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wax bears the perfect image of the seal-perfect were exposed, and in order that it might be not only in the outline, and in the general re- manifest to all that it was not originated and semblance, but in the filling up—in all the lines, diffused by the power of those to whom it was and features, and letters on the seal-so it is | intrusted. The idea is, that they were altogether with the Redeemer. There is not one of the insufficient of their own strength to accomplish | divine perfections which has not the counterpart | what was accomplished by the gospel. Paul in him; and if the glory of the divine character | uses a metaphor similar to this in 2 Tim. ii. 20. is seen at all, it will be seen in and through him. That the excellency of the power.-An elegant

expression, denoting the exceeding great power. VER. 7. But we have this treasure in earthen

The great power referred to here was that which vessels, that the excellency of the power may I was manifested in connexion with the labours of be of God, and not of us.

the apostles,--the power of healing the sick,

raising the dead, and casting out devils; the i 1 Cor. ii. 5.

power of bearing persecution and trial, and the But we have this treasure.— The treasure of power of carrying the gospel over sea and land, the gospel; the rich and invaluable truths which in the midst of danger, and in spite of all the they were called to preach to others. The word | opposition which men could make, whether as "treasure" is applied to those truths on account individuals or as combined ; and especially the of their inestimable worth. Paul in the previous power of converting the hearts of sinners, of verses had spoken of the gospel, the knowledge humbling the proud, and leading the guilty to of Jesus Christ, as full of glory, and infinitely the knowledge of God and the hope of heaven. precious. This rich blessing had been commit The idea is, that all this was manifestly berood ted to him and his fellow-labourers, to dispense human strength ; and that God had of desigu! it to others, and to diffuse it abroad. His pur chosen weak and feeble instruments, in order pose in this and the following verses is, to show that it might be every where seen that it was that it had been so intrusted to them, as to secure done, not by human power, but by his own. The all the glory of its propagation to God, and so instrumentality employed was altogether disproalso as to show its unspeakable value. For this | portionate in its nature to the effect produced purpose, he not only affirms that it is a treasure, | May be of God.-May evidently appear to be of but says that it had been so intrusted to them, as | God; that it may be manifest to all that it is to show the power of God in its propagation ; | God's power, and not ours. It was one great that it had showed its value in sustaining them purpose of God that this should be kept clearly in their many trials; and they had showed their in view. And it is still done. God takes care sense of its worth by being willing to endure all that this shall be apparent. For, (1.) It is alkinds of trial in order to make it every where ways true, whoever is employed, and however known, (Ver. 8-11.) The expression here is great may be the talents, learning, or zeal of similar to that which the Saviour uses when he those who preach, that it is by the power of God calls the gospel “the pearl of great price." that men are converted. Such a work cannot (Matt. xiii. 46.) In earthen vessels. This refers be accomplished by man. It is not by might or to the apostles and ministers of religion, as weak by strength; and between the conversion of a and feeble; as having bodies decaying and proud, haughty, and abandoned sinner, and the dying; as fragile, and liable to various acci- | power of him who is made the instrument, there dents; and as being altogether unworthy to hold is such a manifest disproportion, that it is evident a treasure so invaluable: as if valuable diamonds it is the work of God. The conversion of the and gold were placed in vessels of earth of human heart is not to be accomplished by man. coarse composition, easily broken, and liable to (2.) Ministers are frail, imperfect, and sinful, as decay. The word “vessel” (OKEūOC) means pro- | they were in the time of Paul. When the imperly any utensil or instrument; and is applied perfections of ministers are considered ; when usually to utensils of household furniture, or their frequent errors, and their pot unfrequent hollow vessels for containing things. (Luke viii, moral obliquities are contemplated; when it is, 16. John xix. 29.) It is applied to the human remembered how far many of them live from body, as made of clay, and therefore frail and what they ought to, and how few of them live 10 feeble, with reference to its containing any thing, any considerable degree as becometh the follow. as, e. 9. treasure. Comp. Note on Rom. ix. 22, ers of the Redeemer, it is wonderful that God 23. The word rendered “earthen” (ootpakívouc) blesses their labours as he does; and the matter means that which is made of shells, (from of amazement is not that no more are converted ootpakov,) and then burnt clay, probably be- | under their ministry, but it is that so many are cause vessels were at first made of burnt shells. converted, or that any are converted ; and it is It is fitted well to represent the human body ; ) manifest that it is the mere power of God. (3.) frail, fragile, and easily reduced again to dust. | He often makes use of the most feeble, and ud: The purpose of Paul here is, to show that it learned, and weak of his servants to accomplis was by no excellency of his nature that the gos- | the greatest effects. It is not splendid talents, pel was originated ; it was in virtue of no vigour or profound learning, or distinguished eloquence, and strength which he possessed that it was pro- | that is always or even commonly most succe$8* pagated; but that it had been, of design, com- | ful. Often the ministry of such is entirely bat: mitted by God to weak, decaying, and crumbling | ren; while some huinble and obscure man shall instruments, in order that it might be seen that have constant success, and revivals shall attend it was by the power of God that such instru- | him wherever he goes. It is the man of lailla ments were sustained in the trials to which they and prayer, and self-denial that is blessed ; and

the purpose of God in the ministry, as in every cramped and impeded by the trials which encomthing else, is to“ stain the pride of all human passed him. The Syriac renders it, “ In all glory," and to show that he is all in all,

things we are pressed, but are not suffocated.”

The idea is, he was not wholly discouraged, and VER. 8. We are troubled k on every side, yet | disheartened, and overcome. He had resources not distressed: we are perplexed, but not lin in his piety which enabled him to bear up under

these trials, and still to engage in the work of despair ; k Chap. vii. 5.

preaching the gospel. We are perplered, (áro

poúue vou.) This word (from äropos, without re1 Or, not altogether without help or means.

source, which is derived from a, priv., and tópos, We are troubled. We, the apostles. Paul | way, or exit) means to be without resource ; to here refers to some of the trials to which he and know not what to do; to hesitate; to be in doubt his fellow-labourers were subjected in making and anxiety, as a traveller is, who is ignorant of known the gospel. The design for which he the way, or who has not the means of prosecuting does it seems to be to show them, (1.) What they his journey. It means here, that they were often endured in preaching the truth ; (2.) To show brought into circumstances of great embarrassthe sustaining power of that gospel in the midst ment, where they hardly knew what to do, or of afflictions; and, (3.) To conciliate their favour, | what course to take. They were surrounded by or to remind them that they had endured these foes; they were in want; they were in circumthings on their account. (Ver. 12–15.) Per- | stances which they had not anticipated, and haps one leading design was to recover the affec which greatly perplexed them. But not in detions of those of the Corinthians whose hearts | spair.-In the margin, “ not altogether without had been alienated from him, by showing them | help or means." Tindal renders this, “ We are how much he had endured on their account. For in poverty, but not utterly without somewhat.” this purpose, he freely opens his heart to them, | In the word here used, ({Samopoúpe voi,) the and tenderly represents the many and grievous preposition is intensive, or emphatic, and means pressures and hardships to which love to souls, utterly, quite. The word means, to be utterly and theirs among the rest, had exposed him.-- | without resource ; to despair altogether; and Doddridge. The whole passage is one of the the idea of Paul here is, that they were not left most pathetic and beautiful to be found in the entirely without resource. Their wants were proNew Testament. The word rendered “ troubled" | vided for; their embarrassments were removed ; (PABóple voi, from 91ißw) may have reference their grounds of perplexity were taken away; and to wrestling, or to the contests in the Grecian unexpected strength and resources were imparted games. It properly means to press, to press to- | to them. When they did not know what to do ; gether; then to press as in a crowd where there when all resources seemed to fail them, in some is a throng, (Mark iii. 9 ;) then to compress to- unexpected manner they would be relieved and gether, (Matt. vii. 14;) and then to oppress, or saved from absolute despair. How often does this compress with evils, to distress, to afflict. (2

occur in the lives of all Christians! And how Thess. i. 6. 2 Cor. i. 6.) Here it may mean, that

certain is it, that in all such cases God will interhe was encompassed with trials, or placed in the pose by his grace, and aid his people, and save midst of them, so that they pressed upon him as them from absolute despair. persons do in a crowd, or, possibly, as a man was close pressed by an adversary in the games. VER. 9. Persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, He refers to the fact, that he was called to endure but not destroyed; a great number of trials and afflictions. Some of those trials he refers to in chap. vii. 5. " When Persecuted.-Often persecuted; persecuted in We were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no all places. The “ Acts of the Apostles” show rest, but we were troubled on every side; with how true this was. But not forsaken.-Not deout were fightings, within were fears.” On every serted ; not left by God. Though persecuted by side.--In every respect. In every way. We are men, yet they experienced the fulfilment of the subjected to all kinds of trial and affliction. Yet | divine promise, that he would never leave nor not distressed.—This by no means expresses the forsake them. God always interposed to aid force of the original ; nor is it possible, perhaps, them ; always saved them from the power of to express it in a translation. Tindal renders it, their enemies; always sustained them in the time * Yet we are not without our shift.” The Greek of persecution. It is still true. His people have word here used, (otevoXwpoúpe voi,) has a rela- been often persecuted; yet God has often intertion to the word which is rendered “troubled.” | posed to save them from the hands of their eneIt properly means to crowd into a narrow place; mies; and where he has not saved them from to straiten as to room; to be so straitened as not their hands, and preserved their lives, yet he has to be able to turn one's self. And the idea is, never left them, but has sustained, upheld, and hat though he was close pressed by persecutions comforted them even in the dreadful agonies of and trials, yet he was not so hemmed in that he death. Cast down.-Thrown down by our enehad no way to turn himself; his trials did not | mies; perhaps in allusion to the contests of wholly prevent motion and action. He was not wrestlers, or of gladiators. But not destroyed.80 closely pressed as a man would be who was so Not killed. They rose again; they recovered straitened that he could not move his body, or their strength; they were prepared for new constir hand or foot. He had still resources; he flicts; they surmounted every difficulty, and were was permitted to move; the energy of his piety, ready to engage in new strifes, and to meet new and the vigour of his soul, could not be entirely trials and persecutions.

( 10. Altars bearing m about in the body | the Lord Jesus had attained to. A desire to be the dying of the Lord Jesus, that " the life also

made like him, and that in his body, which bore

| about the dying of the Lord Jesus. he might of Jesus might be made manifest in our body. again live after death as the Lord Jesus did m Gal. vi. 17. 12 Tim. ii. 11, 12.

Thus understood, it implies an earnest wish to

attain to the resurrection of the dead, and accords Always bearing about in the body. The expres- with what he says in Phil. iii. 8-11, which may sion here used is designed to show the great perils perhaps be considered as Paul's own commentary to which Paul was exposed. And the idea is, on this passage, which has been so variously and that he had on his body the marks, the stripes so little understood by expositors : " Yea, doubt. and marks of punishment and persecution, which less, and I count all things but loss, for the er. showed that he was exposed to the same violent cellency of the knowledge of Jesus Christ my death which the Lord Jesus himself endured. Lord ; for whom I have suffered the loss of all Comp. Gal. vi. 17:“ I bear in my body the marks things, and do count them but dung that I may of the Lord Jesus.” It is a strong, energetic win Christ. That I may know him and the mode of expression, to denote the severity of the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of trials to which he was exposed, and the meaning | his sufferings, being made conformable unto his is, that his body bore the marks of his being ex death; if by any means I might attain unto the posed to the same treatment as the Lord Jesus resurrection of the dead." Comp. Col. i. 24. It was ; and evidence that he was probably yet to intimates Paul's earnest desire and longing to be die in a similar manner under the hands of per made like Christ in the resurrection, (comp. Phil. secutors. Comp. Col. i. 24. The dying of the iii. 21;) his longing to rise again in the last day, Lord Jesus.— The death; the violent death. A (comp. Acts xxvi. 7;) his sense of the importance death similar to that of the Lord Jesus. The of the doctrine of the resurrection, and his readiidea is, that he was always exposed to death, and ness to suffer any thing if he might at last atalways suffering in a manner that was equivalent tain to the resurrection of the just, and be ready to dying. The expression is parallel to what he to enter with the Redeemer into a world of glory. says in 1 Cor. xv. 31, “I die daily ;" and in 2 The attainment of this is the high object before Cor. ix. 23, where he says, in “ deaths oft.” It | the Christian, and to be made like the Redeemer in does not mean that he bore about literally the heaven, to have a body like his, is the grand purdying of the Lord Jesus, but that he was exposed pose for which they should live; and sustained to a similar death, and had marks on his person by this hope they should be willing to endure any which showed that he was always exposed to the trials, and meet any sufferings, if they may code same violent death. This did not occur once to that same “ life” and blessedness above. only, or at distant intervals, but it occurred constantly, and wherever he was, it was still true Ver. 11. For we which live are alway delivered that he was exposed to violence, and liable to unto death for Jesus' sake, that the life also of suffer in the same manner that the Lord Jesus did. That the life also of Jesus, &c.-- This pas

Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal sage has received a considerable variety of inter

flesh. pretations. Grotius renders it, “such a life as

o 1 Cor. xv. 31, 49. was that of Christ, immortal, blessed, heavenly." | For we which live.—Those of us, the apostles Locke, “ That also the life of Jesus, risen from / and ministers of the Redeemer who still survive. the dead, may be made manifest by the energy James the brother of John had been put to death, that accompanies my preaching in this frail (Acts xii. 2 ;) and it is probable also that some body.” Clarke supposes that it means, that he other of the apostles had been also. This verse might be able in this manner to show that Christ is merely explanatory of the previous verse. Are was risen from the dead. But, perhaps, Paul | alway delivered unto death.-Exposed constantly does not refer to one single thing in the life of to death. This shows what is meant in ver. 10, the Lord Jesus, but means that he did this in by bearing about in the body the dying of the order that in all things the same life, the same Lord Jesus. See Note on I Cor. xv. 31. In our kind of living which characterized the Lord mortal flesh.--In our body. In our life on earth; Jesus, might be manifested in him; or that he re- and in our glorified body in heaven. See Note sembled him in his sufferings and trials, in order on ver. 10. that in all things he might have the same life in

VER. 12. So then p death worketh in us, but life his body. Perhaps, therefore, it may include the following things as objects at which the apostle

in you. aimed. (1.) A desire that his life might resem

p Chap. xiii. 9. ble that of the Lord Jesus. That there might So then death worketh in us. We are exposed be the same self-denial; the same readiness to to death. The preaching of the gospel exposes us suffer; the same patience in trials; the same to trials which may be regarded as death working meekness, gentleness, zeal, ardour, love to God, in us. Death has an energy over us, (irappiirille and love to men evinced in his body which was is at work, is active, or operates :) it is constantly in that of the Lord Jesus. Thus understood, it employed in inflicting pains on us, and subjecting means that he placed the Lord Jesus before him us to privation and trials. This is a strong and as the model of his life, and deemed it an object emphatic mode of saying that they were always to be attained even by great self-denial and suf- exposed to death. We are called to serve and ferings to be conformed to him. (2.) A desire glorify the Redeemer. as it were. by repeated to attain to the same life in the resurrection which I deaths and by constantly dving. But life in wok.

1-You live as the effect of our being constantly does, the language of the Old Testament, as exexposed to death. You reap the advantage of all actly expressing his feelings, and the principles our exposure to trials, and of all our sutrerings. by which he was actuated. We also believe, &c. You are comparatively safe; are freed from this - We believe in the truths of the gospel; we beexposure to death; and will receive eternal life lieve in God, in the Saviour, in the atonement, as the fruit of our toils and exposures. Life in the resurrection, &c. The sentiment is, that here may refer either to exemption from danger they had a firm confidence in these things, and and death; or it may refer to the life of religion; that, as the result of that confidence, they boldly the hopes of piety; the prospect of eternal salva- delivered their sentiments. It prompted them to tion. To me it seems most probable that Paul give utterance to their feelings. “ Out of the

means to use it in the latter sense, and that he abundance of the heart," said the Saviour, " the i designs to say that while he was exposed to death mouth speaketh.” (Matt. xii. 34.) No man should

and called to endure constant trial, the effect attempt to preach the gospel who has not a firm would be that they would obtain, in consequence belief of its truths; and he who does believe its

of his sufferings, the blessedness of eternal life. truths will be prompted to make them known to ! Comp. ver. 15. Thus understood, this passage his fellow-men. All successful preaching is the

means, that the sufferings and self-denials of the result of a firm and settled conviction of the I apostles were for the good of others, and would truth of the gospel; and when such a conviction i result in their benefit and salvation; and the de- | exists, it is natural to give utterance to the be

sign of Paul here is to remind them of his suffer- lief, and such an expression will be attended with ings in their behalf, in order to conciliate their happy influences on the minds of other men. See favour and bind them more closely to him by the Note on Acts iv, 20. remembrance of his sufferings on their account.

Ver. 14. Knowing that he which raised up the VER, 13. We having the same I spirit of faith,

Lord Jesus, shall raise up us also by Jesus, according as it is written, 'I believed, and

and shall present us with you. therefore have I spoken ; we also believe, and

s Chap. v. 1-4. therefore speak;

Knowing.-Being fully confident; having the q 2 Pet. i. 1.

Ps. cxvi. 10. most entire assurance. It was the assured hope i We having the same spirit of faith. The same

of the resurrection which sustained them in all

their trials. This expression denotes the full and i spirit that is expressed in the quotation which he is about to make; the same faith which the Psalm

unwavering belief, in the minds of the apostles, ist had. We have the very spirit of faith which

that the doctrines which they preached were true. is expressed by David. The sense is, we have

They knew that they were revealed from heathe same spirit of faith which he had who said,

ven, and that all the promises of God would be

fulfilled. * I believed," &c. The phrase, “ spirit of faith,”

Shall raise up us also.-All Christians.

In the hope of the resurrection, they were ready means substantially the same as faith itself; a

to meet trials, and even to die. Sustained by believing sense or impression of the truth. According as it is written. - This passage is found in

this assurance, the apostles went forth amidst Psalm cxvi. 10. When the Psalmist uttered the

persecutions and opposition, for they knew that

their trials would soon end, and that they would words, he was greatly afflicted. (See ver. 3, 68.) In these circumstances, he prayed to God ;

be raised up in the morning of the resurrection, and expressed confidence in him, and placed

to a world of eternal glory. By Jesus.-— By the

power or the agency of Jesus. Christ will raise all his reliance on him. In his affliction he spoke to God; he spoke of his confidence in him ; he

up the dead from their graves. (John v. 25---29.) proclaimed his reliance on him ; and his having

And shall present us with you.-Will present us

before the throne of glory with exceeding joy and spoken in this manner was the result of his belief, or of his putting confidence in God. Paul

honour. He will present us to God, as those in quoting this, does not mean to say that the

who have been redeemed by his blood. He will

present us in the courts of heaven, before the Psalmist had any reference to the preaching of

throne of the eternal Father, as his ransomed the gospel; nor does he mean to say that his cir

w people ; as recovered from the ruins of the fall ; cumstances were in all respects like those of the

They shall Psalmist.

as saved by the merits of his blood. The circumstances resembled each other only in these respects : (1.) That Paul, like

not only be raised up from the dead, but they the Psalmist, was in circumstances of trial and

shall be publicly and solemnly presented to God affliction; and, (2.) That the language which

as his, as recovered to his service, and as having both used was that which was prompted by faith

a title in the covenant of grace to the blessed-faith which led them to give utterance to the

ness of heaven. sentiments of their hearts; the Psalmist, to utter

Ver. 15. For all things are for your sakes, that his confidence in God, and the hopes by which

the abundant " grace might, through the he was sustained, and Paul, to utter his belief in the glorious truths of the gospel; to speak of thanksgiving of many, redound to the glory a risen Saviour, and to show forth the consola of God. tions which were thus set before men in the gos

t 1 Cor. iii. 21, 22.

u Chay. viii. 19. pel. The sentiments of both were the language of faith. Both, in afflictions, uttered the lan For all things are for your sakes.--All those guage of faith ; and Paul uses here, as he often things; these glorious hopes, and truths, and prospects; these self-denials of the apostles, other is strengthened; while the one grows old and these provisions of the plan of mercy. For and decays, the other renews its youth and is your sakes.—Op your account. They are de- invigorated. Of course, the soul is not depensigned to promote your salvation. They are not dent on the body for its vigour and strength, primarily for the welfare of those who engage in since it expands while the body decays; and of these toils and self-denials; but the whole ar- course the soul may exist independent of the rangement and execution of the plan of salvation, | body, and in a separate state. Perish.-Grows and all the self-denial evinced by those who are old; becomes weak and feeble; loses its vigour engaged in making that plan known, are in order and elasticity under the many trials which re that you might be benefited. One object of Paul endure, and under the infirmities of advancing in this statement, doubtless, is to conciliate their years. It is a characteristic of the “ outer man," favour, and remove the objections which had that it thus perishes. Great as may be its vigour, been made to him by a faction in the church at yet it must decay and die. It cannot long bear Corinth. That the abundant grace. — Grace up under the trials of life, and the wear and tear abounding, or overflowing. The rich mercy of God of constant action, but must soon sink to the that should be manifested by these means. It is grave. Yet the inward man.—The soul; the unimplied here, that grace would abound by means decaying, the immortal part. Is renewed.-Is of these labours and self-denials of the apostles. renovated, strengthened, invigorated. His powers The grace referred to here, is that which would of mind expanded; his courage became bolder; be conferred on them in consequence of those he had clearer views of truth; he had more faith labours. Through the thanksgiving of many.--| in God. As he drew nearer to the grave and to That many may have occasion of gratitude to heaven, his soul was more raised above the God; that by these labours more persons may be world, and he was more filled with the joys and led to praise him. It was an object with Paul so triumphs of the gospel. The understanding and to labour, that as many as possible might be led the heart did not sympathize with the suffering to praise God, and have occasion to thank him and decaying body; but while that became feeble, to all eternity. Redound to the glory of God. - | the soul acquired new strength, and was fitting That God may have augmented praise ; that his for its flight to the eternal world. This verse is glory in the salvation of men may abound. The an ample refutation of the doctrine of the matesentiment of the passage is, that it would be for rialist, and proves that there is in man something , the glory of God that as many as possible should that is distinct from decaying and dying matter, be brought to give praise and thanksgivings to and that there is a principle which may gain aug. him: and that, therefore, Paul endeavoured to mented strength and power, while the body dies. make as many converts as possible. He denied Comp. Note, Rom. vii. 22. Day by day. -Conhimself; he welcomed toil; he encountered ene stantly. There was a daily and constant increase mies; he subjected himself to dangers; and he of inward vigour. God imparted to him constant sought by all means possible to bring as many as strength in his trials, and sustained him with the could be brought to praise God. The word “re hopes of heaven, as the body was decaying and dound” (TTEOLOCEÚy) here means abound, or be tending to the grave. The sentiment of this abundant; and the sense is, that the overflowing verse is, that in an effort to do good, and to prograce thus evinced in the salvation of many, | mote the salvation of man, the soul will be suswould so abound as to promote the glory of tained in trials, and will be comforted and inriGod.

gorated even when the body is weary, grows old,

decays, and dies. It is the testimony of Paul Ver. 16. For which cause we faint not; but

respecting his own experience; and it is a fact though our outward man perish, yet the in- which has been experienced by thousands in ward" man is renewed day by day.

their efforts to do good, and to save the souls of

men from death. • 1 Cor. xv. 58. w Rom. vii. 22. For which cause.-With such an object in

VER. 17. For *our light affliction, which is but view, and sustained by such elevated purposes for a moment, worketh for us a far more exand desires. The sense is, that the purpose of

ceeding and eternal weight of glory; trying to save as many as possible, would make toil easy, privations welcome, and would be so

* Rom. viii. 18, 34. accompanied by the grace of God, as to gird the For our light affliction. This verse, with the soul with strength, and fill it with abundant con following, is designed to show further the sources solations. We faint not. For an explanation of of consolation and support which Paul and his the word here used, see Note on ver. 1. We are fellow-labourers had in their many trials. Bloomnot exhausted, desponding, or disheartened. We field remarks on this passage, that “in energy are sustained, encouraged, emboldened, by hav- and beauty of expression, it is little inferior to ing such an object in view. But though our out- | any in Demosthenes himself, to whom, indeed, ward man perish.-By outward man, Paul evi- and to Thucydides, in his orations, the style of dently means the body. By using the phrases, the apostle, when it rises to the oratorical, bears “ the outward man," and the " inward man," he no slight resemblance." The passage abounds shows that he believed that man was made up of with intensive and emphatic expressions, and two parts, body and soul. He was no material. manifests that the mind of the writer was la bourist. He has described two parts as constituting / ing to convey ideas which language, even after man, so distinct, that while the one perishes, the all the energy of expression which he could comother is renewed ; while the one is enfeebled, the mand, would very imperfectly communicate,

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