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hill, a chair is cut, with two arms of very rude workmanship, and a seat for one person on each side of it. One of the uppermost stones measures 37 feet, or more, in length.
When seated in this chair, you see towards the right a single stone on an opposite hill; called the Eandle, or Anvil-stone; and to the right of that another, called Tho. mas's Chair; on this last there was a few years ago, a stone cut in shape of a chair, with a seat on each side, but it is now thrown down. Looking to the left, on the points of a high crag, are two upright stones, called Robinhood's Stride ; a little to the right of them, at the other end of the range, terminating in a heap of loose stones, is Crat. cliff Torr; south of Robinhood's Stride is Bradley, or Bradwell Torr, where is another shaking stone. This last is probably that which Dr. Borlase says he had heard of, as being four yards high, and twelve round. Of the two at Routar, he says, the largest is computed to weigh at least twenty ton, and it is on a. karn twenty feet high*..
At the foot of Routar, on the south side, is a house called Routar-hall, once the habitation of a gentleman's family, lately belonging to Mr. Eyre, of Derby, from whom it descended to the present lady Massareene, his daughter; there is also a small chapel. From this house there is a way up to these stones, where part of them is seen in a most extraordinary position; the highest heap of them here forms a face to the west, where they hang over one another almost without support, in the manner of that described by Dr. Borlase in plate XI. fig. 5, but much larger. The guide would make you believe that the sacrifices were performed here, and that the marks of fire are still visible on these stones. I cannot say I could see it. The north side at this end consists of vast maffes, piled on one another in the same manner, small stones seeming to have been put in to support the large ones. The heap goes further towards the west, but less high, and is terminated by a single square stone placed on some others.
It seems incredible that these stones should have been brought and placed here by any human art, as no engines now known would be equal to the task of bringing and placing them in the position in which they are now seen. Yet when one considers Stone-henge, which is beyond doubt the work of art; when we hear what masses of solid stone were carried to Palmyra, and raised to a great height, one cannot say it is impossible that this should be the work of human hands. Dr. Borlase observest, that the ancients had powers of moving vast weights, of which we have now no idea ; whatever knowledge was possessed, was poffefsed by the Druids, and they are supposed to have had so abfolute a command of the peoplet, that nothing would be wanting to effect what they might design. There are other certain marks of their having been in this neighbourhood. But, after all, may not this heap be the effect of that convulsion which has lest such astonishing marks of its violence in this country; and might not the Druids, finding the stones here remove the surrounding earth, and use them as a place of religious worship, taking advantage of the uncommon circumstance of such large stones being moveable by so small a force, to make the multitude believe they were invested with supernatural powers ?
Dr. Borlase describes a Tolmên in Cornwall, and another in Scilly, to consist of a large orbicular stone, supported by two stones, between which there is a passage, and says they are both in the decline of hills, beneath a large karn of rocks, standing on two natural supporters: he adds afterwards, “ Another thing is worthy of our notice
+ Ibid. p. 175.
* Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 182.
in this kind of monuments, which is, that underneath these vast stones, there is a hole or passage between the rocks :" whether this was used as a sanctuary for an offender to fly to, or introduce proselytes, novices, people under vows, or about to sacrifice into their more sublime mysteries, he does not determine"...
The stones on Routar do not seem to answer the description of a Tolmên, but that on Bradley Torr does; the passage, however, might be for a similar purpose.
Cratcliff presents a broad and very lofty perpendicular front of stones, wonderfully large, facing Winster and Elton; some of the upper ones are worn on the edges, as if jagged, and many of them are marked with seams, probably occasioned by the rain washing away the softer parts: Mr. Rooke says there are four rock-basons on the top. At the western end is a Imall cave in the rock, open to the south, which was formerly the habitation of a hermit. At the east end of it the figure of our Saviour on the cross was carved on the stone, and great part of it is still remaining. On the left of it is a niche. Facing the entrance was a seat, hewed out of the rock. A bed-place seems to have been separated from the rest, the holes remaining in which the posts were pro. bably placed
On the same range of hill, two stones standing upright in a direct line from one ano. ther, have got the name of Robinhood's Stride; they are also called Mock-beggar. hall, from the resemblance they have to chimnies at each end of a mansion-house, and which, on the north side particularly, might induce the poor traveller to make up to it in hopes of refreshment. Still more west of this, is another craggy rock, which, from the road to Elton, seems to hang almost without fupport.
About half a mile to the north of these rocks, on Hartle-moor, or Stanton-moor, is a circle of nine upright stones, called the Nine Ladies; a little west of this is a single stone, called the King; near this are several cairns, fome of which have been opened, and bones found in themt.
On Bircher-moor, towards Bakewell, I was told there is a similar circle, but the stones not so high as in the others.
Going towards Elton, the guide shewed me the top of what he called a pillar of eighteen or twenty feet in height, appearing between the Eandle-stone and Thomas's Chair, towards Bakewell; but at Bakewell I could not get any information about it.
About 200 yards north from the Nine Ladies, and a quarter of a mile west of the little valley which separates Hartle-moor from Stanton-moor, Mr. Rooke defcribes a circular work called Castle Ring. It has a deep ditch and double vallum; the entrance is very visible on the south-east side, where part of the vallum has been levelled by the plough. The diameter from N. E. to S. W. is 143 feet, from S. E. to N. W. 165 feet. As no coins or Roman utensils have been found near it, he says there seems to be grounds to suppose it a British, not Roman encampment. Some give it to the Danes, who fecured themselves some time in Derbyshire, after they had driven out the Saxons, but its vicinity to many Druidical remains, seem to speak it British.
This gentlemen also mentions three remarkable stones, called Cat-stones, on the east side of Stanton-moor, at the edge of a declivity, looking over Darley Dale; and another near them, called Gorse-Itone, derived from the British word Gorsed-dau, which
* Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 171, 176.
+ Mr. Rooke says, there was found with bones a large blue glass bead; with orifices not larger than the tip of a tobacco pipe
I Mr. Rooke mentions this as being on Hartle-moor, half a mile weit of the Nine Ladies, and having now only lix ftones.
Dr. Dr. Borlase mentions as a place of elevation used by the Druids from whence they used to pronounce their decrees. He gives also a plan of a small circular work in the middle of Stanton-moor, 16 yards diameter, and some remarkable rocks near the village of Stanton. :
These things my miserable guide gave me no information of when I was there.
On the commons of Winstor are several barrows, chiefly of stone, but one of earth was opened about the year 1968, when there were found in it two glass vefsels, bee tween eight and ten inches in height, containing about a pint of water, of a light green colour, and very limpid. With these was found a filver collar, or bracelet, and other small ornaments, and one of filligree work, of gold, or silver gilt, and set with garnets, , or red glass. There were also several square and round beads, of various colours, of glass and earth, and some small remains of brass, like clasps and hinges, and pieces of wood, as if of a little box in which the ornaments had been deposited*
From Matlock there are many excursions to be made. That to Routar, which I have just mentioned ; to Dovedale, and Mr. Porte's, at Ilam; to Haddon-hall, Bakewell, Mr. Eyre's, at Hassop, and Monfal Dale; to Hardwick-hall; to Chatsworth, and from thence by Middleton Dale to Castleton, in the high Peak, and so to Tidswell and Buxton.
The road to Dovedale is by Middleton, leaving Wirksworth on the left; through Brassington, Bradburn, and Tissington, into the turnpike-road from Bakewell to Ath. bourn, about two miles and a half from the last place, coming into it at a little public. house called the Dog and Partridge; but the traveller must not depend on this house for refreshment. The road to Dovedale goes off the turnpike by this house: palling a church on the left, and two or three cottages on the right, you turn on the right into a field, where there is no other track than what is made by the summer via sitors ; yet in the lower part of this, on the left, the entrance of the dale will be easily found.
Before I enter on a description of Dovedale, I must mention that at Brassington there is in a large pasture a rock, called Rainfter, spreading something like a turkey-cock's tail. On the moor, on the right, is a rocky hill, called Harbury, from whence you sée to a great distance. The moor is covered with rocks of a rough, ragged stone. On this common, fome years ago, a Kyst-vaen was discovered by a farmer, who cut through the barrow to get stone; he broke part of the lid, but found it so troublesome that he defifted, and the rest of it remained perfect, and was visited by the gentleman from whom I had this information. I believe this is the same as is now to be seen on the top of Miningle-low, near Braffington common, between Newhaven and Winster. On this spot were several, three of them are now remaining, but partly hid by a plantation of trees, which is surrounded by a wall. They consist of large perpendicular stones fet into the ground, and appearing some more, some less above the surface, some close to. gether, others not so, and on the top of them is laid one large flat stone. The most perfect is about nine feet in length, and on the north east side there is room enough to, go down into it. Another less perfect is 13 feet in length.
To return to Dovedale; the walk between the rocks begins at a point, where the river Doye turns a corner of the projecting hilis, one of which (on the left) is very lofty, and is called Thorpe Cloud. Here the horses must be left. Following the course of the stream, you come to the upper part of the dale, called Mill-dale, where there is a little public-house by a bridge, which leads towards Alstonfield, and the great copper.
mine of the duke of Devonshire, called Eton-mine. If you mean to go thither, a guide must be got to take the horses roand to the bridge.
Dovedale is in every part deep and narrow, the river running sometimes close to the rocks on one side, sometimes on the other, often barely leaving a foot-path. These rocks, on both rides the water, are of grey limestone, of every wild and gro. tesque variety of height and shape. Sometimes they stand single, like the fragments of a wall, or the tower of an old castle; sometimes they rise from a broad base in a kind of pyramid, at others, flender like a pinnacle ; sometimes plain and perpendicular; sometimes huge malles hang on the upper part, almost without support, and seem to threaten destruction to any one who ventures beneath them. Yew, ash, whiteleaf, and other trees, grow out of the crevices, scattered in various parts, in one place forming a thick wood from the bottom to the top. Wood-pigeons, and a great number of hawks are found here; and there is a rabbit-warren, in which 3500 couple are taken in a year, the skins of which fell for about eight shillings a dozen.
After going up a little way, there is on the right a large natural arch in a rock, which Itands out single, and has the appearance of a wall; this leads to a cavern in the rock be. hind, called Reynard's-hall, and to another called his kitchen.
Towards the upper end is another large arch and a cavern, called Foxholes. Beyond this, a turn on the right leads to a farm-house, called Hanfon Grange, but the stream will lead to Mill-dale. The rocks continue some distance further, and then are lost by degrees, a fragment peeping out here and there after the chain is discontinued.
The Dove rises near Buxton, in the parish of Alstonfield, is here of various width, very clear, deep in some few places, but generally shallow, runs rapidly, and has many small falls, but none of consequence; the bed of it is sometimes overgrown with weeds, and the sides often so, which takes off much of its beauty. It here parts the counties of Derby and Stafford. Poachers take from five to twenty pounds weight of trout or grayling at a time, and carry them to Buxton or Matlock, where they fell them for six-pence or eight-pence a pound. Cray-fish are also taken here.
On the top of the road, opposite the Foxholes, cockles, perriwinkles, and other sea· fhells are found; fhells are also found petrified in the rocks, in several places. On the hill in the road from Ilam to Wetton, they are digging a crumbly red grit-stone, almost entirely composed of cockle and other shells. On a hill opposite Reynard's-hail, in an old mine, a few entrochi are found in the stone; and in the wood beyond is a vein of ruddle, or red ochre, in chinks of the rocks, which is used to mark sheep with, and it will not easily wash out. In it are found crystals of a course red colour, of five points, lefs perfect than those found at Buxton, but harder. Lava is said to be seen about Thorpe cloud, and in other parts of the dale. From this hill the rocks on the opposite side of the river assume new shapes, and their shadows projected by the setting fun have a fine effe&.
This scene is romantic and wild, with more of the sublime than the beautiful; but no one of curiosity who is in this part of the country can omit feeing it.
There is a way to go into this dale at the head of it, by going to Hanson Grange, which stands at one entrance, or to Mill-dale at another ; but it cannot be found without a guide, who may be taken from Tiffington, where is a seat of the very ancient family of Fitzherbert*. If this is preferred, the horses must be sent round to meet you at coming out, if it is intended to go to Ashbourn. • The author of the famous law.book, called Natura Brevium, was of this family.
Leaving the dale, on going out of the field turn on the right to Mr. Porte's, at Ilam. His garden is in a bottom, surrounded by hills, and consists only of a walk round a meadow. The right hand hill is a rock, at the foot of which is the curiosity that attracts the traveller. The rivers Hamps and Manifold ingulph themselves at a confiderable distance from hence, and from each other, the one near fix, the other four, miles off; the one running north, the other west, yet they come out of the rock in this place within 10 yards of each other, the former from a hole of about four feet deep, the latter from one of 14. They presently join their streams, and receiving that currént of the Manifold which runs above ground from Wetton-mill, when there is too much water to be received by the swallows there, run under the name of the Manifold into the Dove, at no great distance. Some have affected to doubt whether the streams which break out in the garden are really distinct ones, or only different branches of the same; but I was assured by a man of observation, that he has seen at different times one of them swelled by a sudden shower, the other remaining calm, and so of each of them. In this hilly country it is common for a heavy shower to fall in one place, when. at a small distance it shall be fair weather.
In the rock above is a seat of which Congreve was very fond, and where it is said he wrote his Old Bachelor, a play thought at that time to be very witty. The opposite hill rises steep and high, and is covered with a hanging wood, at the foot of which is the channel filled by the Manifold, when the cavity in the rocks at Wetton:mill will not carry off all the water, but dry in a season of drought. In this channel (up to the mill) are stones which sew a vein of pyrites, the size of a knitting needle, crossing the stones in various directions. It is said that no others of the fort are found in the neighbourhood. From the upper end of this meadow a conical hill is feen, flat at the top, as if the point was cut off. It seems to stand single, amongst a heap of rude, mithapen mountains, and forms a striking object.
In the garden is a curious engine for supplying the house with water, made by Mr. Chatterton, a very ingenious worknian at Derby. There are two buckets which' work. themselves, one descending as the other rises, the full one eniptying itself into a pipe. which conveys it to the house.
St. Bertram's well; his alh-tree growing over it, which the country people used: to hold in great veneration, and think it dangerous to break a bough from ; or his tomb in the church, which are mentioned by Plot * ; I did not hear of it' at the place.
About four miles from Ilam, in the way to Eeton-mine, is the village of Wetton, a mile from which is a mill, of which, and the rocks about it, Smith has engraved a view, amongst those he has given of this country. There is some scenery of rock and water, but it will scarce repay the trouble of a walk. In going to it you see on the left a large cavern in a high rock, but it has nothing to compensate the labor of going to, and descending from it. In the bottom, a little below the mill, the Manifold rushes into some chasms in the foot of the rock, and runs under ground till it rises in the garden at Ilam. The gardener proved the fact, by putting some corks into the river here, and fixing a net at the place of its emerging at Mr. Porte's, where he found. them again.
Wetton is a very mean village, the inhabitants employed in mining. It is a poor vicarage of 20l, a-year, the church served about once a fortnight. This place belongs. to the duke of Devonshire, and the land lets from 10 to 40 shillings an acre. The carte
• Natural History of Staffordshire, R. 207, 409,