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ELEMENTS

OF

GEOMETRY.

BOOK 1.

THE PRINCIPLES.

EXPLANATION OF TERMS AND SIGNS.

1. Geometry is a science which has for its object the measurement of mag

nitudes. Magnitudes may be considered under three dimensions,-length, breadth,

height or thickness. 2. In Geometry there are several general terms or principles; such as,

Definitions, Propositions, Axioms, Theorems, Problems, Lemmas, Scho

liums, Corollaries, &c. 3. A Definition is the explication of any term or word in a science, show

ing the sense and meaning in which the term is employed. Every definition ought to be clear, and expressed in words that are

common and perfectly well understood. 4. An Aciom, or Maxim, is a self-evident proposition, requiring no formal

demonstration to prove the truth of it; but is received and assented to as soon as mentioned. Such as, the whole of any thing is greater than a part of it; or, the

whole is equal to all its parts taken together; or, two quantities that

are each of them equal to a third quantity, are equal to each other. 5. A Theorem is a demonstrative proposition; in which some property is

asserted, and the truth of it required to be proved. Thus, when it is said that the sum of the three angles of any plane tri

angle is equal to two right angles, this is called a Theorem; and the method of collecting the several arguments and proofs, and laying them together in proper order, by means of which the truth of the 7. An Indirect or Negative Demonstration is that which shows a proposition

proposition becomes evident, is called a Demonstration. 6. A Direct Demonstration is that which concludes with the direct and cer

tain proof of the proposition in hand. It is also called Positive or Affirmative, and sometimes an Ostensive Demonstration, because it is most satisfactory to the mind.

to be true, by proving that some absurdity would necessarily follow if the proposition advanced were false. This is sometimes called Reductio ad Absurdum ; because it shows the

absurdity and falsehood of all suppositions contrary to that contained

in the proposition. 8. A Problem is a proposition or a question proposed, which requires a so

lution. As, to draw one line perpendicular to another; or to divide a line into

two equal parts. 9. Solution of a problem is the resolution or answer given to it. A Numerical or Numeral solution, is the answer given in numbers.

A Geometrical solution, is the answer given by the principles of Geometry.

And a Mechanical solution, is one obtained by trials. 10. A Lemma is a preparatory proposition, laid down in order to shorten the

demonstration of the main proposition which follows it. 11. A Corollary, or Consectary, is a consequence drawn immediately from

some proposition or other premises. 12. A Scholium is a remark or observation made on some foregoing propo

sition or premises. 13. "An Hypothesis is a supposition assumed to be true, in order to argue

from, or to found upon it the reasoning and demonstration of some pro

position. 14. A Postulate, or Petition, is something required to be done, which is so

easy and evident that no person will hesitate to allow it. 15. Method is the art of disposing a train of arguments in a proper order,

to investigate the truth or falsity of a proposition, or to demonstrate it to others when it has been found out. This is either Analytical or Syn

thetical. 16. Analysis, or the Analytic method, is the art or mode of finding out the

truth of a proposition, by first supposing the thing to be done, and then reasoning step by step, till we arrive at some known truth. This is also called the Method of Invention, or Resolution ; and is that which is com

monly used in Algebra. 17. Synthesis, or the Synthetic Method, is the searching out truth, by first

laying down simple principles, and pursuing the consequences flowing from them till we arrive at the conclusion. This is also called the Me

thod of Composition; and is that which is commonly used in Geometry. 18. The sign = (or two parallel lines), is the sign of equality; thus,

A=B, inplies that the quantity denoted by A is equal to the quantity

denoted by B, and is read A equal to B. 19. To signify that A is greater than B, the expression A 7B is used. And

to signify that A is less than B, the expression AZ B is used.

20. The sign of Addition is an erect cross; thus A + B implies the sum of

A and B, and is called A plus B. 21. Subtraction is denoted by a single line; as A-B, which is read A

minus B; A-B represents their difference, or the part of A remaining, when a part equal to B has been taken away from it. In like manner, A-B+C, or A+C-B, signifies that A and C are to

be added together, and that B is to be subtracted from their sum. 22. Multiplication is expressed by an oblique cross, by a point, or by simple

apposition: thus, AXB, A. B, or AB, signifies that the quantity denoted by A is to be multiplied by the quantity denoted by B. The expression AB should not be employed when there is any danger of con. founding it with that of the line AB, the distance between the points A and B. The multiplication of numbers cannot be expressed by simple

apposition. 23. When any quantities are enclosed in a parenthesis, or have a line drawn

over them, they are considered as one quantity with respect to other symbols: thus, the expression AX(B+C-D), or AXB+C-D, represents the product of A by the quantity B+C-D. In like manner, (A+B) X(A-B+C), indicates the product of A+B by the quantity

A - B+C. 24. The Co-efficient of a quantity is the number prefixed to it: thus, 2AB

signifies that the line AB is to be taken 2 times; JAB signifies the half

of the line AB. 25. Division, or the ratio of one quantity to another, is usually denoted by placing one of the two quantities over the other, in the form of a fraction :

A thus,

B

signifies the ratio or quotient arising from the division of the quantity A by B. In fact, this is division indicated. 26. The Square, Cube, &c. of a quantity, are expressed by placing a small

figure at the right hand of the quantity: thus, the square of the line AB is denoted by AB, the cube of the line AB is designated by AB';

and so on. 27. The Roots of quantities are expressed by means of the radical sign,

with the proper index annexed; thus, the square root of 5 is indicated N5; VAXB) means the square of the product of A and B, or the mean proportional between them. The roots of quantities are sometimes expressed by means of fractional indices : thus, the cube root of AXBXC may be expressed by VAXBXC, or (A XBXC)}, and

So on.

28. Numbers in a parenthesis, such as (15. 1.), refers back to the number

of the proposition and the Book in which it has been announced or demonstrated. The expression (15. 1.) denotes the fifteenth proposition, first book, and so on. In like manner, (3. Ax.) designates the third axiom; (2. Post.) the second postulate; (Def. 3.) the third definition, and so on.

29. The word, therefore, or hence, frequently occurs. To express either of

these words, the sign , is generally used. 30. If the quotients of two pairs of numbers, or quantities, are equal, the

A C quantities are said to be proportignal: thus, if

i then, A is to B

B D as C to D. And the abbreviation of the proportion is, A :B::C:D; it is sometimes written A:B=C:D.

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DEFINITIONS.

66

1. “A Point is that which has position, but not magnitude*." (See

Notes.) 2. A line is length without breadth. " COROLLARY. The extremities of a line are points; and the intersections

" of one line with another are also points.” 3. "If two lines are such that they cannot coincide in any two points, with

"out coinciding altogether, each of them is called a straight line." “ Cor. Hence two straight lines cannot inclose a space. Neither can two

straight lines have a common segment; that is, they cannot coincide " in part, without coinciding altogether." 4. A superficies is that which has only length and breadth. Cor. The extremities of a superficies are lines; and the intersections of

one superficies with another are also lines." 5. A plane superficies is that in which any two points being taken, the

straight line between them lies wholly in that superficies. 6. A plane rectilineal angle is the inclination of two straight lines to one another, which meet together, but are not in the same straight line.

А.

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B N. B. "When several angles are at one point B, any one of them is expressed by three letters, of which the letter that is at the vertex of the angle, that is, at the point in which the straight lines that contain the angle meet one another, is put between the other two letters, and one of these two is somewhere upon one of those straight lines, and the other upon the other line : Thus the angle which is contained by the straight lines, AB, CB, is named the angle ABC, or CBA; that which is contained by AB,

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* The definitions marked with inverted commas are different from those of Euclid.

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'BD, is named the angle AB), or DBA ; and that which is contained by

BD, CB, is called the angle DBC, or CBD; but, if there be only one an'gle at a point, it may be expressed by a letter placed at that point; as the angle at E.'

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7. When a straight line standing on another

straight line makes the adjacent angles equal to one another, each of the angles is called a right angle; and the straight line which stands on the other, is called a perpendicular to it.

8. An obtuse angle is that which is greater than a right angle.

9. An acute angle is that which is less than a right angle. 10. A figure is that which is inclosed by one or more boundaries. The

word area denotes the quantity of space contained in a figure, without any reference to the nature of the line or lines which bound it. 11. A circle is a plane figure contained by one line, which is called the

circumference, and is such that all straight lines drawn from a certain point within the figure to the circumference, are equal to one another.

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12. And this point is called the centre of the circle. 13. A diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through the centre, and

terminated both ways by the circumference. 14. A semicircle is the figure contained by a diameter and the part of the

circumference cut off by the diameter.

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