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by such a stern Royalist as the new lord, but it had come too late to be long a measure of gratification. Just three weeks after the patent was issued, and at the age of 46, he died in London. His wife was Euphemie, daughter of Sir David Cunningham of Robertland, and she bore him two sons and two daughters.

The Second Lord Kilsyth:—James Livingston, the second Viscount Kilsyth and Lord Campsie, was served heir to his father, by instruments dated the nth May, 1664, and 3rd May, 1665. In the life of the second viscount there is a great deal that is unaccountable. He either did not hold the Royalist traditions of his family, or held them slightly. It is probable his deepest sympathies were with the Covenanting party. Napier hints that he was insane. Certain facts of his career are greatly significant, and may be allowed to speak for themselves. Holding an officer's commission in the Royalist army, he was still suspected of being far from favourable to the interests of King Charles II., and although his family had been in high favour, he never was employed on any public service either by Charles or James. In 1686 there came a crisis. He held a seat in the Scottish Parliament, but James being anxious to pass the "Act of Toleration," gave orders to his ministers that they should see to it, that all who had seats in the House, and who were officers obnoxious to the Government, should be called upon to resume their official duties. Lord Kilsyth was one of those so called upon. In plain terms the command meant the resignation of his seat. His lordship took a firm step. Rather than resign his seat, he resigned his commission. The clouds were now darkening, and the storm was soon to break. In the troubles that ensued Lord Kilsyth took no part. He probably kept quiet, because he regarded the cause with which he was associated in heart, namely, the cause of the National and Covenanting party, as hopeless. That such was his belief may be gathered from the fact that in 1680 he resigned his lands and estates in favour of his younger brother William, a Royalist of the most pronounced type. All he reserved for himself was 4000 merks, to be paid annually, and the mansionhouse of Colzium for his use during his lifetime. It was a fatal blunder. Instead of this action saving his land to the Livingstons, it was the very means which secured their complete confiscation after William had landed at Torbay, and the National party had fought their long and bitter fight to a victorious termination. That he had failed to discern the signs of the times was soon made clear to him. After his brother had been convicted of complicity in the plot to take over certain troops to the side of Claverhouse, he and the people of Kilsyth had to obtain from the Privy Council "a protection order," to guard them against the oppression to which they were subjected by the soldiers of King William. It is very easy to fling at the memory of Lord Kilsyth bitter charges of facility and incapacity; it is easy to say he should have always acted in the brave spirit he showed when he flung down his commission, and that he should have given his sword as well as his heart to the Covenanters. It is easy to make these charges now, but it is not to be forgotten that it is not so easy to cut one's self wholly adrift from the long and honourable traditions of a great family; not so easy in a time of envenomed conflict for a man who wishes to do the right to see clearly or act decisively. The second Viscount Kilsyth and Lord Campsie died a bachelor in 1706.

CHAPTER VII.

William Livingston, Last Lord Kilsyth—Case of Betty Whytfoord—Marches into England—The Edinburgh Convention —Attempt to join Dundee—Arrested—Critical Position— Appeal for Mercy—Banishment—Marries Lady Dundee—The Exchanged Rings—Utrecht—Lady Livingston Killed—Presbyterian Plots—Exposure of Lady Livingston's Remains—A Picturesque Description—Sir Archibald Edmonstone's Letter to Napier—Lord Kilsyth and the French Plot—Again Arrested —"The Standard on the Braes o' Mar"—Battle of Sheriffmuir —Lord Kilsyth Flees—The Last of the Kilsyth Livingstons.

The life of William Livingston, third and last Viscount Kilsyth, is inwoven with the destinies of the Scottish people at a most critical period of their history. He was born on the 29th March, 1650, and educated at the University of Glasgow. On leaving college, and being a younger son, he naturally adopted the profession of arms. His life was spent in the midst of the troubles of his time, and is full of romance and adventure. His career brings into view the final efforts of the Jacobites for supremacy, the extinction of their hopes in 1715, and the triumphant establishment of the religious liberties of the Scottish people. His first appearance on the stage of life to a less enterprising and buoyant spirit would certainly have been ruinous. Having fallen in love with Miss Betty Whytfoord, a daughter of Sir John Whytfoord of Milneton, this lady found herself compelled to raise against him in the Court of Session an action for breach of promise of marriage and seduction. On the ist March, 1684, hewas summoned before theCourt to give his reasons for not implementing his promise. Lord Kilsyth was in London, and begged for delay on account of illness. Lord Fountainhall, who tried the case, repelled the plea, with the remark "that it was convenient for defendants in such cases to simulate sickness on the date of the meeting of the Court." The case went against him by default. In 1685 he was returned a member of Parliament for Stirlingshire, and in the same year he was

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appointed Commissioner of Estates. His duty was to see that his county paid its proportion of supplies voted by the house. He had only sat in Parliament two years when he abandoned politics for the more stirring associations of a military life. When James VII. was dreading the invasion of the Prince of Orange, he turned his eyes to the North and summoned his Scottish troops to his assistance. In 1688 the Scottish army marched southward under the command of General Douglas, who afterwards deserted to the enemy. Livingston was one of his officers, and held the position of LieutenantColonel. It was an ill-starred expedition. James fled. The officers joined the standard of William. The soldiers attempted to march back to Scotland, but were finally surrounded by Dutch and English troops, and compelled to lay down their arms. Lord Kilsyth had been carried along by the current. Before he could well realise his position he found himself an officer in the army of William, an army called upon to prosecute his cause in the field. At the famous Convention held in Edinburgh, March, 1689, he was present at the memorable tavern dinner, where a number of those like-minded with himself pledged the health of James and drank destruction to his enemies. On the 18th, Claverhouse, having fled to Dudhope, near Dundee, was proclaimed a traitor, and Mackay was sent in his pursuit. Claverhouse fleeing northward, Mackay threw into Dundee two troops of dragoons in command of Lord Kilsyth, who at once communicated with Lady Dundee, resident at Dudhope. Kilsyth informed her ladyship of the state of his mind, and assured her he was ready along with his troops to join her husband's cause so soon as a favourable opportunity should present itself. When Claverhouse heard from his wife of the promised support of Lord Kilsyth, hotly pursued though he was, with his usual adroitness he gave Mackay the slip, and on the 13th May, 1689, he suddenly appeared before the walls of the town from which he took his title. He had hoped that so soon as he showed himself he would be joined by Kilsyth and his dragoons. This would certainly have occurred, but when his Lordship gave command to his troopers to march out, he was thwarted by Captain Balfour, a subordinate officer, who by some means had got an inkling of the plot. Balfour's influence was so power

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