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and lamentable fact, that, while the as much as possible; for which purpose thronged population of Europe offers he generally selects places which are really no prospect but plague, battle overgrown with long grass. This straor famine, a beautiful, salubrious, and tagem seldom fails to entice several of prolific land should be left compara: the herd within reach of his arrows, which tively uninhabited or forgotten. The are frequently sent with unerring aim to account of the government and the the heart of the animal, and he falls withmissions of Spanish priests is amu
out alarming the herd; but if the aim
should fail, or only wound its intended sing, shrewd, and even humorous;
victim, the whole herd is immediately put while underneath the surface is much matter for reflection and regret. The
to fight." description, however, of the Indians Various stratagems are also detailof that part of America-a race very ed by which the Indians provide different from the Mexicans, the Pe. themselves with wild fowl; after ruvians, or, in fact, any of the other which Captain Beechey proceeds: tribes either to the north or south- “ The occupation of the men consists must be noticed more particularly. principally in providing for their support,
and in constructing the necessary imple. “ Like the Arabs and other wandering
ments for the chase, and for their own tribes, these people (the Indians] move defence. The women attend to their doabout the country, and pitch their tents mestic concerns, and work a variety of wherever they find a convenient place, baskets and ornamental parts of their keeping, however, within their own dis. dress, some of which are very ingenious, trict. Die
and all extremely laborious. Their closely " They cultivate no land, and subsist wove baskets are not only capable of conentirely by the chase, and upon the spon- taining water, but are used for cooking taneous produce of tbe earth. Acorns, of their meals. A number of small scarlet which there is great abundance in the feathers of the Oriolus phæniceus are wove country, constitute their principal vege- in with the wood, and completely screen table food. In the proper season they it from view on the outside; and to the procure a supply of these, bake them, and rim are affixed small black crests of the then bruise them between two stones into Californian partridges, of which birds a a paste, which will keep until the follow- hundred brace are required to decorate ing season. The paste, before it is dried, one basket :- they are otherwise orna. is subjected to several washings in a mented with beads and pieces of mothersieve, which, they say, deprives it of the of-pearl. They also embroider belts very bitter taste common to the acora. We beautifully with feathers of different co. cannot but remark the great resemblance lours, and they work with remarkable this custom bears to the method adopted neatness, making use of the young quills of by the South Sea islanders to keep their the porcupine in a similar manner to the bread-fruit; nor ought we to fail to no Canadian Indians; but here they manutice the manner in which Providence facture a fine cloth for the ground, whereas points out to the different tribes the same the Canadians have only the bark of the wise means of preserving their food, and birch-tree. They also manufacture caps providing against a season o scarcity. . and dresses for their chiefs, which are
“ The country inhabited by the Indians extremely beautiful; and they have a abounds in game, and the rivers in fish; great many other feathered ornaments, and those tribes which inhabit the sea. which it would be stepping beyond the coast, make use of mussels and other limits of my work to describe. shell-fishi, of which the Haliotis gigantea is “ The stature of the Indians, which we the most abundant. In the chase they saw in the Missions, was by no means are very expert, and avail themselves of diminutive. The Alchones are of good a variety of devices to ensnare and decoy height, and the Tuluraios were thought their game. The artifice of deceiving to be generally above the standard of the deer, by placing a head of the animal Englishmen. Their complexion is much upon their shoulders, is very successfully darker than that of the South-sea Islandpractised by them. To do this, they fit ers, and their features far inferior in. the head and horns of a deer upon the beauty. In their persons, they are exhead of a huntsman, the rest of his body tremely dirty, particularly their heads, being painted to resemble the colour of a which are so thatched with wiry black deer. Thus disguised, the Indian sallies hair, that it is only by separating the forth equipped with his bow and arrows, locks with the hand, that it can be got at approaches the pasture of the deer, whose for the purpose of cleanliness. Many are actions and voice he then endea yours to seen performing such acts of kindness imitate, taking care to conceal his body upon their intimate friends; and, as the readiest means of disposing of what they they adorn the corpse with feathers, find, consuming it in the manner prac. flowers, and beads, and place with it & tised by the Tartars, who, according to bow and arrows; they then extend it Hakluyt, cleanse one another's heades, upon a pile of wood, and burn it amidst and ever as thei take an animal do eate the shouts of the spectators, who wish the her, saeing, thus will I doe to our ene- soul a pleasant journey to its new abode, mies.'
which they suppose to be a country in the “ Their bodies are, in general, very direction of the setting sun. Like most scantily clothed, and in summer many go other nations, these people have a tradientirely naked. The women, however, tion of the Deluge: they believe also that wear a deer skin, or some other covering their tribes originally came from the about their loins ; but skin dresses are north. not common among any of the tribes con “ The Indians in their wild state are cerning whom we could procure any in. said to be more healthy than those which formation. The women are fond of orna. have entered the missions. They have ments, and suspend beads and buttons simple remedies, derived from certain meabout their persons, while to their ears dicinal berbs, with the properties of which they attach long wooden cylinders, va- they have previously made themselves riously carved, which serve the double acquainted. Some of these roots are use. purpose of ear-rings and needle-cases. ful as emetics, and are administered in
“ Tattooing is practised in these tribes cases of sickness of the stomach : they by both sexes, both to ornament the per- also apply cataplasms to diseased parts of son, and to distinguish one clan from the the body, and practise phlebotomy very other. It is remarkable that the women generally, using the right arm for the mark their chins precisely in the same purpose when the body is affected, and way as the Esquimaux.
the left when the limbs. But the temis. “ The tribes are frequently at war with cal is the grand remedy for most of their each other, often in consequence of tres diseases. passes upon their territory and property ; “ The very great care taken of all who and weak tribes are sometimes wholly are affected with any disease ought not annihilated, or obliged to associate them to be allowed to escape a remark. When selves with those of their conquerors; but any of their relations are indisposed, the such is their warmth of passion and de- greatest attention is paid to their wants; sire of revenge, that very little humanity and it was remarked by Padre Arroyo, is in general shewn to those who fall into that filial affection is stronger in these their power. Their weapons consist only tribes tban in any civilized nation on the of bows and arrows : neither the toma- globe with which he was acquainted." hawk nor the spear is ever seen in their hands. Their bows are elegantly and in
From California the Blossom progeniously constructed, and, if kept dry, ceeded once more to the Sandwich will discharge an arrow to a considerable Islands, and thence was obliged, by distance. They resemble those of the want of proper medicines and supEsquimaux, being strengthened by sinews plies, to proceed to China, where at the back of the bow, but here one sinew, her captain and crew were subject the size of the wood, occupies the whole to the usual insolence of the Chinese extent of the back, and embraces the ends, authorities. Loo Choo is the next where they are turned back to receive the point of great interest at which Capstrings; the sinew is fixed to the bow tain Beechey touched; and though while wet, and, as it becomes dry, draws Captain Hail has written well and it back the reverse way to that in which at large upon that interesting group, it is intended to be used. The Indian
the visit of the Blossom will be read manner of stringing these bows is precisely similar to that practised by the
with infinite pleasure. The characlovers of archery in England ; but it re
ter of the Chinese, softened and amequires greater skill and strength, in con
liorated in the Loochooan, is well sequence of the increased curvature of the
and ably depicted, and all the fine bow, and the resistance of the sinew.'
and amusing absurdities of a vain, “ The religion of all the tribes is idol. weak, crafty nation, are touched with atrous. The Olchone, who inbabit the a light and masterly hand. Much sea-coast between San Francisco and valuable information also is comMonterey, worship the sun, and believe municated-information obtained by in the existence of a beneficent and an evil observation of the manners of the spirit, whom tbey occasionally attempt to people, not by conversation with propitiate. Their ideas of a future state them, for it appears that the worthy are very confined ; wben a person dies, natives of Napakang and its vicinity VOL. XXX, NO, CLXXXII.
are the most egregious liars that the taken without much selection, and world ever produced. Other nearly instead of being choice sentences, unknown islands were still to be which stand well alone, are rather visited, and really nature, in form- injured than improved by being dis. ing the Bonin Isles, to which the joined from the narrative. In the Blossom next steered her course, course of these, however, various erseems to have drawn from all her rors of composition are observable; stores with the most bountiful and and did the merits of this work dedecorating hand. We can easily pend upon the accuracy of style, imagine two seamen, willingly re- more than one fault would have to be maining behind in such a brilliant remarked, which are now completely and favoured spot, after a long and forgotten in a mass of information, tedious voyage over the broad un interest, and amusement, such as certain sea, boping there to find that few works of any day can boast. rest and peace which is the univer. These faults, indeed, are noticed here sal aspiration of all mankind. Two only because they are of a kind which such men were met by Captain Captain Beechey could easily avoid, Beechey, on his arrival at the chief and would certainly have avoided, of the Bonin Islands, or Yslas del had he been more habituated to lite. Arzobispo.' The trading vessel in rary composition. Long sentences, which they had been seamen was which for perspicuity should have casually wrecked on the island, but been divided into two or three short a new ship had been constructed by ones, and the frequent heedless retheir conipanions, who had steered currence of the same word, and the back for Europe. Such, however, same forın of expression; these are was the effect of the climate and the the chief errors of style, and these scene upon these two men, that at might easily be altered. In the whole their own desire they were left be- book there is only one brief pashind, filled probably with as bright sage- a few pages--which is in imaginations of an earthly paradise the least degree tedious. This is the as ever dazzled the eyes of any inex- chronicle of the Kings of Loo Choo. perienced child, whom this school- Doubtless its insertion in some part master world has never whipped of the work was necessary, but it from any of youth's idle dreams. would have been better in the Ap
It appears, however, that after pendix. Having said thus much, the Captain Beechey went away, habit, faults-which but little influence the solitude, and monotony, dispelled the pleasure afforded by the book-are vision, and that they sought and sufficiently noticed; but to point out found the means of returning to Eu all that is excellent and admirable rope, leaving the island stored with in the work, would require far more hogs, wbich the writer thinks likely space than any review can grant. to do great harm to the vegetable We know of no officer that ever productions of the place, - much sailed, who has displayed greater more valuable in those latitudes than faculties of observation than Captain the best pigs that ever became bacon. Beechey. Wherever he touches, At the same time, plenty of animal whatever he describes, all that can food was to be found there already; interest, or amuse, or benefit, is for, in addition to manifold sorts of seized at once, nor does any one fowl and fish in various sandy bays, possess a greater power of present“ the green turtle are sometimes so ing a complete picture to the mind numerous that they quite hide the of the reader. At the same time, colour of the shore." What a punish- his observations on what he sees are ment for a Lord Mayor's cook, who replete with that choice rare gift, had mismanaged a dish of fins, to set good sense-and, though ventured him on shore on that island without sparingly and modestly, are firm and his utensils for cooking!
just. It is difficult for a commander But this long-drawn article must to write a long account of an expenow be closed. A high opinion has dition conducted by himself, without been expressed of the merits of this some degree of egotism ; but little book, and copious extracts have been of it is discoverable in this book; inserted, in order to justify that opi. and throughout the whole, the great nion. The passages cited have been desire of giving full praise to his officers and crew, is pleasingly appa- which the grown babies of society rent. A frank and gentlemanly spirit, never seem satisfied, without imagiand a kindly heart, give a sunshiny nation be helped out with a picture, tone to the whole composition, and yet Captain Beechey's descriptions a strong feeling of reverence for true are so graphic, that they require little religion, without the slightest touch assistance from the pencil. of fanaticism, is seen wherever cir To conclude, the expedition of the cumstances call for the expression Blossom has been any thing but in of any opinions on the subject. vain. An accurate survey has been
Justice could not be done to the made of the greater part of the Pa. scientific parts of the work, except cific. A more complete and general in a review set apart for that pur account of the islands of that sea, pose. Suffice it here to say, that as than ever was before obtained, has nothing was left undone which could been laid before the public. A thoufulfil the views of the government, sand important errors have been corand benefit the country by the exrected, a thousand important facts pedition, nothing has been omitted have been ascertained. In the Arctic which could give value to the work; regions, discoveries, great in them. and while the public in general read selves, and great in their conseit for entertainment, the naturalist quences, have been added to those and the philosopher will find much which went before; an bundred and genuine information, and great mat forty-six miles alone remain untrater for thought.
versed; these may easily be accom. Some beautiful engravings by Fin- plished, and certainty will be finally den are scattered through the vo won, lumes; but, though this is an age in
Although we have purposely abstained from noticing the scientific parts of Cape tain Beechey's narrative, yet it is but fair to state, that the theories which he ad. Vances with the modest diffidence of true genius, display an extent of views and depih of knowledge wbich do bim the highest credit. The minute, circumstantial, and accurate account given of the drift wood at page 580, is in itself highly valuable, as illustrative of a very curious question; and the opinion to which Captain Beechey inclines, that this immense quantity of loose timber is borne down froin the interior by the rivers running into Bristol Bay, Port Clarence, Norton and Kotzebue Sound, Scbismar, Hotham, and Wainwright's Inlets, though not absolutely proved to be correct, has every probability in its favour.
In regard to the currents also, Captain Beechey's account is wonderfully clear and accurate, considering the difficulty of examination, while the ship was close in shore engaged in the laborious occupation of surveying, and the labour which be bestowed in ascertaining how far these currents extended below the surface--for it must be remembered that almost all currents are quite superficial entitles him to the highest praise.
To correct a clerical error in our text, it may be as well to state here, that the precise extent of coast discovered by Captain Beechey's expedition, including the discoveries of the boat, was 126 miles,
IRELAND AND THE REFORM BILL.
What a strange destiny is that of the peasant of Mayo, or Galway, Ireland !-how incorrigible in her takes as little thought of the vicissi. faults-how pitiable in her misfor- tude of the seasons, as he of Carlow tunes! The whole page of her his or Kilkenny, whose crop almost tory-the whole aspect of her na- never disappoints him. Indeed we tional character-are made up, like a have some doubt whether the ConGerman story, of combinations of naught peasant would not think it a the ludicrous and the terrible;- there sinful mistrust of Providence to is no calm-no resting-place of peace make any unusual provision for the and comfort, upon which the mind future; and when the torment of can repose with satisfaction and famine comes, he submits with me. thankfulness. Whether we look lancholy resignation to what he upon times past or present, we be calls “ the will of God.” In the hold frantic exultation, fierce con places most subject to famine, there tention, and deep despair, following is an habitual patience of misery, each other in rapid succession-the which none but those who have witsounds of wild and fantastic glee nessed it would deem possibleseem scarcely to have died upon the “they die, and make no sign.” The echoes, till they are succeeded by the author of an admirable book, deyells of savage fury,—and these again scriptive of the manners and habits give place to the hopeless wail that of the peasantry in the part of Iredespondency puts forth over the land of which we speak, says that dying and the dead.
the observation, “ sure it was too The Irish seem to be utterly un- much trouble entirely," reconciles teachable in the most ordinary les. them to the smoke that darkens their sons of prudence-all experience is little cabin, and the rain that patters lost upon them, and we would be through the unthatched roof'; and almost constrained to look upon the same feeling inclines them to them as a doomed people—as a race lie down and die, when Providence foreordained to wretchedness, were has blasted their potatoe crop, and it not that we know that they enjoy deprived them of the fruit of their a great deal of happiness when pota- labours. Hard as was the task, it toes are plenty, and the sun shines was sometimes necessary to refuse merrily above their heads; and when that relief which could not be exthe misery they have suffered, and tended to all in full proportion to may suffer again, is no more thought their wants; but never was the reof than the dark clouds of November, fusal met by a murmur or a reproach. in this joyous month of June. The On one such occasion, “ God help western shores of Ireland being open us !” was the answer of the poor to the Atlantic ocean, the chilling man, with an expressive movement storms that sweep across that vast of his shoulders; “ God help us mass of waters frequently injure, then; for if your honour can do noand sometimes totally destroy, the thing for us, there is no one that erops of the farmer, compensating can." There is something peculiarly him only with huge piles of sea- touching in this submissive patience; weed, which the force of the storm and clamorous and reiterated supplitears from the inaccessible depths cation is much more easily repulsed, of the ocean, and Aings upon the than the “ God bless you-sure it shore, from which it is removed for can't be helped then?” manure, or dried for burning. It It is among the contradictions that might have been supposed that where belong to Ireland, that while no such visitations were common, some soil in Europe is more generally rich habits of preparation would have and fertile, in no other country of grown up among the people, and Europe have there been such frethat they would no longer trust en- quent recurrences of famine. In tirely to the potatoe-the stock of other countries there has been some which must be renewed every sea. care for provision even in war, but son. But there is no such thing in Ireland all was laid waste, and