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for her fourth husband George Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury. On each of the last marriages she took care to have large estates settled on her and her heirs; and having no iffue by any of her husbands, except fir Williain Cavendish, those estates, as well as her own, centered in her son William, created baron Cavendish, of Hardwick, and afterwards, by James I., earl of Devonshire. She founded and endowed well an hospital near the east end of the church, for twelve poor people, which has lately been rebuilt by the duke in an handsome manner.
Whether her former husbands led very easy lives with her, does not appear; but Camden, as quoted by Dugdale, tells us that the earl of Shrewsbury fared badly. In speaking of him, he says, that “in those ambiguous times (i. e. Queens Mary and Elizabeth) he fo. preserved himself against all outward machinations, calumnies at court, and the mischievous practices of bis second wife, for full fifteen years, as that he thereby deserved no less honour for his fidelity and prudence, than he did for his fortitude and valour*.” · In the last rebellion the Pretender pushed forward as far as this town, and kept his court in a house belonging to Lord Exeter, the back of which looks towards the river; but meeting with a cold reception in England, he returned towards Scotland.
The famous filk mill on the river here, was erected in 1719 by sir Thomas Lombe, who brought the model out of Italy, where one of this sort was used, but kept guarded with great care. It was with the utmost hazard, and at a great expence of time and money, that 'he effected it. There are near 100,000 movements, turned by a single wheel, any one of which may be stopped independent of the rest. Every time this wheel goes round, which is three times in a minute, it works 73,728 yards of filk. By this mill the raw silk brought from Valencia in Spain, Italy, or China, is prepared for the warp. At one end of this building is a mill on the old plan, used before this improvement was made, where the silk is fitted, in a coarser manner, for the shoot. These mills employ about 200 persons of both sexes, and of all ages, to the great relief and advantage of the poor. The money given by strangers is put into a box, which is opened the day after Michaelmas Day, and a feast is made ; an ox is killed, liquor prepared, the windows are illuminated, and the men, women and children employed, in the work, dressed in their best array, enjoy in dancing and decent mirth, a holiday, the expectation of which lightens the labour of the rest of the year. It is customary for the inhabitants of the town, and any strangers who may be there, to see the entertainment; and the pleasure marked in the happy countenances of these people is communicated to the spectators, and contributes to the provision for the ensuing year. .
The china manufactory is not less worthy of notice. Under the care of Mr. Duesberry, it does honour to this country. Indefatigable in his attention, he has brought the gold and the blue to a degree of beauty never before obtained in England, and the drawing and colouring of the flowers are truly elegant. About seventy hands are em. ployed in it, and happily, many very young, are enabled to earn a livelihood in the bu. finess.
Another work is carried on here, which, though it does not employ so many hands, must not be passed without observation. The marbles, spars and petrifactions, which abound in this county, take a fine polish, and from their great variety, are capable of being rendered extremely beautiful. Two persons are engaged in this business, and make vases, urns, pillars, columns, &c. as ornaments for chimney-pieces, and even chimney-pieces themselves.
* Dugd. Bar. v. i. p. 333,
A mile above Derby is Little Chester, the Derventio of the Romans. It was of the fame size as Manceter, 120 paces long, 80 broad. Within the wall, in what are now pastures, foundations of houses have been found, wells curbed with good stone, coins, and earthern pipes. Remains of a bridge are said to have been seen near this place. A little beyond it is Darley Hall, a handsome house, the seat of Mr. Holden, to which there is a pleasant walk from the town, At this place there was a monastery of canons regular of the order of St. Augustin, founded in the time of Henry the by Hugh the priest, dean of Derby, who gave to Albinus, and his canons of St. Helen's, near Derby, all his land at Little Derby, to make there a church and habitation for him and his canons*. The priory of Derby, founded by Robert Ferrers, earl of Derby, temp. H. II. was translated hithert. At the suppression it was valued at 2581. 145. 5d. Some part of the walls are to be seen in an outhouse, and in some cottages, and a build ing belonging to the mill below.
Though it is not doubted that the Romans had a station at Little Chester, yet there has been much doubt whether there was any road from thence to Chesterfield, or whether the latter was a stations. It was reserved for the industry and ingenuity of Mr. Pegge to ascertain these facts, the latter of which he seems to have done very clearly. He states the road to come out of Staffordshire, over Eggington-heath, by Little-over, Nun-green, and down Darley-slade, to the river, where was the bridge; he traces it over Morley-moor, by Horsley park; near a Roman camp on Pentrich common to Okerthorp; near Kendall's inn at Alfreton, Shirland-hall, Higham, through Stretton (the name of which bespeaks its situation on a road), Clay-cross, Egstew farm, and Tup. ton-moor; from thence it points to sir Henry Hunloke's avenue, and directly to Chela terfield. Mr Pegge particularly describes several places where it was very visible in 1760 for a considerable length together, between Little Chester and Tupton-moor, but can tracę it no further, the country having been long in tillage. He guesses the station at Chesterfield to have been Topton, or Topton-hillll.
About two miles and a half from Derby, in the road to Buxton, is Kedleston, the feat of lord Scarsdale, which may properly be called the glory of Derbyshire, eclipsing Chatsworth, the ancient boast of the county. It was built from the designs of Mr. Robert Adam. The front is magnificent and beautiful, the apartments elegant, and at the same time useful, a circumstance not always to be met with in a great house. It is the ancient seat of the Curzon's a family of great antiquity, wealth, and interest in this county. This house has been built by the present lord (created lord Scarsdale in 3761) partly on the spot where the old house stood, but the ground has been so much altered, that there is no resemblance of what it was. In the front stood a village with a small inn for the accommodation of those who came to drink of a medicinal well, which has the virtues of the Harrowgate water; a rivulet turned a water-mill, and the high road went by the gate. The village is removed (not destroyed, as is too often done) the road is thrown to a considerable distance, out of sight of the house, the scanty stream is encreased into a large piece of water, and the ground disposed in the finest order.
The entrance from the turnpike road is through a grove of noble and venerable oaks (something hurt by a few small circular clumps of firs planted amongst them)
ce of water, and the right of the hom often
• Dugd. Mon, v. ii. p 230.
+ Dugd. Bar. v. i. p. 359.
| Mon. v. i. p. 1039. Salmon's Survey, p. 540.
Il Roman Roads in Derbyshire investigated. 9 This is the strongest sulphur water in Derbyshire at the spring head, but will not bear carriage,
after after which, crossing a fine lawn, and passing the water by an elegant stone bridge, of three arches, a gentle ascent leads to the house.
The front, built of white stone, is extensive; in the centre is a flight of steps, leading to a portico, consisting of fix Corinthian pillars, three feet in diameter, which support a pediment decorated with statues. On each side a corridore connects a pavilion with the body of the house, forming the two wings, the whole front being 360 feet. The steps lead into a magnificent hall, behind which is a circular saloon. On the left are a music-room, drawing-room, and library, and at the end of the corridore, the private apartments of lord and lady Scarsdale, and their young family. On the right of the hall are the dining-room, state dressing-room, and bed-chamber, and another dressing, room, the kitchen, and offices.
On each side of the hall are eight fluted pillars of variegated marble of the country, and two at each end, of the Corinthian order, 25 feet high, two feet six inches in diameter. This room is 60 feet by 30 within the columns, 67 feet three inches by 42 within the walls, 47 to the top of the window; between the columns are fine antique ftatues in niches, over which are basso relievos in compartments, crowned with fertoons; the ceiling covered and richly ornamented with paintings and relievos in the antique taste; in the centre is a window, by which the whole receives light. The pannels of the doors are of the paper manufacture of Mr. Clay, of Birmingham, highly varnished, and the paintings well executed.
The saloon is 42 feet diameter, 54 feet 6 inches hi gh, 24 feet 6 inches to the cornice, crowned with a dome, which lights the room. Over the doors are four paintings by Morland, and there are some statues in niches.
The music-room is 36 feet by 24, and 22 high. In this room is the triumph of Bacchus, a large and capital piece by Luca Giordani, a fine head by Rembrandt, and other pieces by Bassan, Horizonti, &c.
com a corridore, hung with elegant prints, leads to the family apartments. The breakfast-room is painted from the antique in the baths of Dioclefian.
The grand drawing-room is 44 feet by 28, and 28 high, with a covered ceiling; the furniture blue damask. A Venetian window and four door-cases are ornamented with small Corinthian columns of alabaster. In this room, as indeed in all the others, are many capital pictures. Raphael, Claude, Guido, Cuyp, &c. are amongst the masters.
The library is of the same size and height as the music-room. In this room, over the chimney, is a piece of Rembrandt, which beggars all description. It is the story of Daniel brought before Nebuchadnezzar to interpret his dream, and contains eight or nine small whole length figures. The composed majesty of the king, who is seated in a chair of state ; the astonishment and terror of his great men fitting near him ; the earneftness of Daniel kneeling before him, and in short the whole piece is, beyond ex. pression, striking.
From this room cross the saloon into the state dressing room and bed-chamber, with a servant's room behind. The two former hung with blue damask, the bed of the fame, with gold lace, supported by palm trees of mahogany, carved and gilt. The bed. room is 30 feet by 22, 20 high.
The dining-parlour is 36 feet by 24, 20 high, the ceiling adorned with paintings. The centre represents Love embracing Fortune, by Morland; four circles, lj Zucchi, represent the four quarters of the world; and four squares, by Hamilton, the four seasons. The corridore on this side, which is used as a chapel, leads to a gailery ov, r
DERBYSHIRË, &c. looking the kitchen, which is 48 feet by 24, and lofty, with this significant motto over the chimney, “ Waste not, Want not.”
The principal stair-case, leading out of the hall to the attic story at this end, conducts to eight apartments for visitors, most, if not all of which, have a bed-room, dressingroom, and servant's room.
The church, which is not at all seen in the approach, stands close to the west end of the house; the old pun of “wee shall” remains on the 6 dye-all.”
From the principal front of the house, which is the north, the eye is conducted by a beautiful slope to the water, which is seen tumbling down a cascade, encircling an island planted with firs, and at the bridge falling over rough rocks, and then forming a large river, on which is a yatch. Below is a small rustic building over the well and bath, which are used by many persons, who are accommodated at an inn, built by his lord. ship in the road, and from which a pleasant walk through the park leads to the bath.
In the back front of the house is the pleasure-ground, stretching up to the edge of the rising ground, on which is a fine and extensive plantation, beginning to shew itself in great beauty. The walk is about three miles in the whole.
Of all the houses I ever saw, I do not recollect any one which fo completely pleased me as this did, and the uncommon politeness and attention of the housekeeper who shewed it, added not a little to the entertainment.
Go out of the park the same way, and turning on the left, go by Weston, Ayrton, and Wirksworth, to Matlock. From Weston, turning off to Ayrton, the road is good, and the country beautiful; the inclosures on the sides of the hills, which run in all directions, fome in corn, fome in pasture, form a very pleasing scene. From Ayrton to Wirksworth the road is very indifferent, but I believe it would have proved better if I had gone forward after passing Ayrton, instead of turning, as I did, on the right.
There is another way by Duffield, which leads into the turnpike-road from Derby to Matlock, by turning on the left on leaving the park, and then taking the first road on the right; but neither of these are good for a carriage, and the best way is to go back towards Derby into the turnpike road.
Pass through Duffield, a village where was formerly one of the castles of Robert Ferrers, earl of Derby, which he held against Henry II. but was compelled to surrender it, and it was demolished*. Whether there is any vestige of it now I do not know. There was then a forest called Duffield forestt.
Soon after coming on this turnpike, begin to ascend the hills, which are in general barren on the outside, marked with heaps of rubbish thrown out by the miners, but interspersed with some pleasant dales and woods.
This road leaves Wirksworth on the left, which is a pretty large town in a bottom, where is a great market for lead, and a hall is built for holding the miners' courts. This manor, with that of Ashburn, was given by king John to William Ferrers, earl of Derby, whose descendant Robert lost this and all his other great estates by his reiterated perfidy to Henry III. who at length seized them, and gave them to his son Edinund Crouchback, earl of Lancaster, from whoin this descended to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancastery, and now remains part of that duchy. Here was formerly a very pleasant and pure warm spring, but in digging for lead they lost it, and have now two warm brooks, being old floughs made to drain the water from their works, which bring down small lead, though the works have been ended many years, and are not fit
* Dugd. Bar. v. i. p. 259.
+ Arch. v. ii. p. 298.
Arch. v. ii. p. 285.
for drinking*. There are two chalybeate springs here, one in a meadow called Fishpoolflat, which is like Pyrmont watert. The rocks begin hereabouts to thew themselves in a thousand romantic shapes.
At the bottom of a long hill, called Cromford, is a village of the same name; a large handsome inn was built here in 1778. The right hand road goes to Nottingham, the left to Matlock, crossing a little stream that comes from Bonsal in its way to the Der. went, which it falls into just below, after turning a mill for spinning cotton, invented by one Mr. Arkwright, who has a patent for it, and in conjunction with some other persons, carries on the business with great advantage to himself and the neighbourhood. It employs about 200 persons, chiefly children ; and to make the most of the term for which the patent was granted, they work by turns, night and day. Another mill, as large as the first, is building here, new houses are rising round it, and every thing wears the face of industry and chearfulness. A third is built at Bakewell, another at Calver. Mr. Arkwright was bred a barber, but true genius is superior to all diffi. culties, even those of education, and happily he found men of spirit to supply that money which he wanted to carry his schemes into execution. The undertaking amply repays them for their confidence.
The manor of Matlock, with those of Bonsal, Wirksworth, and many others, were part of the great estate of the Ferrers, earls of Derby; and in 36 Henry III. earl William obtained a charter of free warren in them, amongst others.
How different is the appearance of this place now, from what it was some years ago, when it was only noticed by the traveller as “ the habitation of a few grovers, who dug for lead ore, and whose huts were not bigger than hogsties !''S And yet, beautiful as it is now, that description was then a true one. The grandfather of a man whom I saw in 1780, worked at the first building over the old bath, and no carriage had then ever paffed through the dale; indeed none could have passed, the rocks at that time extending too near the edge of the river. The waters became known about the year 1698, when the bath was built and paved by the reverend Mr. Fern, of Matlock, and Mr. Heyward|l, of Cromford, and put into the hands of George Wragg, who to confirm his title, took a lease of it of the several lords of the manor for ninetynine years, paying them a fine of 150l, and an annual rent of sixpence a-piece. He then built a few small rooms adjoining to the bath, which were but a poor convenience for strangers; but his leafe and property were sold about the year 1730, to Mr. Smith and Mr. Pennell, of Nottingham, for near one thousand pounds. They erected two large commodious buildings, with stables, coach-house, &c. made a coach-road along' the river side from Cromford, and opened a better horse-way from the bath to Matlock-bridge, which is now made a very good turnpike road. Mr. Pennell afterwards bought Mr. Smith's part, and dying about 1733, left it to his daughter. It is now the joint property of several persons.
The bath is twenty yards above the river, and from it to the top of the rocks on the west side of the house is 120 yards perpendicular, where stand some small cottages. From these are several grass closes on another afçent, which afterwards becomes steep and rugged, and rises almost to a level with the top of Masson, whose fummit is 250 yards above the Derwent. On the north and west sides of the bath rise Westupshills, twenty yards above the High Torr, on the lower and south part of which is a small
* Short, Pref. p. 14.
† lb p. 276.
I Dugd. Bar, v. i. p. 262. ♡ England's Gazetteer.
ll Short, p. 80. By Fahrenheit's thermometer, the temperature of common water is 48°, Matlock bath 68°, Buxton kah 82°; vital heat 90°, King's bath, at Bath, 114°, boiling water 212o. Whiteburst's Theory, p. 109,