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grove, with dry meadows, houses, mines, &c. and above these is a rugged, itony ascent, on the top of which proud Maffon raif's his lofty head, about one hundred fathoms above the summit of Matlock High Torr. On the west side of the bath is another steep and almost inaccessible ascent of crags and rocks, above which are fome houses and inclosures, and at the top of them a plain, commanding a very large prospect, except on the north fide, where it is bounded by Masson". From this plain are seen some parts of Staffordshire and Cheshire, with several towns, villages, &c.
All the warm waters spring up from between 15 and 30 yards above the level of the river; higher or lower the springs are cold, and only common water. There are several warm springs, besides a current of warm water from a mine called Balls-eye, which was a natural grotto formerly filled with ore, and produced very great quantities of lead.
All along this course of warm waters, from their first eruption down to the river, are valt heaps of petrifactionst, which are soft before they are exposed to the air, and very light, but afterwards turn to a smoaky blue colour, become very hard, and are used in building. Any strong acid dropt on them, raised a great fermentation, and turns them to jellyt. Whilst the waters retain their warmth and motion, few or no pe. trifactions are found, but when they begin to lose their warmth and motion, the petri. factions are found.
All the warm waters dropping from the roofs of small grottoes hereabouts, form little pillars or prisms of various shapes, such as bones of all sorts, hartshorns, corals, and faint representations of some parts of animalss; but those above ground form another sort of petrifactions, by incrustation at first, but it afterwards destroys the body on which it is gathered, retaining the perfect shape of it, as mofles, grass, leaves, sticks, &c. There is a notion that the petrifying quality is not so strong now as it used to be.
The Bath water, and all these tepid springs, are very clear, and have no steam except in a cold morning, or in winter; nor do they throw up great bubbles of air like the Buxton waters, which contain more sulphur and mineral spirit.
These waters are lighter than Bristol water by near a grain in a pint, and are good in hective feyers, want of appetite, and many other cases**
* Two miles south-west, is. Middleton Bath, which rises close by the south side of Bonsal brook, at the foot of a very high, steep mountain, one mile from Middleton, two from Wirksworth; it is 16 yardș long, seven broad, and two deep. It is continually bubbling up with great force, and immediately empties itself into the brook. It is chiefly used to cure mangey horses and dogs, but is fit to be employed to much greater purposestt.
The entrance of Matlock Dale from Cromford, is by a passage cut through the rock, which makes a very striking appearance. From hence it is about a mile to the bath,
*, Short, p. 71, 72. + Ibid. p. 74. I Ibid. p. 86. § Ibid. p. 79. Ilhid p. 81. 9. Ibid. p. 88. ** Ibid. p. 91.. +Ibid p. 92.
Dr. Percival has given the following comparative view of the different temperatures of Bath, Buxton, Bristol, and Matlock waters, measured by Fab mnheit's thermometer.
Bath- King's bath pump 112°
Hot-bath pump · 1141
Cross-bath pump 110°
St. Ann's well · 81°
Spring - - - 66°
large, between a deep hollow, covered water falls a great he
'S TOUR INTO DERBYSHIRE, &c. About a mile from Matlock bridge, is a scene fit for the pencil of a Salvator Rola. Take the road to Chelterfield, and at the turnpike go off on the right, over a common scattered with large grey stones, when a smelting house called the Lumbs, is soon feen.
It stands on a point, from which the water falls a great height over the rudelt rocks, and has worn a deep hollow, covered with fragments of stone, some of them very large, between which the current finds its way. At the bottom is a little mill, turned by a small branch of the stream, which is conducted by a channel made for that purpose. A little above this mill is the station for seeing the fall.
At this smelting house red lead is made by burning common lead a sufficient time, by which it is reduced in weight as much as 200 or 300 pound in a ton. On the stones in the common I saw a little of the rock moss, which is found plentifully at Dolgelly, in Merionethshire, and carried from thence to Dublin, where it is used as a red dye.
Near Matlock bridge are two chalybeate springs, one by the side of the road to Bakewell, on the right hund rising the hill; the other, which is stronger, is under a bank in the road to Alfreton, by the fide of the little stream which comes down from: the smelting mill, mentioned above.
In the way to Bonsal some pieces of water have been lately formed by dams across the little stream, which runs down that bottom, and on one of them a large corn-mili is built.
There is a pleasant ride on the road to Nottingham, the river being on the right, and much wood on the sides of the hills.
On the top of the hill called Riber, which is above the church, is a stone, said to have been formerly a rocking stone, called in Cornwall a Logan-stone, but it is not moveable now; it has a round hole in the top, exactly resembling one which Dr. Borlafe, in his antiquities of Cornwall, has given a print of, plate XI. fig. 4. It is not very large, and is placed on two other stones.
At Birchover (pronounced Bircher) are fome very large rocking stones, called Routar-stones, in a most extraordinary situation, well worth visiting. The best way is to go through Winster; keeping the church on the left, when a road up the steep side of a hill on the right leads to Bircher, a small village, at the farther end of which are these stones in an inclosure*. They are a most wonderful assemblage of rocks, or rather huge stones, piled on one another, forming a hill, which runs in length for seventy yards, or more, froin east to west, the north side and west end being nearly perpendicular. You go up at the east end by a moderate ascent, when prodigious masses of stone present themselves, and a passage about fix feet high appears, which formerly went under part of them, and came out on the north side, but the middle of it is now fallen in. On the north fide, you find some immense stones, which form a kind of alcove, seeming asif scooped out for that purpose. Going up to the higher part are two rocking stones, which can be moved by the hand; one of them, supposed to weigh 50 ton, rests on two points of less than a foot diameter each, but there is now earth and grass collected, which cover the stone on which they rest, yet not so as to prevent its being moveable.. On the highest stone of all, a round pillar of three joints, with a weather-cock at the top, has been let into such a hole as that which appears in the stone on Riber, mentioned abovet. On the north side of one of the upper ftones, towards the west end of the
* These must be what are slightly mentioned by stukeley, without ascertaining the place; he speaks of two tumuli on the edges of opposite hills on entering the Peak country, and a hermitage by a great rock, called Ratcliff, on the back of which stones are set up two and two, forming a celtic avenue.
+ Mr. Rooke says, this is a rock-balon, and that there are others here, Arch. v, vi.. p. 111. where are Several views of these rocks.