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the preses tell them how much they were clear they acted, as Mr. Scott would beholden to the synod, that had so pa- admit, at least an injudicious part tiently heard them, notwithstanding that in placing themselves in the position and that they ought to have expected the of inquisitors, and the “poor Arminimandate of the synod. To this Episcopius ans” in that of victims. Either, as Mr. replies, that he had required leave before Scott observes in another case, the he began to speak. True,' said the fact must have been wilfully and preses, but you stayed not till leave was granted you.

Besides," said he, ' you are directly perverted by eye-witnesses, to know that no man may, no not of those or else those men were really in the that are the members of the synod, offer power of the synod, precisely as our without manifesting the argument and English Reformers were, in the predrist of his speech.' The only answer

sence of Bonner and Gardiner, or as which Episcopius gave to this remark, other unhappy victims in after-times was, that he had been ignorant of the ex- before the Star-Chamber and Court istence of such a law.” Armimius, pp. of High Commission; or as the son of 425, 426.

A still more extraordinary reply James himself before the president to the speech of Episcopius was of. Bradshaw. Manliness and temper fered by the synod, in an irrelevant

seem to have been on this occasion and captious attempt to implicate the exclusive charter of the Remonhim in the guilt of a lie respecting strants.

In the discussion relative to the his alleged non-possession of a fair

authority of the synod, after a re• In the afternoon of that day, a trick mark from a member, “ that it was was played off against Episcopius, which never known that any law allowed was every way unworthy of honourable parties to be judges,' men, much more of Christians and divines The lay commissioners sent for him, and if you were in our places and we in yours,

Episcopius then said, “ Mr. President, asked him many questions, which with all would you submit

to our judgment?' the artlessness of an innocent and upright Bogerman replied, " If it had so happened, mind he answered. Their questions were

we must have endured it; and since goapparently intended to elicit information,

vernment has ordered matters in a differwhether his speech, and which he had given up to Bogerman, were

ent way, it becomes you to bear it with nearly alıke in sense and meaning: He patience.' Episcopius rejoined, * It is one said, 'they were the same, with the excep- and it is another to bear with patience the

thing to acknowledge a person for a judge, tion of a word or two; and added, that he had the first rough draft of it still by will endure it; but our consciences can

sentence which he may impose. We also him, but it was so greatly interlined as

not be persuaded to acknowledge you for scarcely to be intelligible to others. With

the judges of our doctrines, since you are his frank replies they seemed well satis

our sworn adversaries, and have churches fied; and, after exhorting him to labour

Arminius, for peace, they dismissed him in a friendly totally separated from ours."


429. Soon after, Heinsius, the secretary of the commissioners, came to the

After they had delivered their final lodgings of Episcopius, and desired of him, protest, which, however, did not in the name of one of the body, to have hinder their proceeding to the the perusal of the rough draft of which proofs of their positions, the ProHeinsius, under a promise that it should fessor Barlæus, a spectator, be speedily returned.” Arminius, p. 426.

on hearing this document read, and

seeing the magnanimity of the RemonWhat use was made of it by the

strants under all the disadvantages which synod, it would be quite unworthy they encountered, and the studied insults our time or that of our readers to dis- which they received, exclaimed in one of cuss; only Mr. Nichols concludes,

his letters, · When heard these things, I

admired the courage of the men. They “ The cited Remonstrants were often compelled to receive, with patience, this synod, as equals with their equals. Their

were really intrepid, and spoke in the instance of imputed prevarication, and bad countenances were unruffled and serene, faith, from the lips of their persecutors.” and they were prepared, as they confessed, Arminius, p. 428.

to endure all extremities."" Arminius, p. Whatever might have been the 430. consciousness of truth, and of power, Episcopius, it is true, had not on the part of the synodists, it is himself so much to say for Mr. Pre

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sident Bogerman, when, finding the nuine hatred to Arminianism." Arminius, Remonstrants could not be entrap- p. 476. ped to implicate the orthodox by In justice to the character and

authority of the Arminian Brandt, name, “ Bogerman opened out his characte- whose work is so often quoted, we ristic fury, and in a great passion ex. add the conclusion of Mr. Ni. claimed . If you will not name them, 1 chols's paragraph. will. They are Zuinglius, Bucer, Calvin, Beza, Marlorat, Martyr, Zanchius, Pis

“ That highly respectable and upright ..cator, Perkins, and Whitaker! those ve

historian, the elder Brandt, has made nerable men, those brave heroes, those great use of them [letters of Hales and noble lights of the church, those happy Balcanqual); not because the temperate souls whose memory is blessed both by statements of the Remonstrants needed God and man! These are the persons any such confirmation, for, as the good whom you intend to expose !' This

old man most properly observes, the

contra-remonstrants had sufficient opporspeech was pronounced with so much warmth, and in such a thundering tone,

tunities to contradict their accounts, if - that his countenance changed, his joints they had contained any untruths : but trembled, and his words seemed to pos

this, as far as I know, they have never sess no coherence. When Episcopius yet done.'. A short time, however, after describes this scene, he says, What making this declaration, Leydekker wiote eyes, and what a countenance did the against Brandt, and in vindication of the man exhibit! The perturbation which synod. On this work, and that which it he manifested I can compare to nothing professes to censure, the learned Mobetter than that of a man the tender pupil gently comparing these two productions, of whose eye had been pricked by some sharp instrument, the pain of which I could see no enormous error in Brandt; caused him to writhe with agony.'” Ar- for, in truth, these two writers do not so minius, p. 445.

much differ about facts, as they do in the We feel ourselves entrapped into and in their accounts of the causes from

reasoning which they deduce from them, the details of the proceedings of which they proceeded. The reader will this far-famed synod, with respect do well to consult the letters of the to whose actual decrees of doctrine, learned and worthy Mr. John Hales, of we repeat it, we give no opinion. We the proceedings of this famous synod,

Eton, who was an impartial spectator of shall therefore add only further, in and who relates with candour and simpliplace of a thousand extracts of the city what he saw and heard.” Arminius, same nature as those above, that Mr. P. 477. Nichols has given the entire body

We give also a sentiment from of Bishop Womack's bistory of this Mr. Nichols, in reference to Mr. synod, as collected from the letters Scott's translation, which we find of Messrs. Hales and Balcanqual, he discusses in pp. 510-515, &c. the agents of Sir Dudley Carlton, of his multifarious volume, and the British ambassador at the views, as might be expected, in no Hague, and who were actually

favourable light. present, as parties vehemently en- “ When Mr. Scott intimates.......

that • the gaged against the Remonstrants.

measure adopted by the

rulers of Belgium, in respect of the de“ The Calvinistic and highly prejudiced cisions of the Synod of Dort, ought not feelings of both the writers, and the ex- to be judged according to the generally asperation of their spirits against the Re- prevailing sentiments of modern times, monstrants, are perceptible in all their he has forgotten to subjoin, that the mea. communications to his excellency. Yet sures in question ought rather to be these men, in the opinion both of their judged according to the enlightened and countrymen and of foreigners, have fur- pacific sentiments of Arminius and his nished the most valuable account of the early followers.” Arminius, p. 514. Synod of Dort which has ever yet been This oversight of Mr. Scott, we given. Its value consists in the honest must add, is made the more redisclosure of many reprehensivle practices to which the managers of that synod had markable after the highly liberal recourse, and in the frank confession of concession we have already quoted the outrageous dispositions of the Dutch from him, respecting a free invesclergy, and the tiimsy pretences under tigation of opinions ; as well as reobjectionable proceedings, and all this specting the inexpediency of such without the least abatement of their ge- a rigorous and exclusive subscrip&c. &c.


tion to peculiarities, as that pre- is to be noted, that all the 'errors scribed by the Synod of Dort. It the Synod condemns, are seems almost unnecessary to re- connected with the rejection of the peat, that the adoption of this test, Calvinistic scheme, but that not one in addition to the Belgic Confession error is denounced on the side of and Heidelberg Catechism, proves its perverted reception ; although that the very party who accused it was the dread of errors of this Arminius of departing from that class which unquestionably opened Confession, were themselves deeply the first fissure in that portentous implicated in the same charge; schism of which Arminius was reand from the beginning, strove not presented as the author. for the formularies, but for their

(To be continued.) own interpretaton of them. But it

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE, “ the brain secretes thought as the liver ations as the following, urged by Mr. secretes bile.” These writers will doubt. Chaplin, the commissioner in the Deccan. less be thankful for the following apt ori. “ I apprehend the practice of suttees will ental illustrations of their doctrine. again become frequent. As however it is


thirteenth century, entitled, “ On the PREPARING for publication :-Scripture Knowledge of the Human Soul, which is Diary, or Christian Almanack; by the likewise called the Reasoning Spirit.” The Rev. J. Whitridge ;- The Correspon- following argument is curious, both as apdence and Diary of Lord Clarendon, from proaching to the modern doctrine of che1687, to 1690, from the original MSS., mistry on the division and composition of with Notes; by S. Singer.

matter, and as including some of the reaIn the Press :-Religion in India, or a sonings of Christian divines respecting the Voice directed to Christian Churches, for resurrection. “ Any person, who miMillions in the East ;— The Diary of a nutely considers the properties of bodies, Member of Parliament, from 1656 to has an accurate knowledge of their depen1659, from the Autograph ; by W. Up- dence on the laws of composition and ascott;- Lectures on Paul's Epistles to sociation, decomposition and disjunction, the Corinthians; by William Lothian, and is well versed in the whole science of St. Andrews.

the world of corruption and decay, must

know, that no body whatever becomes The first arch of the New London entirely destroyed; but that accidents, Bridge is completed, and the whole work modes, composition, association, figures, is in a state of rapid progress. The foun- and qualities, which subsist in a compound dations of the pier are said to be deeper subject, may be changed, while the amount than those of any bridge in Europe. The of matter shall still remain the same. For edifice is constructed of several sorts of example; water may become air, and air granite. The centre arch will have a span fire, but the matter which receives these of 150 feet, with a height of 30. The three separate appearances will still sublength of the bridge, including the abut- sist. Now, seeing that material subments, will be 928 feet, with a clear water stances are not susceptible of annihilation,

uncompounded essences, which are purer The Suspension Bridge at Hammer- than base matter, will stand still higher smith is completed. The extent of wa- touching the impossibility of annihilater way

between the suspension towers is tion.” about 400 feet, and the distance be- Another paper in the same work, in tween these and the piers on shore about giving an account of an Indian sect, the 145, leaving a clear water way of 688. Characas, presents the following sample of The road way is 30 feet wide, and 16 their doctrines. The passage, grossly abfeet above high water.

surd as it is, might have been almost liteThe first volume of the Transactions of rally copied from the writings of some of the London Asiatic Society, contains a our European Materialists, who gravely translation of an extract from an Indian tell us that the soul is only a name for the work, written about the middle of the functions of bodily organization, and that

way of 690.

“ The faculty of thought results from a a species of voluntary death, which remodification of the aggregate elements, in sembles that of a high-spirited female, who like manner as sugar with a ferment and prefers loss of life to loss of honour, we other ingredients becomes an inebriating cannot look upon it in the light of selfliquor ; and as betel, areca, lime, and ex- murder; nor are we, in my opinion, justitract of catechu, chewed together, have an fied in taking any active steps to prevent exhilarating property, not found in those these acts of infatuation, which the fanasubstances severally, nor in any one of tics themselves consider as 'light afflicthem singly. So far there is a difference tions, working for them an eternal weight between animate body and inanimate sub- of glory!' Humanity is apt to shudder at stance. Thought, knowledge, recollection, these sacrifices, and true religion very pro&c., perceptible only where organic body perly condemns them; but recent obseris, are properties of an organized frame, vation convinces all who have been prenot appertaining to exterior substances, or sent that much of the horror of the sacriearth and other elements simple or aggre. fice itself is the effect of the imagination gate, unless formed into such a frame. of the spectators, which has no foundation While there is body, there is thought, and in reality. It is an idle fancy to suppose sense of pleasure and pain; none when that the torture is prolonged even for a body is not; and hence, as well as from minute, and it is quite certain that a woself-consciousness, it is concluded that self man drowning herself in a well, or swaland body are identical."

lowing a little arsenic, would undergo It is stated in an interesting memoir just much greater bodily suffering. Whilst published of the Warwick County Asy- such sacrifices are religiously deemed melum, that, of the whole number of boys ritorious, we cannot suppress them by any tried and convicted of crime and admitted half measures." into that institution, not one had received In this last remark we perfectly agree instruction under the national system-it with Mr. Chaplin; and it would therefore is not stated that they had under any other be wise to substitute effectual measures system. It is added, that during the for“ half” ones, especially if what he adds course of nine years there are only three is true, that “the Brahmins appear to be instances of asylum boys being placed out far from satisfied with the mode of our inin situations as reformed, who afterwards terposition ; and some have suggested to returned to criminal practices. On the me, that in preference to continuing it, contrary, some who had run away from the community would be infinitely better the institution were yet so far reformed pleased were Government absolutely to by the instructions received while there, probibit women altogether from becoming that they had forsaken their former pur- suttees.” suits, and betaken themselves to honest Mr. Richmond, an army surgeon in Inindustry.

dia, states, that within eight months he UNITED STATES.

has restored to sight by surgical operaThe remains of a mastodon have been tions nearly eight hundred persons, bidiscovered in Ontario County, New York. therto blind; and he adds the following The whole skeleton was in such a state of calculation, which, though perhaps too decomposition as to be incapable of being large, shew's at least the extensive benefits preserved. The tusks were four feet in which European science may

confer upon length. Of the two superior incisors no the world :-“ Taking the population of trace could be discovered, but the eight British India at sixty millions of native lower ones were in sight. The length of inhabitants (and this, I believe, is much the largest tooth was six inches ; of the below the usual computations), and supsmallest three and a half.

posing that blindness generally prevails in INDIA.

the same proportion as I have found it to The duty and practicability of suppress- exist in the course of my practice, there ing by judicious but essectual means the are at this instant 246,000 people with caburning of widows, appears to be increas. teract, who are capable of being restored ingly felt among intelligent and benevolent to sight by an operation as simple as that persons in India as well as in England: of blood-letting, and 270,000 with other nor is this impression likely, we trust, to diseases in the eye, who are also fit obbe counteracted by such fippant extenu. jects either for cure or for relief.”

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The Court of Directors have determined about the size of a large elephant, stated that the widows of European officers and to be the mastodon, not the mamsoldiers are not in future to be excluded moth. Five species of the genus masfrom the benefits of the pension fund on todon are supposed by Cuvier to have account of their being born in India; and been discovered, and it is conjectured the the affidavits hitherto required from wi- bones now under consideration will be dows that their parents were of unmixed found to constitute a sixth.

The next European blood, are in future to be dis- most remarkable remains are those of pensed with. This is another among the the fossil rhinoceros. The fossil bones, many instances of sound policy and right as well as fossil shells and wood, are all feeling in the modern arlministration of found upon the surface; but notwiththe affairs of India.

standing this exposure, they have suffered

very little decomposition. They have not A large quantity of fossil remains have suffered froni attrition, for their edges are been brought to Calcutta, from the Bur- preserved with great distinctness. The mese empire, by the late mission to Ava. collection is the more valuable since it is Of the fossil bones, the most numerous stated to be the first of any moment that and reinarkable are those of an animal has ever been formed in the East.



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