be the idea from us! For glory. The royal function will be laid the iunion, which had commenced here aside, because there will then be no ne- on earth, will then at length be consum. cessity or use for it; but the royal glory mated and perfected. will remain, because it was obtained by “ If any one entertain doubts concernthe acts of the Mediator, and was con- ing the vision of Christ, let him listen to ferred on him by the Father according to Christ in this declaration :- He that

The same thing is declared loveth me shall be loved of my Father ; by the expression • shall be subject,' and will love him, and will manifest which here signifies nothing more than myself to him.' (John xiv. 21.) Will he the laying aside of the super-eminent thus disclose himself in this world only ? power' which Christ had received from Let us again hear Christ, when he inter. the Father, and which he had, as the cedes with the Father for the faithful: Father's Vicegerent, administered at the • Father, I will that they also, whom thou pleasure of his own will : and yet, when hast given me, be with me where I am ; he has laid down this power, he will re- that they may behold my glory, which main, as we shall see, the head and the thou hast given me: for thou lovedst me husband of his church. That sentence before the foundation of the world.” (John has a similar tendency in which it is said, xvii. 24.) Christ, therefore, promises to •God shall be all in all,' For it takes his followers the sight of his glory, as away even the intermediate and deputed something salutary

, to them; and his administration of the creatures which Father is entreated to grant this favour. God is accustomed to use in the commu- The same truth is confirmed by John, nication of his benefits; and it indicates when he says, ' Then we shall see him as that God will likewise immediately from he is.' (1 John iii. 2.) This passage may himself communicate his own good, even without any impropriety be understood himself, to his creatures. Therefore, on of Christ, and yet not to the exclusion of the authority of this passage, nothing is God the Father. But what do we more taken away from Christ which we have distinctly desire than that Christ may been wishful to attribute to him in this become, what it is said he will be, the discourse according to the Scriptures, Light' that shall enlighten the celestial

“ This we will now shew by some plain city, and in whose light the nations and apposite passages. Christ promises shall walk ?' (Rev. xxi. 23, 24.) an union with himself in these words, . If “ Although the fruition of Christ is suffi. a man love me, he will keep my words ; ciently established by the same passages and my Father will love him, and we will as those by which the sight of him is concome unto him, and make our abode with firmed, yet we will ratify it by two or him.' (John xiv. 23.) Here is a promise three others. Since eternal felicity is of good: therefore the good of the church called by the name of the supper of the is likewise placed in union with Christ; Lamb, and is emphatically described by and an abode is promised, not admitting this term the marriage of the Lamb,' I of termination by the bounds of this life, think it is taught with adequate clearness but which will continue for ever, and in these expressions, that happiness conshall at length, when this short life is sists in the fruition or enjoyment of the ended, be consummated in heaven. In Lamb. But the Apostle, in his Apocareference to this, the Apostle says, “I lypse, has ascribed both these epithets to desire to depart and to be with Christ;' Christ, by saying, 'Let us be glad and reand Christ himself says, ' I will that they joice, and give honour to him; for the also whom thou hast given me be with marriage of the Lamb is come, and his me where I am. (John xvii. 24.) John wife hath made herself ready.' (Rev. says, that the end of his Gospel is, that xix. 7.) And a little afterwards he says, our fellowship may, be with the Father • Blessed are they which are called to and the Son' (1 John i. 3); in which the marriage supper of the Lamb.' (verse fellowship eternal life must necessarily 9.) It remains for us to treat on the consist, since in another place he explains glory of Christ, which is inculcated in the same end in these words : · But these these numerous passages of Scripture in are written, that ye might believe that which it is stated, that he sits with the Jesus is the Christ; and that, believing, Father on his throne,' and is adored and ye might have life through his name. glorified both by angels and by men in (John xx. 31.) But from the meaning of heaven.” Arminius, pp. 300—303.

Early in the year 1604, Arminius “ Without the least contention or caentered on his public lectures on the villing, it may very properly be made a doctrine of preçlestination; and Go question of doubt, whether this doctrine

agrees with the Belgic Confession and the marus his colleague opposed him. Heidelberg Catechism; as I shall briefly It by no means appears that his demonstrate. choice of this subject was voluntary: Confession, these expressions occur: Man

“ 1. In the 14th Article of the Dutch but his manner of handling it seems knowingly and willingly subjected himself to have been conscientious. That he to sin, and, consequently, to death and considered it as perfectly orthodox cursing, while he lent an ear to the deceivwill be seen at large in the sixth do. ing words and impostures of the devil,

&c. From this sentence I conclude, that cument given in this volume; namely,

man did not sin on account of any necesthe “ declaration of the sentiments sity through a preceding degree of predesof Arminius on Predestination, Di- tination: which inference is diametrically vine Providence, the Freedom of the opposed to that doctrine of predestination Will, the Grace of God, the Divi- the 16th Article, which treats of the eter

against which I now contend. Then, in nity of the Son of God, and the nal election of God, these words are conJustification of Man before God, tained: God shewed himself merciful, delivered before the States of Hol- by delivering from damnation, and by savland, in a full assembly of their lord- ing; those persons whom, in his eternal

and immutable counsel and according to ships, on the 30th of Oct. 1608, in his gratuitous goodness, he chose in Christ their hal of session at the Hague.Jesus our Lord, without any, regard to (Arminius,

p. 516.) In this decla- their works ; and he shewed himself just, ration Arminius opens his objections dition into which they had precipitated

in leaving others in that their fall and perin full to the ordinarily received no- themselves. It is not obvious to me, how tions of predestination, under twenty these words are consistent with this docheads of argument. And in finally trine of predestination. subjoining his own views, which berg Catechism, we read;

“ 2. In the 20th question of the Heidel

Salvation make the grant of election expressly through Christ is not given (restored] to conditional, “ ex fide prævisa,” he all them who had perished in Adam, but expresses his own conscientious to those only who are ingrafted into conviction of their agreement with Christ by true faith, and who embrace his

benefits.' From this sentence I infer, that the Confession and Catechism, which God has not absolutely predestinated any had only been in very general terms men to salvation; but that he has in his brought against him in argument, decree considered (or looked upon) them

as believers. This deduction is at open After appealing likewise for this conflict with the first and third points of protest against the ordinary state. this predestination. In the 54th question ment respecting predestination to of the same Catechism, it is said, I bethe Harmony of Confessions, con

lieve that, from the beginning to the end taining those of Bohemia, England, entire race of mankind doth by his word

of the world, the Son of God out of the (Query, which does he so designate?) and Spirit gather or collect unto himself a Wirtemburg, the first Helvetian, and company chosen unto eternal life and another of Strasburg, &c. those of agreeing together in the true faith. In Basle and Saxony, and the Augus-4

this sentence election to eternal life,' and

agreement in the faith,' stand in mutual tan Confession, with even the last juxta-position; and in such a manner, that Helvetic Confession*, he proceeds: the latter is not rendered subordinate to

the former-which, according to these * “ The last of the Helvetian (Swiss] [Supralapsarian) sentiments on predestiConfessions, to which a great portion of the nation ought to have been done. In that Reformed churches have expressed their case the words should have been placed in assent, and which they have subscribed, the following order : • The Son of God likewise speaks of it in such a strain as calls and gathers to himself, by his word makes me very desirous to see what me- and Spirit, a company chosen to eternal thod can possibly be adopted to give it any life, that they may believe and agree togeaccordance with that doctrine of predes- ther in the true faith.' tination which I have just now advanced. “ Since such are the statements of our Yet this (Swiss) Confession is that which Confession and Catechism, no reason whathas obtained the approbation of the ever exists, why those who embrace and churches of Geneva and Savoy.” Armi, defend these (Supralapsarian] sentiments nius, p. 558.

on predestination, should either violently


endeavour to obtrude them on their col. Gomarus betrayed a testy mood; as leagues and on the church of Christ; or why they should take it amiss, and put the den exclamation, “ Why, they say

when he met Arminius, with a sudworse construction upon it, when any thing is taught in the church or univers you are more learned than Junius sity that is not exactly accordant with their himself.” We shall give, in the doctrine, or that is opposed to it” Ar- words of Brandt, as quoted by Mr. minius, pp. 558, 559.

Nichols, the picture of one of those The statement against which Ar- theological disputations which beminius here protests is the Supra- longed to the spirit of the times. It lapsarian. He afterwards proposes was on the calling of men to salvathe Sublapsarian, under two sub- tion, in which Arminius had said, divisions, and consigns them to « That he neither could nor durst dethe same virtual conclusions with fine the method which the Holy Spirit uses those which arise from the Supralap- in the conversion and regeneration of man: sarian ; the distinction, he thought, the proof would rest with that individual:

that, if any one else durst define the mode, if any, being metaphysical, not that he could say how conversion was not moral,

effected, that it was not by an irresistible Presuming this to have been the force; but not how it was: that this is

known to Him alone who searches out the first, as it was the ultimate, length to deep things of God.” Arminius, p. 300. which Arminius proceeded in his

After which a Papist, priestor lectures, we have no

to wonder at the reception he met with Jesuit, said to have challenged Arfrom the whole body of the Calvi- minius, nistic clergy, and from Gomarus, it sentiments on this subject. While


“ and by many arguments attacked his is said, amongst them; though Go: minius was engaged in reply to each of marus himself was kindly disposed them seriatim, the countenance of Gomatowards him at heart, but was in

rus changed colour, and, that he might cited by the more rigid in temper, auditor, he occasionally varied his ges

have the semblance of being only an idle whose infection he seems at length tures, sometimes scribbling a little, at to have fully caught. His first dis- other times whispering something into the positions are somewhat shewn by ears of Everard Vorstius, the professor of the fact that in the following year, ment casting his eyes rapidly over the au

medicine, who sat next to bim,-one mo1605, on an application to the Sy- dience, that was very numerous, and the nods of North and South Holland next moment muttering something befrom some inferior churches or tween his teeth. He appeared desirous classes, a document was signed by of the disputation ; but he restrained him

of contradicting what was said in the midst the professors Arminius and Gome- self,—though he suffered these or similar rus themselves, with Trecaltius their expressions to fall from his indignant lips, fellow-professor, stating, in sub- What impudence is this ?' At the close of stance, that they could have

wished passed out of the divinity hall when he

the disputation, scarcely had Gomarus such classes to have acted more exclaimed, 'The reins have been given up regularly; that they believed that to the Papists in fine style to-day !' and among the students there were more presently joining Arminius, he said to him disputes than were fit; but that Jesuit

, that he had never before heard such

in the presence and within hearing of the they knew of no difference of opi- speeches and disputations, by which the nion among the professors of Divi- door was so widely opened to the Papists, nity, so far as related to fundamen- Arminius replied, that he had satisfied tal points, &c.”* At other times there was any thing in the disputation

his own conscience;' but he denied that

which could at all promote the interests • “ I am at peace with Gomarus," said of the Papacy. Gomarus then said, that Arminius at this time, in a private letter he would publicly refute what had been to Uitenbogardt, “unless he should lend an

advanced. ear to him that seems to aim at nothing thing be spoken in opposition to my con

Arminius rejoined, “If any else than not to be found a false prophet science, I promise likewise to give it a himself. I will, on the contrary, do my public contradiction. Gomarus promptly best to make my moderation and equanimity appear to all men, that I may prevail manner of treating it.” Brandt, vol. ii. both by the goodness of my cause, and the p. 35.

declared, "I will not be wanting to the mer occasions ; not with an express cause.' Arminins answered, 'I also hope, view to alterations, but as a fit subthat I shall not be wanting. But we will make an experiment at the proper time; ject, being merely human, for such and I am fully

persuaded, that the doctrine free observations as advancing light of irresistible grace (which had formed a and reflection might throw on those part of the disputation] is repugnant to the sacred Scriptures, to all the ancients, ceived formularies of the churches.

yet but recently established and reand to our own Confession and Cate chism.” Arminius, pp. 301, 302.

It were too much to say that the The spirit of conference was not whole remainder of Arminius's hismuch superior to this--a new and tory is occupied in bandying about doubtless inquisitorial process, by reasons, for and against, on these which it was attempted to get at the several points of circumstance and opinions of teachers, with a view to ceremony. Pity was it that at this ascertain, prejudge, and, if neces- early period, in 1608, difficulties sary, cite and accuse opponents, ra- prevented the calling of the National ther than meet them on equal terms Synod then proposed. That preat a General Synod, was the very ex

vention is not well accounted for, as pedient adopted at the Synod of Arminius had conceded the main Dort. And it was by this species point last adverted to; although of conference in the first instance; very jealous of the claim of prescripby appeals to the Provincial Synod tion set up by those formularies, in the second; and at last, by the which had scarcely been framed distant view in a cycle of years of a when these discussions began. But National Synod, that these Dutch perhaps even then Arminius may Presbyterians looked for the settle- probably have seen that nothing was ment of all the differences in their to be obtained by such methods, inferior churches, classes, and con

and was on the whole satisfied that sistories. Arminius was naturally things should remain as they very slow in lending himself to such were, rather than hazard a change, expedients. He was appealed to considering the tone and temper this very year, 1605, by certain de- of the times; and he might be puties of the church of Leyden, to disposed to rely rather on the confer on the topics in question : slow but sure progress of free inbut he declined, without first re- quiry, which began now to rise on ceiving the sanction of the curators the world, than to crush it in the of the university. Again, the Pro- bud by hasty and ill measured apvincial Synod of South Holland ex- peals to human authority in divine hibited articles against the university matters. Even our venerable friend of Leyden, of certain disputed points Mr. Scott, when commenting on the on which they wished to be re- Historical Preface, makes the folsolved. These inquiries were also lowing remarkable concession, amidst declined by the curators themselves, pages of an opposite description :on the ground that a National Synod "The enlightened and decided friend would shortly meet. A petition was to free inquiry will see, even in the at length presented to the States causes of these complaints (the disGeneral of the United Provinces, for sensions occasioned by Arminian a summons of the expected National pastors), the dawn of that more enSynod. This petition again was larged state of things in which free met by a condition on the part of investigation of both received, and the States General, probably at the exploded, and novel opinions, proves instance of Barnevelt, and other ad- ultimately and highly beneficial to herents of Arminius, that in the the cause of truth; and he will agree body of the summons should be in that the arm of authority, secular or troduced a clause, intimating that ecclesiastical, could not beneficially the Confession and Catechism must be exerted against it; except so far undergo a similar revision as on for- as to require those who voluntarily

belong to and minister in any church hind him as a testimony against to conform to the rules of that church, those who should hereafter violate or toʻrecede from it without further those principles; and, as if for the molestation. But this does not pre- only practical purpose of amusing vent the propriety of doing justice Mr. Nichols, with contrasting at the to the character of wise and pious bottom of the page, and in his supmen, to whom no views of this kind plement, through one hundred and had as yet ever been presented.ten of the fullest and most minutely Historical Preface, pp. 26, 27. printed octavo pages we ever had

Perhaps not-except by Arminius the labour of surveying, the sad himself; of whom their severe treat- reality at Dort with every particular ment first, and then their unfair re- in the pleasing ideal prototype of presentation, form one of the most Arminius. We could offer abundant instructive though painful morals to quotations from this oration, conbe deduced from this whole “ his- firmatory of its author's disposition, torical document."

but we have much yet to do; and It is not to be wondered at that

we cannot longer keep back the a mind of sensibility, at once pa- closing scene, at once, of our procific, and, we cannot doubt, consci. fessor's labours, sorrows, and life in entious, like that of Arminius, should 1609, at the early age of forty-nine have prematurely sunk under the years. Could any thing satisfy us growing weight of irremediable per- more fully than before of the temper plexities. His anxieties, his sorrows, and feeling of the “ Historical Preas may fairly be inferred from his- face ;” it would be the cold and tory and his own writings, were heartless allusion to that event which for the church of God. It is imó for the most part closes the mouth possible indeed to peruse bis truly of all invective, and opens the heart

charming" oration, the fifth in of the most inveterate adversary. this volume, delivered in 1606, It sufficiently satisfied the prefacer's

“ reconciling religious dissen- feelings to notice the disappointment sions amongst Christians," without of a corference, occasioned by the being forced to acknowledge at sinking state of Arminius's health: once the sagacity of his mind, the and his death would have passed extent of his observation, and the without a comment, but that the sincerity, piety, and benevolence visionary hope of ensuing tranof his heart. . In that oration quillity, stultified by the immediate he draws, indeed, some Utopian aggravation of every evil which the scheme for a general synod, which peaceableness of Arminius alone reshould be conducted on a basis truly strained, was too tempting a recolangelical, for the settling of human lection, of a ten years' standing, not differences: and this he leaves be- to be again brought up, and shewn

• This is the very point of the whole to have been the single impression controversy, and it ought not to have made on his enemies by his death. been assumed. The Arminians pleaded Very different was the impression conformity to the rules of the church, with an appeal to a synod to alter them made, by his early removal from the if necessary. How did their opponents world, upon those who knew him meet them? Was it simply by requiring well enough to appreciate his chathem to sign the Confession and Cate- racter. Whilst his complication of chism? No-but by devising new tests, and tendering them for signature as the complaints * was growing upon him, new condition of conformity. This petitio principii, the resort of all arbitrary eccle- These included « feverish affections, siastical power, cost Mr. Scott only (and a cough, an extension of the vitals, diffiinadvertently we are sure) a little unsound culty of breathing, oppression after taking logic; but it cost the unhappy Remon- food, disturbed and unrefreshing sleep, strants their liberty, their country, and atrophy, and the gout. These complaints their lives! Whatever were their tenets, were soon succeeded by pains in the intliat does not alter the state of facts, testines, both ilion and the colon, with


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