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its capital, and in 1810 the cortes assembled there. In 1812 it promulgated a constitution providing for a limited monarchy with all legislative power in the hands of a single national assembly.
With the aid of the English under Wellington the French were driven out of Spain in 1813, and in the next year Ferdinand 7th returned to Madrid and assumed authority. He set aside the liberal constitution, restored the nobles and the monasteries to their privileges and exemptions from taxation, allowed the Jesuits to return and the Inquisition to resume operations. A tyrannical and profligate court and bigoted clergy again combined to crush all liberal sentiment. In 1819 the sale of Florida to the United States, the revolt of the Spanish colonies in America and the ill success of the government in its efforts to reduce them to obedience, caused great popular discontent throughout Spain. In 1820 à revolt started at Cadiz, which rapidly spread over the whole country. The king accepted the constitution of 1812, dismissed his ministers and put liberals in their places. The cortes met and proceeded to abolish the monasteries, the Inquisition, the clerical titles and entails of landed estates, and to pass laws to secure freedom of the press and of public meetings. This was distasteful to the monarchs of Europe, and in 1823, at the dictation of the Holy Alliance through a congress at Verona held by France, Austria, Russia and Prussia, a French army invaded Spain and restored despotic power to Ferdinand.
In 1829 Ferdinand issued an edict abolishing the Salic law, which excluded females from succession to the throne. In 1833 he died, and his infant daughter Isabella was proclaimed queen with her mother as regent. Ferdinand's brother, Don Carlos, claimed the crown under the Salic law and drew to his aid the supporters of absolutism. Christiana was supported by the liberals and granted a constitution establishing two legislative chambers chosen by indirect election. This was not satisfactory to the liberals, and in 1836 the constitution of 1812 was revived. By 1839 the Carlists were subdued. In 1843, after temporary ascendency of the radicals, which had caused Christiana to withdraw to France and the selection of
Espertero as regent by the cortes, Isabella became of age and was recognized as queen. The history of her reign is one of court intrigue, with the reactionary party in the ascendency most of the time. Married to a cousin, who was believed to be an imbecile, though not really quite so, she had piety without morality, and the Spanish nation had to bear the shame of a notoriously licentious woman as its queen; fat, coarse and indolent, she yet was good natured, generous and kind hearted. She even delighted in granting pardons, to which Spanish monarchs generally showed great aversion. In 1854 there was a popular uprising with rioting at Madrid, resulting in the appointment of a liberal ministry, whose purposes were expressed in a proclamation stating: "We desire the preservation of the throne, but without the carmarilla which dishonors it; the rigorous enforcement of the fundamental laws, improving them, especially those of elections and the press; a diminution of taxation founded on strict economy, and also respect to seigniority and merit in the military and naval services. We desire to give the towns the local independence necessary to preserve and to increase their own interests, and as a guarantee of these things we desire a national militia."
In 1866 Isabella recalled her old ministers, the most prominent liberals were driven into exile and the cortes dissolved. In 1868 another revolt occurred which caused Isabella to go to France. A cortes was summoned and met in 1869, which adopted a new constitution providing for a limited monarchy. It substituted the principle that the sovereign power was derived from the people for the doctrine of divine right of kings, granted religious liberty and provided for a Council of State, a Senate and House of Representatives. A regent was chosen to hold pending the choice of a king. In Nov. 1870 Amadeo of Savoy was chosen by the cortes, but he left the country, which he could not successfully govern, in Feb. 1873. Thereupon the cortes proclaimed a republic. War with the Carlists followed without very decisive results. The republic lacked vigor, and on the last day of 1874 Alfonzo XII, son of Isabella II, was proclaimed king and acknowledged by the army. There had been five changes of ministry in less than two years with much modification of the theory of government, the last being a virtual dictatorship. The Carlists continued the fight for a short time, when Don Carlos gave up the struggle and left the country. Under the reign of Alfonzo XII as a constitutional monarch Spain enjoyed peace till his death in 1885. After his death a son was born, who came to the throne as Alfonzo XIII. His mother ruled as regent through his minority, during which time Spain was forced by the United States to relinquish its claims to Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippine Islands.
Shorn of its foreign possessions, it does not necessarily follow that the people have to face more unfavorable conditions. On the contrary there are evidences already that the statesmen of Spain are beginning to grasp the true basis of national greatness. Proud, indolent grandees, who refuse to do anything useful and squander the resources of the country in ostentatious living, are a curse and nothing more to any country. Those of Spain have for many centuries been advanced types of worthless nobles. Though popular government was not unknown in many of the districts of Spain, and the people of Aragon, Catalonia, the Basque provinces and the large cities, have exhibited a disposition and capacity for preserving popular liberty, the composition of society throughout the nation seems to be such as to still invite abuses in the administration of public affairs. The grand lack in Spain, as everywhere else on the face of the earth, is of knowledge, social virtue and morality. The people are more generally illiterate than elsewhere in Europe, though under the Arabs their schools were probably the best then in existence. Primary education has been compulsory by law since 1857, but only a small portion of the population can read and write; about twenty-five per cent. Progress is being made, however, and the time is probably not far distant when the Spanish people will take the rank to which they are entitled, and which in past generations was not inferior to any others in Europe.
By the fundamental law of June 30, 1878 the monarchy is hereditary, and the king becomes of age at sixteen. He is grand master of the eight orders of knighthood. He exercises
the legislative power in conjunction with the cortes, which is composed of a senate and a chamber of deputes. The senate is made up of three orders: 1. Members by right of birth, princes, rich nobles and the highest state officials. 2. Members nominated by the king for life. 3. Members elected by the state corporations and chief tax payers for a term of five years. The number of the first two classes must not exceed one hundred and eighty, and there may be as many of the third. The chamber of deputies consists of one deputy for every 50,000 population, elected for five years, by electors twenty-five years of age, who have paid a land tax of twentyfive pesatas for one year or an industrial tax of fifty pesatas for two years. There are eight executive departments, presided over by ministers responsible to the cortes for their acts. In each province there is a civil governor and an elective council chosen by the communes. The system of laws as in most European states is based on the Roman law with local modifications. There is a court of first instance in each of the 501 judicial districts into which the kingdom is divided and a court of second instance in each of the fifteen divisions in which they are grouped, with a supreme court of cassation or review at Madrid. Justice is administered publicly, and parties must be represented by counsel.
On achieving independence from Spain in 1640 Portugal recognized John IV as king. Portugal exhibited substantially the same tendencies toward increased power in the monarch as most European states for the next century, though some great reforms were made, especially in the reign of Joseph, who came to the throne in 1750 and abolished slavery, which had become a great curse to the country. From 1677 to 1828 the cortes never convened. The people of Portugal were profoundly impressed by the French revolution and were involved in the succeeding wars. In 1820 a constituent assembly framed a constitution abolishing the Inquisition and with many radical changes, but this constitution never became fully operative.
In 1826 Pedro IV, who had ruled Brazil under his father succeeded to the throne of Portugal also. He drew up a
charter for a constitutional monarchy and appointed his brother Miguel regent of Portugal. Miguel refused to recognize the constitution and assumed absolute power. Civil war soon followed. The struggle between the reformers and the adherents to the ancient order continued with varying success and more or less violence to the close of the reign of Maria II. Sometimes the constitution was followed, then it was amended, and at other times disregarded, but by the time of the accession of Pedro V in 1855 matters had become fairly settled, and Portugal entered on a more peaceful and prosperous career. In 1852, 1878 and 1895 the charter of 1826 was amended. The monarchy was hereditary, and the king ruled with the advice of a cabinet of seven members chosen by a premier named by the king. The cortes consisted of a House of Peers of ninety members, nominated by the king for life. They were not all titled nobles, nor were all the nobility entitled to seats. The House of Deputies had one hundred and fortyeight members, elected by all male citizens twenty-five years of age or over, who paid above $1.10 direct tax per year or had an annual income from real estate of $4.50. By the revolution of 1910 the monarchy was overthrown and a republic established. The religious orders were expelled and their property confiscated. The Council of State was abolished as were also all hereditary titles and privileges. The country is divided into seventeen administrative and twenty-six judicial districts. There are courts of appeals at Lisbon and Oporto and a Supreme Court at Lisbon. There are governors in the administrative districts and elected councillors in each of the 292 concellos and in each of the 3960 freguezias there is a magistrate elected by the people, with authority corresponding to that of a justice of the peace. Education is compulsory under the law of 1844, which required all children from seven to fifteen years of age to attend a primary school. There is a university at Coimbra and there are at various towns secondary and high schools. The improvement of the system of government and the increased prosperity of the people have followed the work of the schools. . The economic, moral and political value of the general diffusion of knowledge among