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whom he had lived and laboured, in regard to | done it. In part, (u rouépovc.)—Tindal renders the general sincerity and uprightness of his cha this, " as ye have found us partly." The sense racter-such an appeal as every minister ought seems to be," as part of you acknowledge;" to be able to make to refute all slanders; and meaning that a portion of the church was ready such as he will be able to make successfully, if to concede to him the praise of consistency and his life, like that of Paul, is such as to warrant uprightness, though there was a faction, or a it. Such seems to me to be the sense of the pas part that denied it. That we are your rejoicing. age. Beza, however, renders it, “I write no – That we are your joy and your boasting. That other things than what ye read, or may under is, you admit me to be an apostle. You regard stand," and so Rosenmüller, Wetstein, Mack me as your teacher and guide. You recoguise night, and some others, interpret it; and they my authority, and acknowledge the benefits which explain it as meaning, “I write nothing secretly, you have received through me. Even as ye also nothing ambiguously, but I express myself are ours.-Or, as you will be our rejoicing in clearly, openly, plainly, so that I may be read the day when the Lord Jesus shall come to and understood by all.” Macknight supposes gather his people to himself. Then it will be that they had charged him with using ambigu. seen that you were saved by our ministry; and ous language, that he might afterwards interpret then it will be an occasion of abundant and eterit to suit his own purpose. The objection to this nal thanksgiving to God that you were converted is, that Paul never adverts to the obscurity or by our labours. And as you now regard it as a perspicnity of his own language. It was his matter of congratulation and thanksgiving that conduct that was the main subject on which he you have such teachers as we are, so shall we was writing, and the connexion seems to de regard it as a matter of congratulation and thanksmand that we understand him as affirming that giving—as our chief joy-that we were the instruthey had abnndant evidence that what he affirmed ments of saving such a people. The expression of his simplicity of aim, and integrity of life, was implies that there was mutual confidence, mutual true. Than what ye read, (avayıvúoKETE.) This love, and mutual cause of rejoicing. It is well word properly means to “ know accurately ;" to when ministers and people have such confidence distinguish: and in the New Testament, usually in each other, and have occasion to regard their to a know by reading." Doddridge remarks, that connexion as a mutual cause of rejoicing and of the word is ambiguous, and may signify either kaúxnuia, or boasting. to acknowledge, to know, or to read. Ile regards it as here used in the sense of knowing. It is

VER. 15. And in this confidence I was minded probably used here in the sense of knowing ac to come unto you before, that ye might have curately, or surely; of recognising from their

a second benefit; former acquaintance with him. They would see

gr Or, grace. that the sentiments which he now expressed were such as accorded with his character and And in this confidence.—In this confidence of uniform course of life. Or acknowledge, (Émiye | my integrity, and that you had this favourable YUTKETC.)-The preposition iri in composition opinion of me, and appreciated the principles of bere is intensive, and the word denotes to know | my conduct. I did not doubt that you would fally; to receive full knowledge of; to know receive me kindly, and would give me again the well; or to recognise. It here means, that they | tokens of your affection and regard. In this, would fully recognise, or know entirely to their Paul shows that however some of them might satisfaction, that the sentiments which he here regard him, yet that he had no doubt that the expressed were such as accorded with his general majority of the church there would receive him manner of life. From what they knew of him, kindly. I was minded.-I willed, (ißovlópnv ;) they could not but admit that he had been influ it was my intention. To come unto you before.-enced by the principles stated. And I trust ye Tindal renders this, “the other time.” Paul reshall acknowledye.-I trust that my conduct will be | fers, doubtless, to the time when he wrote his such as to convince you always that I am actu former epistle, and when it was his serious purated by such principles. I trust you will never pose, as it was his earnest wish, to visit them witness any departure from them- the language again. See I Cor. xvi. 5. In this purpose he of a man of settled principle, and of fixed aims had been disappointed, and he now proceeds to and honesty of life. An honest man can always state the reasons why he had not visited them as use such language respecting himself. Even to he had purposed, and to show that it did not the end.-To the end of life; always. “We | arise from any fickleness of mind. His purpose trust that you will never have occasion to think had been at first to pass through Corinth on his dishonourably of us, or to reflect on any incon way to Macedonia, and to remain some time with sistency in our behaviour.”- Doddridge.

them. See ver. 16. Comp. I Cor. xvi. 5, 6. This

purpose he had now changed ; and instead of VER. 14. As also ye have acknowledged us in

passing through Corinth on his way to Macedopart, that we are your rejoicing, even as ye nia, he had gone to Macedonia by the way of also are ours in the day of the Lord Jesus.

| Troas, (chap. ii. 12 ;) and the Corinthians having,

as it would seem, become acquainted with this q Phil. iv. 1.

fact, had charged him with insincerity in the pro- ; As also ye hare acknowledged us.—You have mise, or fickleness in regard to his plans. Probad occasion to admit my singleness of aim, and bably it had been said by some of his enemies, party of intention and of life, by your former that he had never intended to visit them. That acquaintance with me; and you have cheerfully ye might have a second benefit.- Marg. “ grace.”

The word here used (yapıc) is that which is - The word daonią (from eadcoc) means procommonly rendered “ grace,” and means proba- perly lightness in weight. Here it is used in bly favour, kindness, good-will, beneficence; reference to the mind; and in a sense similar to and especially favour to the undeserving. Here, our word levity, as decoting lightness of temper it is evidently used in the sense of gratification, or conduct; inconstancy, changeableness, or or pleasure. And the idea is, that they had been fickleness. This charge had been probably made formerly gratified and benefited by his residence that he had made the promise without any due among them: he had been the means of confer consideration, or without any real purpose of ring important favours on them, and he was performing it; or that he had made it in a desirous of being again with them, in order to trifling and thoughtless manner. By the icter. gratify them by his presence, and that he might rogative form here, he sharply denies that it was be the means of imparting to them other favours. a purpose formed in a light and trifling manner. Paul presumed that his presence with them Do I purpose according to the flesh.- In such a would be to them a source of pleasure, and that manner as may suit my own convenience and his coming would do them good. It is the lan carnal interest. Do I form plans adapted only guage of a man who felt assured that he enjoyed, to promote my own ease and gratification, and to after all, the confidence of the mass of the church be abandoned when they are attended with inthere, and that they would regard his being with convenience? The phrase “ according to tbt them as a favour. He had been with them for flesh” here seems to mean, "in such a way as to merly almost two years. His residence there had promote my own ease and gratification; in a been pleasant to them and to him, and had been manner such as the men of the world form: the occasion of important benefits to them. He such as would be formed under the influence of did not doubt that it would be so again. Tindal earthly passions and desires, and to be forsake renders this, “ that ye might have a double plea when those plans would interfere with such grasure." It may be remarked here, that several tifications.” Paul denies in a positive manner MSS., instead of xápıv, grace, read xapáv, joy. that he formed such plans : and they should have

known enough of his manner of life to be asVer. 16. And to pass by you into Macedonia, sured that that was not the nature of the schernes and to come again out of Macedonia unto you,

which he had devised. Probably no man erer

lived who formed his plans of life less for the and of you to be brought on my 'way toward | gratification of the flesh than Paul. That with Judea.

me there should be yea, yea, und ncy, nay?- Thure & Acts xxi. 5.

has been a great variety in the interpretation of And to pass by you.—Through (@i') you ; that this passage. See Bloomfield, Crit. Dig. ir bursa is, through your city or province; or to take The meaning seems to be," that there should be them, as we say, in his way. His design was to such inconstancy and uncertainty in my couspass through Corinth and Achaia on his journey. sels and actions, that no one could deperd ro This was not the direct way from Ephesus to me, or know what they had to expect from me." Macedonia. An inspection of a map (see the Bloomfield supposes that the phrase is a tremap of Asia Minor prefixed to the Notes on the verbial one, and denotes a headstrong, self-willed Acts of the Apostles) will show at one view spirit, which will either do things or tot de that the direct way was that which he concluded them as pleases, without giving any reasons. finally to take, that by Troas. Yet he had de. He supposes that the repetition of the words signed to go out of his way in order to make yea and nay is designed to denote positiretess them a visit; and intended also, perhaps, to of assertion ; such positiveness as is connonls make them also a longer visit on his return. shown by such persons, as in the phrases, * wbut The former part of the plan he had been induced I have written I have written ;" * what I have to abandon. Into Macedonia.--A part of Greece done I have done." It seems more probabie having Thrace on the north, Thessaly south, however, that the phrase is designed to denote Epirus west, and the Ægean Sea east. See Note, the ready compliance which an inconstant and Acts xvi. 9. And of you to be brought on my unsettled man is accustomed to make with the way.By you. See Note, 1 Cor. xvi. 6. Toward wishes of others; his expressing a ready assabt Judea. --- His object in going to Judea was to to what they propose; falling in with their viers, convey the collection for the poor saints which readily making promises; and instantly, throngt: he had been at so much pains to collect through some whim, or caprice, or wish of others, savirz. out the churches of the Gentiles. See Notes, | “yea, nay,” to the same thing; that is, changing Rom. xv. 25, 26. Comp. 1 Cor. xvi. 3, 4.

his mind and altering his purpose without any

good reason, or in accordance with any fired Ver. 17. When I therefore was thus minded, principle or settled rule of action. Pani sars did I use lightness ? or the things that I pur

that this was not his character. He did not

affirm a thing at one time and deny it at another: pose, do I purpose according to the flesh, that

he did not promise to do a thing one moment, with me there should be yea, yea, and nay, and refuse to do it the next. nay? + Chap. x. 2.

VER. 18. But as God is true, our *word toward

you was not "yea and nay. When I therefore was thus minded.- When I

u Or, preaching. ~ Matt, v. 31. formed this purpose ; when I willed this, and expressed this intention. Did I use lightness ? But as God is true.- Tindal renders this, in

accordance more literally with the Greek, “ God able. But in him was yea.-Was not one thing at is faithful; for our preaching unto you was not one time, and another at another. He is the yea and nay.” The phrase seems to have the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever. All that form of an oath, or to be a solemn appeal to God he says is true ; all the promises that he makes as a witness, and to be equivalent to the expres- are firm ; all his declarations are faithful. Paul sion, “the Lord livetb," or " as the Lord liveth." may refer to the fact that the Lord Jesus when The idea is, “God is faithful and true. He | on earth was eminently characterized by truth. never deceives; never promises that which he | Nothing was more striking than his veracity. does not perform. So true is it that I am not He called himself “the truth," as being emifickle and changing in my purposes.” This nently true in all his declarations. “I am the idea of the faithfulness of God is the argument way, and the truth, and the life." (John xiv. 6.) which Paul urges why he felt himself bound to Comp. Rev. iii. 7. And thus (Rev. ii. 14) he is

be faithful also. That faithful God he regarded called “the faithful and true witness.” In all i as a witness, and to that God he could appeal on his life he was eminently distinguished for that.

the occasion. Our word. — Marg. preaching, His declarations were simple truth ; his narra(o dóyoc.) This may refer either to his preach- tives were simple, unvarnished, uncoloured, uning, to his promises of visiting them, or his de exaggerated statements of what actually occurred. clarations to them in general on any subject. He never disguised the truth; never prevariThe particular subject under discussion was the cated; never had any mental reservation ; never promise which he had made to visit them. But deceived; never used any word, or threw in any he here seems to make his affirmation general, circumstance, that was fitted to lead the mind and to say universally of his promises, and his astray. He himself said that this was the great teaching, and of all his communications to them, object which he had in view in coming into the whether orally or in writing, that they were not world. “To this end was I born, and for this characterized by inconstancy and changeableness. cause came I into the world, that I should bear It was not his character to be fickle, unsettled, witness unto the truth.” (John xviii. 37.) As and vacillating.

Jesus Christ was thus distinguished for simple

truth, Paul felt that he was under sacred obligaVER. 19. For the Son of God, Jesus Christ, tions to imitate him, and always to evince the

who was preached among you by us, even by same inviolable fidelity. The most deeply felt me and Silvanus and Timotheus, was not yea

obligation on earth is that which the Christian and nay, but in hiin was yea.

feels to imitate the Redeemer. Mark i. 1.

Ver. 20. For all the promises of God in - him For the Son of God. In this verse, and the

are yea, and in him amen, unto the glory of following, Paul states that he felt himself bound to maintain the strictest veracity for two reasons;

God by us. the one, that Jesus Christ always evinced the

Rom. xv. 8, 9. Heb. xiii. 8. strictest veracity, (ver. 19;) the other, God was For all the promises of God in him.- All the always true to all the promises that he made, promises which God has made through him. (ver. 20;) and as he felt himself to be the ser- This is another reason why Paul felt himself Fant of the Saviour and of God, he was bound bound to maintain a character of the strictest by the most sacred obligations also to maintain veracity. The reason was, that God always a character irreproachable in regard to veracity. evinced that ; and that as none of his promises On the meaning of the phrase " Son of God," failed, he felt himself sacredly bound to imitate

see Note, Rom. i. 4. Jesus Christ.--It is agreed, him, and to adhere to all his. The promises of I says Bloomfield, by the best commentators, an- God which are made through Christ, relate to

cient and modern, that by Jesus Christ is here the pardon of sin to the penitent; the sanctificameant his doctrine. The sense is, that the tion of his people; support in temptation and preaching respecting Jesus Christ, did not repre- | trial ; guidance in perplexity ; peace in death, sent him as fickle, and changeable ; as unsettled, | and eternal glory beyond the grave. All of these and as unfaithful : but as true, consistent, and are made through a Redeemer, and none of these laithful. As that had been the regular and con- shall fail. Are vea.-Shall all be certainly fulstant representation of Paul and his fellow-| filled. There shall be no vacillation on the part labourers in regard to the Master whom they | of God; no fickleness; no abandoning of his served, it was to be inferred that they felt theme gracious intention. And in him amen.-In Rev. selves bound sacredly to observe the strictest iii. 14, the Lord Jesus is called the “ Amen."

instancy and veracity. By us, &c.-Silvanus, The word means true, faithful, certain. And bere mentioned, is the same person who in the the expression here means that all the promises Acts of the Apostles is called Silas. He was which are made to men through a Redeemer with Paul at Philippi, and was imprisoned there shall be certainly fulfilled. They are promises

Dhim, (Acts xvi. ;) and was afterwards with which are confirmed and established, and which Paul and Timothy at Corinth when he first vi- shall by no means fail. Unto the glory of God by |, sited that city. (Acts xviii. 5.) Paul was so much us.- Either by us ministers and apostles; or by

attached to him, and had so much confidence in us who are Christians. The latter, I think, is min, that he joined his name with his own in the meaning; and Paul means to say, that the | several of his epistles. (1 Thess. i. 1 ; 2 Thess. fulfilment of all the promises which God has 1. 1.) Was not yea and nay.--Our representation made to his people shall result in his glory and

im was not that he was fickle and change- | praise as a God of condescension and veracity.

hun ha

I of him was

The fact that he has made such promises is an VER. 22. Who hath also sealed “ us, and given act that tends to his own glory ; since it was of the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts. his mere grace that they were made ; and the

a Eph. i. 13, 14; ix. 30. 2 Tim. ü. 19. fulfilment of these promises in and through the

Rom. viii, 9, 14-16. church, shall also tend to produce elevated views of his fidelity and goodness.

Who hath also sealed us.--The word used here

(from oopayilw,) means to seal up; to close and VER. 21. Now he which stablisheth y us with

make fast with a seal, or signet; as, e. g. books, you in Christ, and hath anointed ? us, is God ; letters, &c. that they may not be read. It is also

used in the sense of setting a mark on any thing, v 2 Thess. ii. 8. 1 Pet. v. 10. z 1 John ii. 20, 27. Rev. iii. 18.

or a seal, to denote that it is genuine, autbestie,

confirmed, or approved, as when a deed, compact Now he which stablishcth us.—He who makes or agreement is sealed. It is thus made sure: us firm, (ó peßatūv njùs ;) that is, he who has and is confirmed or established. Hence it is ap confirmed us in the hopes of the gospel, and who plied to persons, as denoting that they are af gives us grace to be faithful, and firm in our proved, as in Rev. vii. 3: “ Hurt not the earth. promises. The object of this is to trace all to neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed God, and to prevent the appearance of self-con- the servants of our God in their foreheads fidence, or of boasting. Paul had dwelt at length | Comp. Ezek. ix. 4. See Note, John vi. 21, on his own fidelity and veracity. He had taken where it is said of the Saviour," for him ah pains to prove that he was not inconstant and God the Father sealed." Comp. John ili. 3). fickle-minded. He here says, that this was not to In a similar manner, Christians are said to be be traced to himself, or to any native goodness, sealed; to be sealed by the Holy Spirit, (Eph. 1. but was all to be traced to God. It was God who 13; iv. 30 ;) that is, the Holy Spirit is given to

ad given them all confident hope in Christ ; and them to confirm them as belonging to God. He it was God who had given him grace to adhere | grants them his Spirit. He renews and sancti to his promises, and to maintain a character for fies them. He produces in their hearts those veracity. The first “us” in this verse refers feelings, hopes, and desires, which are an evidente probably to Paul himself ; the second includes also that they are approved by God; that they are the Corinthians, as being also anointed and sealed. regarded as his adopted children; that their hope And hath anointed us.-Us who are Christians. is genuine, and that their redemption and saya. It was customary to anoint kings, prophets, and tion are sure-in the same way as a seal make priests, on their entering on their office, as a part a will or an agreement sure. God grants to theid of the ceremony of inauguration. The word his IIoly Spirit, as the certain pledge that they “anoint” is applied to a priest, Exod. xxviii. 41; are his, and shall be approved and saved in the xl. 15; to a prophet, 1 Kings xix. 16. Isa. Ixi. 1; last day. In this there is nothing miraculous, ci to a king, 1 Sam. x. 1; xv. 1. 2 Sam. ii. 4. 1 in the nature of direct revelation. It consists of Kings i. 34. It is applied often to the Messiah, the ordinary operations of the Spirit on the beart, as being set apart, or consecrated to his office as producing repentance, faith, hope, joy, conformity prophet, priest, and king; i.e. as appointed by to God, the love of prayer and praise, and the God to the highest office ever held in the world. Christian virtues generally; and these things are It is applied also to Christians as being conse- the evidences that the Holy Spirit has renew crated, or set apart to the service of God by the the heart, and that the Christian is sealed for the Holy Spirit-a use of the word which is derived day of redemption. And giren the earnest of the from the sense of consecrating, or setting apart Spirit.-The word here used (aðdagar from te to the service of God. Thus in 1 John ii. 20, it | Heb. 7) means properly a pledge girta to is said, “ But ye have an unction from the Holy | ratify a contract; a part of the price, or parchase One, and know all things." So in ver. 27, “But money; a first payment; that which confrus the anointing which ye have received abideth in the bargain, and which is regarded as a peace you." The anointing which was used in the that all the price will be paid. The word arts consecration of prophets, priests, and kings, in the Septuagint and Hebrew, in Gen. LIITil seems to have been designed to be emblematic of 17, 18, 20. In the New Testament it a: the influences of the Holy Spirit, who is often curs only in this place, and in chap. v. 5, a represented as poured upon those who are under Eph. i. 14, in each place in the same connes his influence, (Prov. i. 23. Isa. xliii. 4. Joel ii. as applied to the Holy Spirit, and his intuelets 28, 29. Zech. xii. 10. Acts x. 45,) in the same on the heart. It refers to those influences as 3 way as water or oil is poured out. And as pledge of the future glories which await Chris Christians are every where represented as being tians in heaven. In regard to the "earnesi, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, as being the part of a price which was paid in a contact, those on whom the Holy Spirit is poured, they it may be remarked, (1.) That it was of the same are represented as “anointed.” They are in nature as the full price, being regarded as a part this manner solemnly set apart, and consecrated l of it; (2.) It was regarded as a pledge of a to the service of God. Is God. God has done l ance that the full price would be paid. 10 it. All is to be traced to him. It is not by any | “ earnest of the Spirit,” denotes that God gives native goodness which we have, or any inclina- | his people the influences of his Spirit; bis one tion which we have by nature to his service. / tion on the heart, as a part or pledge that an

all the This is one of the instances which abound so blessings of the covenant of redemption : much in the writings of Paul, where he delights given to them. And it implies, (1.) ? to trace all good influences to God.

comforts of the Christian here are of the same

So the

shall be

hat the

patnre as they will be in heaven. Heaven will | “I call God for a record upon my soul,” is in consist of like comforts; of love, and peace, and the Greek, “I call God for a witness against my jor, and purity begun here, and simply expanded soul.” It is a solemn oath, or appeal to God; there to complete and eternal perfection. The and implies, that if he did not in that case dejoys of heaven differ only in degree, not in kind, | clare the truth, he desired that God would be a from those of the Christian on earth. That witness against him, and would punish him acwhich is begun here is perfected there; and the cordingly. The reason why he made this solemn feelings and views which the Christian has here, | appeal to God was, the importance of his vindiif expanded and carried out, would constitute cating his own character before the church from heaven. (2.) These comforts, these influences the charges which had been brought against of the Spirit, are a pledge of heaven. They are him. That to spare you.To avoid the necessity the security which God gives us that we shall be of inflicting punishment on you; of exercising saved. If we are brought under the renewing severe and painful discipline. If he went among influences of the Spirit here; if we are made them in the state of irregularity and disorder meek, and humble, and prayerful by his agency; which prevailed there, he would feel it to be if we are made to partake of the joys which re- | necessary to exert his authority as an apostle, sult from pardoned sin ; if we are filled with the and remove at once the offending members from hope of heaven, it is all produced by the Holy | the church. He expected to avoid the necessity

Spirit, and is a pledge or earnest of our future | of these painful acts of discipline, by sending to | inheritance; as the first sheaves of a harvest are them a faithful and affectionate epistle, and thus ' a pledge of a harvest, or the first payment under inducing them to reform, and to avoid the neces

a contract a pledge that all will be paid. God sity of a resort to that which would have been thus gives to his people the assurance that they so trying to him and to them. It was not, then, shall be saved ; and by this "pledge” makes a disregard for them, or a want of attachment to their title to eternal life sure.

them, which had led him to change his purpose,

but it was the result of tender affection. This VER. 23. Moreover I call God for a record upon cause of the change of his purpose, of course, by my soul, that, to spare you, I came not as yet

he would not make known to them in his first

epistle; but now that that letter had accomunto Corinth.

plished all he had desired, it was proper that Moreorer I call God for a record upon my soul. | they should be apprised of the reason why he -It is well remarked by Rosenmüller, that the had resorted to this instead of visiting them persecond chapter should have commenced here, sonally. since there is bere a transition in the subject more distinct than where the second chapter is | Ver. 24. Not for that we have dominion over actually made to begin. Here Tindal commences your faith, but are helpers of your joy : for the second chapter. This verse, with the subse

by dfaith ye stand. quent staternents, is designed to show them the true reason why he had changed his purpose, cl Cor. iii. 5. 1 Pet. v. 3. d Rom. xi. 20. 1 Cor. xv. 1. and had not visited them according to his first proposal. And that reason was, not that he was Not for that we have dominion, &c.—The sense fichle and inconstant; but it was that he appre- of this passage, I take to be this: “ The course hended that if he should go to them in their which we have pursued has been chosen, not irregular and disorderly state, he would be under because we wish to lord it over your faith, to a necessity of resorting to harsh measures, and control your belief, but because we desired to to a severity of discipline that would be alike promote your happiness. Had the former been painful to them and to him. Dr. Paley has our object, had we wished to set up a lordship or shown with great plausibility, if not with moral dominion over you, we should have come to you certainty, that Paul's change of purpose about with our apostolical authority, and in the severity Fisiting them was made before he wrote his first of apostolic discipline. We had power to com1 epistle; that he had at first resolved to visit | mand obedience, and to control your faith. But

them, but that, on subsequent reflection, he we chose not to do it. Our object was to prothought it would be better to try the effect of a mote your highest happiness. We therefore faithful letter to them, admonishing them of their chose the mildest and gentlest manner possible ; errors, and entreating them to exercise proper we did not exercise authority in discipline, we discipline themselves on the principal offender; / sent an affectionate and tender letter.” While that with this feeling he wrote his first epistle, the apostles had the right to prescribe the arin which he does not state to them as yet his ticles of belief, and to propound the doctrines of change of purpose, or the reason of it; but that God, yet they would not do even that in such a now, after he had written that letter, and after it manner as to seem to “lord it over God's herihad had all the effect which he desired, he states tage;" (ovK KVOLE Vojis v ;) they did not set up the true reason why he had not visited them. It absolute authority, or prescribe the things to be was now proper to do it; and that reason was, believed in a lordly and imperative manner; that he desired to spare them the severity of nor would they make use of the severity of discipline, and had resorted to the more mild power to enforce what they taught. They apand affectionate measure of sending them a pealed to reason; they employed persuasion; letter, and thus not making it necessary person they made use of light and love to accomplish ally to administer discipline. See Palev's Horæ their desires. Are helpers of your joy.—This is Paulinæ, on 2 Cor., Nos. iv, and v. The phrase, our main object, to promote your joy. This

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