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ver. 23, 24. Will be with hurt.-- With injury, or 1 supposing that they had obtained their purpose, hazard. It is not meant that their lives would be

loosing ; thence, they sailed close by Crete. lost, but that they would be jeoparded. The lading.The freight of the ship. It was laden with

į Ver. 21. wheat. (Ver. 38.) Paul evidently by this in

The south wind.—The wind before had pretended to suggest the propriety of remaining

bably been a head wind, blowing from the west. where they were until the time of dangerous

When it veered round to the south, and when it navigation was past.

blew gently, though not entirely favourable, yet

it was so that they supposed they could sail along Ver. 11. Nevertheless the centurion * believed the coast of Creté. Hai obtained their purpose. the master and the owner of the ship more than ---The object of their desire; that is, to sail safels

along the coast of Crete. Loosing thence.-- Setting those things which were spoken by Paul.

sail from the fair havens. Close by Crete.- Near h Prov. xxvii. 12.

the shore. It is evident that they designed, if

possible, to make the harbour of Phenice, to The master.—The captain, or the pilot. The winter there. person who is here meant was the helmsman, who occupied, in ancient ships, a conspicuous

VER. 14. But not long after there karose against place on the stern, and steered the ship, and gave it a tempestuous' wind, called Euroclydon. directions to the crew. The owner of the ship.Probably a different person from “ the master.”

k or, beat. i Psa. cvii. 25. He had the general command of the ship as his

Arose.-Beat violently. Against it.- Against own property, but had employed “the master," the island of Crete. A tempestuous wind.- Turbu- 1 or the pilot, to direct and manage it. His counsellen

lent, violent, strong. Called Euroclydon.-Inter1 in regard to the propriety of continuing the voy

preters have been much perplexed about the age, would be likely to be followed.

meaning of this word, which occurs nowhere

else in the New Testament. The most probal le VER. 12. And because the haven was not com supposition is, that it denotes a wind not blos. modious to winter in, the more part advised to

ing steadily from any quarter, but a hurricane,

or wind veering about to different quarters. Sach depart thence also, if by any means they might

hurricanes are known to abound in the Mediterattain to Phenice, and there to winter; which ranean, and are now called Levanters, deriving! is an haven of Crete, i and lieth toward the

their name from blowing chiefly in the Levant,

or eastern part of the Mediterranean. The name ! south-west and north-west.

Euroclydon is derived probably from two Greek! i Ver. 7.

words, evpoç, “wind;" and klúówv, "a wave;" so

called from its agitating and exciting the waves." The haven.—The fair havens. (Ver. 8.) Was It thus answers to the usual effects of a hurri- ". not commodious to winter in.-Not safe or con

cane, or of a wind rapidly changing its points of venient to remain there. Probably it furnished compass. rather a safe anchorage ground in time of a storm, than a convenient place for a permanent harbour.

| VER. 15. And when the ship was caught, and The more part.—The greater part of the crew. could not bear up into the wind, we let her To Phenice.-- This was a port or harbour on the

drive. south side of Crete, and west of the fair havens. It was a more convenient harbour, and regarded The ship was caught.-By the wind. It came as more safe. It appears, therefore, that the suddenly upon them as a tempest. Could mot majority of persons on board concurred with bear up, &c.- Could not resist its violence, or Paul in the belief that it was not advisable to could not direct the ship. It was seized by the attempt the navigation of the sea until the dan- | wind, and driven with such violence that it be gers of the winter had passed by. And lieth to- | came unmanageable. We let her drive. We

Pard.-Greek, “Looking toward;" i. e., it was suffered the ship to be borne along by the sind open in that direction. The south-west.-Karà !

without attempting to control it. Aißa. Toward Libya, or Africa. That country was situated south-west of the mouth of the har Ver. 16. And running under a certain island bour. The entrance of the harbour was in a

which is called Clauda, we had much work to south-west direction. And north-west.-Karà Xwpov. This word denotes a wind blowing

come by the boat: from the north-west. The harbour was doubtless

And running under. - Running near to an curved. Its entrance was in a south-west direc

island. tion. It then turned so as to lie in a direction

They run near to it, where the violence towards the north-west. It was thus rendered

of the wind was probably broken by the island. perfectly safe from the winds and heavy seas;

Which is called Clauda.-This is a small island and in that harbour they might pass the winter

south-west of Crete. We had much work.- Mach in security.

difficulty; we were scarcely able to do it. To come by the boat.-- This does not mean that they

attempted here to land in the boat, but they Ver. 13. And when the south-wind blew softly, had much difficulty in saving the small boat

! attached to the ship from being staved to pieces. VER. 19. And the third day we cast out with Whether it was carried in the ship or towed at

our own hands the tackling of the ship. the stern does not appear; but it is evident that it was in danger of being broken to pieces, or

o Job ii. 4. John i. 5. lost, and that they had much difficulty in secur

The tackling of the ship.The anchors, sails, ing it. The importance of securing the small boat is known by all seamen.

cables, baggage, &c. That is, they threw over every thing that was not indispensable to its pre

servation, for it seems still (ver. 29) that they VER. 17. Which when they had taken up, they retained some of their anchors on board.

used helps, undergirding the ship; and fearing lest they should fall into the quicksands, | VER. 20. And when neither o sun nor stars in strake sail, and so were driven.

many days appeared, and no small tempest lay m Ver. 41.

on us, all hope I that we should be saved was

then taken away. Which when they had taken up. When they had raised up the boat into the ship, so as to

p Psa. cv. 28. 9 Ezek. xxxvii. 11. secure it. They used helps.— They used ropes,

Neither sun nor stars, &c.— As they could see cables, stays, or chains, for the purpose of se- | curing the ship. The danger was that the ship

neither sun nor stars, they could make no obser

vations; and as they had no compass, they would would be destroyed; and they therefore made

| be totally ignorant of their situation, and gave up use of such aids as should prevent the loss of the

all as lost. ship. Undergirding the ship.-- The ancients were accustomed to pass cables or strong ropes from

VER. 21. But after long abstinence, Paul stood one side of the ship to another, to keep the planks from springing or starting by the action of the

forth in the midst of them, and said, Sirs, ye sea. The rope was slipped under the prow, and should have hearkened 'unto me, and not have passed along to any part of the keel which they

loosed from Crete, and to have gained this pleased, and made fast on the deck. See cases mentioned in Kuinoel on this verse. An instance

harm and loss. of the same kind is mentioned in Lord Anson's

Ver. 10. Ver. 13. voyage round the world. Speaking of a Spanish man-of-war in a storm, he says, " they were But after long abstinence. By the violence of obliged to throw overboard all their upper- | the storm, by their long-continued labour, and by deck guns; and take six turns of the cable their apprehension of danger, they had a long round the ship, to prevent her opening.”- time abstained from food. And to have gained Clarke. Lest they should fall into the quicksands.- this harm.- To have procured this harm, or have There were two celebrated syrtes, or quicksands, subjected yourselves to it. Had you remained on the coast of Africa, called the greater and there, you would have been safe. It seems to be lesser. They were vast beds of sand driven up bad English to speak of gaining a loss, but it is a by the sea, and constantly shifting their position, correct translation of the original, (nepôñoai,) so that they could not know certainly where the which expresses the idea of acquiring or procurdanger was and guard against it. As they were ing, whether good or evil. See ver. 9, 10. constantly changing their position, they could not be accurately laid down in a chart. They were | VER. 22. And now I exhort you to be of good afraid, therefore, that they should be driven on

cheer : for there shall be no loss of any man's one of those banks of sand, and thus be lost. Strake sail.-Or rather, lowered or took down life among you, but of the ship. the mast, or the yards to which the sails were

t Job xxii. 29. Psa. cxii. 7. 2 Cor. iv. 8, 9. attached. There has been a great variety of interpretations proposed on this passage. The most There shall be no loss.—This must have been probable is, that they took down the mast, by cheering news to those who had given up all for cutting, or otherwise, as is now done in storms lost. As Paul had manifested great wisdom in at sea, to save the ship. They were at the mercy his former advice to them, they might be now of the winds and waves ; and their only hope more disposed to listen to him. The reason why was by taking away their sails. And so were he believed they would be safe, he immediately driven. — By the wind and waves. The ship was states. unmanageable, and they suffered it to be driven before the wind.

VER. 23. For there stood by me this night"

the angel " of God, whose "I am, and whom Ver. 18. And we being exceedingly tossed " with

* I serve, a tempest, the next day they lightened the

u Chap. xxiii. 11. Heb. i. 14. · ship;

w Deut. xxxii. 9. Psa. CXXXV. 4. Isa. xliv. 5. Mal. iii. 17.

John xvii. 9, 10. I Cor. vi. 20. i Pet. ii. 9, 10. * Psa, cvii. 27.

* Psa, cxvi. 16. Isa. xliv. 21. Dan. iii. 17; vi. 16.

John xii. 26. Roin. 1.9. 2 Tim. i. 3. They lightened the ship.-By throwing out a part of the cargo.

* There stood by me. There appeared to me. The angel of God. The messages of God were | And sounded. - To sound is to make use of a i often communicated by angels. See Heb. i. 14. | line and lead to ascertain the depth of water. | This does not mean that there was any particular Twenty fathoms.-A fathom is six feet, or the angel, but simply an angel. Whose I am.--Of| distance from the extremity of the middle finger! the God to whom I belong. This is an expres on one hand, to the extremity of the other, when sion of Paul's entire devotedness to him. Whom the arms are extended. The depth, therefore, I serve.- In the gospel. To whom and to whose | was about one hundred and twenty feet. Fifteen cause I am entirely devoted.

fathoms.They knew, therefore, that they were

drawing near to shore. VER. 24. Saying, Fear not, Paul; thou must be

VER. 29. Then fearing lest they should have brought before Cesar : and lo, God hath given thee - all them that sail with thee.

fallen upon rocks, they cast four anchors out

of the stern, and wished • for the day. & Gen. xix. 21, 22. VER. 25. Wherefore, sirs, be of good cheer : for y

a Psa. cxxx. 6. I believe God, that it shall be even as it was They cast four anchors.-On account of the told me.

violence of the storm and waves, to make if pos- |

sible the ship secure. And wished for the day.y Luke i. 45. Rom. iv. 20, 21. 2 Tim. i. 12.

| To discern more accurately their situation and Fear not, Paul.-Do not be alarmed with the danger. danger of the loss of life. Thou must be brought, &c. - And therefore thy life will be spared. God VER. 30. And as the shipmen were about to filter hath given thee all, &c.—That is, they shall all out of the ship, when they had let down the be preserved with thee. None of their lives shall

boat into the sea, under colour as though be lost. It does not mean that they should be

they would have cast anchors out of the foreconverted, but that their lives should be preserved. It is implied here that it was for the

ship. sake of Paul, or that the leading purpose of the

The shipmen.—The sailors, leaving the priDivine interposition to rescue them from danger was, to save his life. The wicked often derive

soners. Under colour.- Under pretence. They important benefit from being connected with

pretended that it was necessary to get into the Christians; and God often confers important

boat, and carry the anchors ahead of the ship, favours on them in his general purpose to benefit

so as to make it secure, but with a real intention his own people. The lives of impenitent men

to make for the shore. Out of the foreship.are often spared because God interposes to save

From the prow, so as to make the fore-part of!

the ship secure. The reason why they did this his own people.

was, probably, that they expected the ship would VER. 26. How beit, we must be cast upon a cer

go to pieces ; and as all on board could not be

saved in one small boat, they resolved to escape tain island.

to a place of safety as soon as possible. z Chap. xxviii, 1.

VER. 31. Paul said to the centurion and to the Houbeit.-- Nevertheless. Upon a certain island. -Malta. See chap. xxviii. 1.

soldiers, Except these abide in the ship, ye

cannot be saved. Ver. 27. But when the fourteenth night was come, as we were driven up and down in

Paul said to the centurion and the soldiers. The

centurion had, it appears, the general direction Adria, about midnight the shipmen deemed

of the ship. (Ver. 11.) Probably it had been that they drew near to some country;

pressed into the service of the government.

Except these. These seamen. The soldiers and The fourteenth night.From the time when the the centurion were unqualified to manage the tempest commenced. In Adria.--In the Adria ship, and the presence of the sailors was theretic sea. This sea is properly situated between fore indispensable to the preservation of any. Italy and Dalmatia, now called the Adriatic Abide in the ship.-Remain on board. Ye cannot gulf. But among the ancients the name was be saved.You cannot be preserved from death. i given not only to that gulf, but to the whole sea You will have no hope of managing the ship so lying between Greece, Italy, and Africa, includ as to be secure from death. It will be rememing the Sicilian and Ionian sea. It is evident, bered that Paul had been informed by the angel, from the narrative, that they were not in the and had assured them (ver. 22–24) that no lives Adriatic gulf, but in the vicinity of Malta. See should be lost. But it was only in the use of the the map. Deemed.-Judged. Probably by the proper means that their lives would be safe. appearance of the sea.

Though it had been determined, and though

Paul had the assurance that their lives would be VER. 28. And sounded, and found it twenty | safe, yet this did not, in his view, prevent the fathoms: and when they had gone a little

use of the proper means to secure it. From this

we may learn, (1.) That the certainty of an event further, they sounded again, and found it fif

does not render it improper to use means :0 teen fathoms.

obtain it. (2.) That though the event may be

determined, yet the use of the means may be “Appian speaks of an army which for twenty indispensable. The event is rendered no more days together had neither food nor sleep; by i certain than the means requisite to accomplish which he must mean that they neither made full

L. (3.) That the doctrine of the divine purposes meals, nor slept whole nights together. The or decrees, making certain future events, does same interpretation must be given to this phrase.” not make the use of man's agency unnecessary -Doddridge. The effect of this must have been, or improper. The means are determined as well that they would be weak and exhausted ; and as the end; and the one will not be secured little able to endure the fatigues which yet rewithout the other. (4.) The same is true in mained. regard to the decrees respecting salvation. The end is not determined without the means; and | VER. 34. Wherefore I pray you to take some as God has resolved that his people shall be

meat : for this bis for your health : for there saved, so he has also determined the means. He has ordained that they shall repent, shall

shall not au hair fall from the head of any believe, shall be holy, and shall thus be saved. of you. (3.) We have in this case a full answer to the

b Matt. xv. 32. 1 Tim. v. 23. objection that a belief in the decrees of God will

cl Kings i. 52. Matt. x. 30. Luke xii. 7; xxi. 18. make men neglect the means of salvation, and lead to licentiousness. It has just the contrary Not an hair fall from the head, &c.—This is a tendency. Here is a case in which Paul cer- proverbial expression, denoting that they should tainly believed in the purpose of God to save he preserved safe ; that none of them should be these men; in which he was assured that it was lost, and that in their persons they should not fully determined ; and yet the effect was not to experience the least damage. (1 Kings i. 52. produce inattention and unconcern, but to prompt | 1 Sam. xiv. 45.) him to use strenuous efforts to accomplish the very effect which God had determined should VER. 35. And when he had thus spoken, he took take place. So it is always. A belief that God

bread, and d gave thanks to God in presence has parposes of mercy; that he designs, and has always designed, to save some, will prompt to

of them all: and when he had broken it, he the use of all proper means to secure it. If we began to eat. had no evidence that God had any such purpose,

d 1 Sam. ix. 13. Matt. xv. 36. Mark viii. 6. John vi. effort would be vain. We should have no in

11, 23. I Tim. iv, 3, 4. dacement to exertion. Where we have such esidence, it operates as it did in the case of Paul, And gave thanks, &c.—This was the usual custo produce great and strenuous endeavours to tom among the Hebrews. See Note, Matt. xiv. secare the object.

19. Paul was among those who were not Chris

tians. But he was not ashamed of the proper VER. 32. Then the soldiers cut off the ropes of acknowledgment of God, and was not afraid to the boat, and let her fall off.

avow his dependence on him, and to express his

gratitude for his mercy. Cut off the ropes, &c.- It is evident that the mariners had not yet got on board the boat. VER. 36. Then were they all of good cheer, and They had let it down into the sea, (ver. 30,) and were about to go on board. By thus cutting the

they also took some meat. ropes which fastened the boat to the ship, and

37. And we were in all in the ship two hunletting it go, they removed all possibility of their dred threescore and sixteen souls. fleeing from the ship, and compelled them to re

38. And when they had eaten enough, they main on board.

lightened the ship, and cast out the wheat into VER. 33. And while the day was coming on,

the sea. Paul besought them all to take meat, saying, They lightened the ship.-Ry casting the wheat This day is the fourteenth day that ye have

into the sea. As they had no hope of saving the tarried, and continued fasting, having taken

cargo, and had no further use for it, they hoped that by throwing the wheat overboard, the ship

the nothing.

would draw less water, and that thus they would And while the day was coming on.— At day

be able to come nearer to the shore. break. It was before they had sufficient light to

VER. 39. And when it was day, they knew not discern what they should do. To take meat.Food. The word meat was formerly used to

the land: but they discovered a certain creek depote food of any kind. That ye have tarried, with a shore, into the which they were minded, - That you have remained or been fasting. if it were possible, to thrust in the ship. Haring taken nothing.–No regular meal. It cannot mean that they had lived entirely without They knew not the land. - They bad been driven food; but that they had been so much in danger, with a tempest, without being able to make any

so constantly engaged, and so anxious about their observation; and it is probable that they were . safety, that they had taken no regular meal; and entire strangers to the coast, and to the whole

that what they had taken had been at irregular island. A certain creek with a shore.-Greek, A ' intervals, and had been a scanty allowance. certain bosom (KóA mov) or bay. By its having a

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shore, is probably meant that it had a level shore, | the waves. It is evident that this was not pro- || or one that was convenient for landing. It was perly an isthmus that was above the waves, but not a high bluff of rocks, but was accessible. | was probably a long sand-bank that stretched Kuinoel thinks that the passage should be con far out into the sea, and which they did not per: strued, “they found a certain shore, having a ceive. In endeavouring to make the harbour, bay," &c. Were minded. Were resolved. they ran on this bar or sand-bank. They ran the

ship aground. Not designedly, but in endea. | VER. 40. And when they had e taken up the vouring to reach the harbour.' (Ver. 39.) The anchors, they committed themselves unto the

hinder part was broken.—The stern was broken

or staved in. By this means the company was sea, and loosed the rudder-bands, and hoised

furnished with boards, &c., on which they were up the mainsail to the wind, and made toward

safely conveyed to the shore. (Ver. 44.) shore.

| VER. 42. And the soldiers' counsel was to kill e or, cut the anchors, left them in the sea, &c.

the prisoners, lest any of them should swim Had taken up the anchors.--The four anchors

out, and escape. with which they had moored the ship. (Ver. 29.) See the margin. The expression may mean that

| Psa. lxxiv. 20. they slipped or cut their cables, and that thus they left the anchors in the sea. This is the

And the soldiers' counsel, &c.-Why they gare most probable interpretation. And loosed the this advice, is not known. It was probably, how. rudder-bands.- The rudder in navigation is that

ever, because the Roman military discipline was by which a ship is steered. It is that part of the

very strict, and if they escaped, it would probe. helm which consists of a piece of timber, broad

bly be charged on them that it had been done by at the bottom, which enters the water, and is

the negligence and unfaithfulness of the soldiers. attached by hinges to the stern-post, on which it

They therefore proposed, in a most cruel and turns.- Webster. But what was the precise form

bloodthirsty manner, to kill them, though conof the rudder among the ancients, is not certainly

trary to all humanity, justice, and laws; preknown. Sometimes a vessel might be steered

suming, probably, that it would be supposed that by oars. In most ships they appear to have had

they had perished in the wreck. This is a rea rudder at the prow as well as at the stern. In

markable proof that men can be cruel, even when some instances, also, they had them on the sides.

experiencing the tender mercy of God; and that The word used here in the Greek is in the plural,

the most affecting scenes of divine goodness will ! (tūv andaliwy,) and it is evident that they had

not mitigate the natural ferocity and cruelty of in this ship more than one rudder. The bands

| those who delight in blood. mentioned here were probably the cords, or fastenings by which the rudder could be made secure VER. 43. But the centurion, willing to save Paul, to the sides of the ship, or could be raised up out

8 kept them from their purpose ; and com- 1 of the water in a violent storm, to prevent its being carried away. And as in the tempest, the

manded that they which could swim should rudders bad become useless, (ver. 15, 17,) they cast themselves first into the sea, and get to were probably either raised out of the water, or

land : made fast. Now that the storm was passed, and they could be used again, they were loosed, and

g 2 Cor. xi. 25. they endeavoured to direct the vessel into port. The mainsail, Aprépova. – There have been va

But the centurion, willing to sare Paul.--He had rious explanations of this word. Luther trans | at first been disposed to treat Paul with kindness, lates it " the mast.” Erasmus “the yards." Gro. (Ver. 3.) And his conduct on board the ship; tius, who supposes that the mainmast had been the wisdom of his advice, (ver. 10;) the prudence cast away, (ver. 17,) thinks that this must mean

of his conduct in the agitation and danger of the the foremast or bowsprit. The word usually tempest; and not improbably the belief that he means the “mainsail.” The Syriac and Arabic was under the Divine protection and blessing.

understand it of a “small sail,” that was hoisted | disposed him to spare his life. Kept them from for a temporary purpose.

| their purpose. Thus, for the sake of this one

| righteous man, the lives of all were spared. VER. 41. And falling into a place where two seas The instance here shows, (1.) That it is possible met, they ran the ship aground; and the fore

for a pious man, like Paul, só to conduct in the

various trying scenes of life-- the agitations, part stuck fast, and remained unmovable, but

difficulties, and temptations of this world--as to the hinder part was broken with the violence conciliate the favour of the men of this world; of the waves.

and, (2.) That important benefits often result to

sinners from the righteous. Paul's being on And falling.-Being carried by the wind and board was the means of saving the lives of many waves. Into a place where two seas met.--Greek, prisoners ; and God often confers important Into a place of a double sea. Aujálangov. That blessings on the wicked for the sake of the pious is, a place which is washed on both sides by the relatives, friends, and neighbours, with whom sea. It refers properly to an isthmus, tongue of | they are connected. Ten righteous men would land, or a sand-bar stretching out from the main have saved Sodom, (Gen. xviii. 32 ;) and Chns. land, and which was washed on both sides by tians are in more ways than one the salt of the

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