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AND SCOTLAND

There are also a great many steeples of curious architecture, particularly those of St. Bride and Bow-church at London; Salisbury steeple, whose spire is the highest of any in England ; those of St. Nicholas at Newcastle, and Grantham in Lincolnshire : which last is so lofty, and artificially built, that to any beholder it seems to stand awry, and ready to fall. In the county of Northampton, one can see twenty or thirty steeples at

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these stones, harbly capable of any land carriage; and that they stand upon a plain. which for some miles round scarce affords a stone, great or small.

Near Whitney, in Oxfordshire, is a trophy, called Roll-rich-stones, not much unlike the Stone-henge.

At Boskenna, in Cornwall, is to be seen another trophy, of 18 huge stones in a circle. at twelve feet distance from each other, with another stone in the center, overtopping them all. In Cleer parish, in the same county, there stand upon a plain six or eight stones of a prodigious bigness, but so artificially set together, that it is hard to find out their just number; and being told over again, they will be found either more or lefs than before. The main-Amber, near Mount's-Bay, is a main rock, which being mounted upon lesser rocks with a counterpose, may be stirred, but not moved out of its place.

Near Salkeld in Cumberland is a trophy erected, vulgarly called Long-Meg and her Daughters, consisting of 77 stones, Long-Meg 15 above ground, and the rest but 10.

In Westmoreland, not far from the river Lowther, there is a row of pyramidical stones, 8 or 9 feet high, pitched directly in a row for a mile togther, and placed at equal distances from each other.

Who would not be amazed to hear of a travelling hill ? a thing averred by the most famous authors. This prodigy happened by an earthquake in Herefordshire, in the month of Febjuary 1574, when 26 acres of ground moved from their place with a roaring noise for the space of three days together. By which motion a steeple and several trees fell down, two highways were turned, the east part to the west and the west to the east, pasturage being left in the place of tillage, this in the place of pasturage. This hill is called Marsley-Hill: and worth the notice of any traveller.

At Badmington, in Wiltshire, there have been found nine caves all in a row, but of different dimensions, the least of them four feet wide, some nine or ten feet long, two long stones being set upon the sides, and the top covered with broad stones. Spurs, pieces of armour, and the like, have been found in these caves; which is a sufficient ground to believe, that they were tombs of some ancient heroes, Romans, Saxons, or Danes.

At Ryegate, in Surrey, are still to be seen the ruins of an ancient castle, with a long vault under ground, and a room at the end of it, where the barons met in council in their war against king John.

In Derbyshire is the Peak, famous for its lead-mines, quarries, and wonderful caves. These last are of a large extent, and apt to strike with horror all that come into them. There are three of these caves, one of them called Elden-hole, very spacious, but with a low and narrow entrance, the inside full of isicles, hanging down like so many tapers.

In Westmoreland, not far from the river Lowther, is a well or fountain, which (Eu. ripus like) ebbs and flows many times in a day.

Near Oxen-hall, in the county of Durham, there are three pits, called Hell-kettles, occasioned (as it is said) by an earthquake. Tunstall, bishop of Durham, had the cu. riosity to throw a marked goose into one of these pits, which was found afterwars alive in the river Tees, three miles from the said pits.

Oundle, in Northamptonshire, is noted for its Drumming-wells, so called from a noise of drums coming now and then from thence, which is said to be ominous.

The city of Bath, in Somersetshire, is noted for its springs, of a wonderful virtue for the cure of many diseases, and amongst others the palley, rheumatism, wéakness of the nerves, and scrophulous diseases, &c. The waters are of a blueish colour, have a scent, and send forth thin vapours. There are four hot baths, with stone seats, for such as

use

use the waters; one triangular, being twenty-five feet long, and as broad at one end; the heat of it gentler than the rest, because it has fewer springs. This is called the Cross Bath, from a cross that formerly stood in it: Another is the Hot Bath, the hottest of all, when it was not so large as it now is. The other two are the King's and Queen's Bath, parted only by a wall; the last having no spring in it, but receiving the water from the King's Bath, which is about 60 feet square, and has several hot springs in the middle of it, which make its heat greater. Each of these two baths has a pump for the use of embrocations. The ancient Romans had a great value for these waters, who had here a temple dedicated to Minerva, the goddess of fountains, in the very place where the cathedral now stands.

At Ailewelton, in Huntingtonshire, there are two springs, one of fresh, and the other of brackish water; the first good for dim eyes, the other for curing of scales and leprosy.

Wonderful is the virtue of Buxton-Wells in Derbyshire, in the cure of many dif. eases. Nine springs issue out of a rock, at a small distance from each other, eight of which are warm, and the ninth exceedingly cold. About 100 yards off is another hot spring, and near it a very cold one. Near Wirksworth, in the same county, there are also two springs, one warm, and the other cold; but fo near one another, that one may put one hand in the warm and the other in the cold at the same time. Kedlaston, Well is said to be singular in the cure of ulcers, and even leprosy itself.

As for Quarndon-Springs near Derby, Tunbridge-Wells in Kent, Scarborough in Yorkshire, and Stanley-Wells in Gloucestershire, they are much of the same nature, strong of the mineral, and effectual in the operation.

At Laflington, near Gloucester, there are found certain stones, about the breadth of a silver-penny, and the thickness of a half-crown: they are flat, and five-pointed, like a star ; whence the name of astroits, or star-stones. They are of a greyish colour, and the flat sides of them naturally engraven in fine works. At Whitby in Yorkshire, it is said, there are to be found at the foot of some rocks stones naturally as round as a bullet; which, being broken, stony serpents are found in them, but, for the most part, headless.

Gotham in Nottinghamshire yields a sort of rugged stone, but with such delicate veins, as exceed the beauty of marble. I have already observed, that Cornwall and Staffordshire have quarries of marble, and that alabaster is to be found in Lincolnshire ; but Cornwall particularly is of special note for its diamond-like stones, found in rocks, ready shaped, polished by nature, and wanting nothing but hardness to bear the price of diamonds. St. Vincent's Rock, near Bristol, is also noted for yielding plenty of crystal.

Lastly, though some countries may exceed or excel England in some things, yet it cannot be denied to be one of the most plentiful parts of Europe. As it is seated advantageously for trade, there is nothing in the world capable of transportation but may be had here, to gratify the fancy of fome, and the curiosity of others.

Another thing England is happy in, is her being free from those dangerous and voracious beasts, such as wolves, bears, and wild boars, which are so pernicious in many regions of Europe. There are also but a few serpents, and other venomous creatures.

England has had wolves formerly ; but history tells us, that she was rid of them by the Welch, whose prince being tributary to Edgar, a Saxon king of England, to whom he paid a yearly tribute, Edgar changed that tribute into three thousand wolves' skins : upon which , the Welch grew so sharp in wolf. hunting, that they cleared England from those pernicious créatures; so that the sheep keep the field day and night without any danger from wolves, unless it be from men-wolves, or sheep-stealers. • VOL. II.

CHAP.

At Lassington, near my effectual in the opere they are much of that borough in

anthin and France, intre sallo, at some ift of England pilcharters, Oysters, and others

Chap. XIII.—Of the Seas, Harbours, Rivers, Fishery, four-footed Beasts, Fowls, Birds,

and Minerals. THE feas, which almost encompass the kingdom, are the German fea, the English channel, and the Irish sea, or St. George's channel. Of these, that which washes the eastern shores, usually called the German Ocean, might be of infinite advantage to this kingdom. Here the Dutch laid the foundation of their greatness; and the fish taken here, even close to the British coasts, are still one of the greatest supports of their state ; while the English, who are indeed the proprietors of these treasures, have indolently looked on an hundred and fifty years at least.

There is also in the German sea a cod-fishery on the Dogger-bank, a fand between Britain and Holland, where both the English and Dutch take great quantities of that kind of fish. And it is by this sea London, and many other great towns in England, and other parts of Europe, are fupplied with sea-coal from Newcastle, without which they would find it difficult to subsist. This sea also furnishes oysters, lobsters, and almost all manner of shell-filh.

But as there are few tolerable harbours on the German fide of this sea, so neither are there many on the English ; and the coast being replenished with rocks and sands, renders it very dangerous in the winter season.

The next sea I shall mention is the English channel, which lies between GreatBritain and France, through which all ships pass and repass that are bound to or from the south or west. Here also, at some seasons of the year, are met with shoals of herrings and cod-fish, and towards the west of England pilchards in great abundance, which are salted up and sent abroad. It also abounds with lobsters, oysters, and other shell-fith, and mackarel in the season. This sea is eiteemed much safer than the former ; and though there are scarce any good harbours on the French side, there are many commodious havens on the English coast.

The third and last sea is that lying between England and Ireland, called St. George's channel. This I do not take to be equal to the other in any respect ; there is not that plenty of fish as in the former ; the sea is tempestuous, and the coasts dangerous ; nor is there a tenth part of the trade carried on through this fea as through the other.

The principal harbours in these feas are Newcastle in Northumberland, Hull in Yorkshire, Lynn and Yarmouth in Norfolk, Harwich in Essex, London, Rye in Suffex. Portsmouth and Southampton in Hampshire, Weymouth in Dorfetshire, Dartmouth and Plymouth in the south of Devonshire, Falmouth in Cornwall, Biddeford and Barnstaple on the north of Devonshire, Bristol in Somersetshire, and Liverpool in Lancashire. The ships belonging to the royal navy are built and laid up at Deptford, Woolwich, Sheerness, Chatham, Portsmouth, and Plmouth.

The principal rivers in England are generally divided into two ranks, in manner following: Rivers of the first rank are,

Of the second, 1. Thames, 7

SE.

| | I. Cam, | N.E.

5 2. Medway,

Cambridge, N.E.

.

| 2. Ouse, 3. Severn,

S.W.

Running ) York, N. E.
S Ouse, ? Run-7 S.I.

2. Dee, s through Cheiter, W.
4. Humber
1 l Trent, Si ning & N.E. 4Mersee,

(Liverpool, W. 5. Tine,

With several others smaller than these. 6. Tweed, {E.

Concerning

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