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of proof having been led,-without one hint of displeasure having been uttered,—and without any opportunity of defence having been afforded, he received from his prelate an admonition—a what? -a canonical censure; the first act in the series which might lead to his deposition!

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Against this tyrannous stretch of prerogative Mr Drummond did not complain: And throughout the whole proceedings that followed we know not whether most to admire the meekness, firmness, and integrity, that has distinguished his whole conduct, or to condemn the Hildebrandian proceedings of the prelate, and the servile obsequiousness and unbrotherly spirit of his clergy,' by which the former has, so far as in him lies, silenced the only minister in his diocese' for whom the public entertain any regard, and by which the latter have stepped out of their course to injure a brother-the only man amongst them for whom we cherish any respect.

There is, indeed, one among these priests, whom, if we could forget our more juvenile feelings, and the part he had previously acted in defence of our common faith, we might feel inclined to visit with severe, but most merited censure. Nor are we sure but his previous character makes his present conduct all the more inexcusable. We shall not name him, from our lingering regard to what he once was, and from our hope that he will renounce his sent associates, and again become what he was when we learned to love him.


We shall not, at present, discuss at greater length this painful case. We purpose soon to return to the subject. At present, we merely, in conclusion, express our admiration for, and sympathy with Mr Drummond, and, moreover, request those who fancy that they shall secure a quiet retreat among the Prelatists from the unhappy turmoil which has, for some years, distracted our Church, just to consider the case of Mr Drummond, and see what prospect of peace there can exist in a sect in which such outrageous proceedings have taken place.*

Mr D., at p. 5 of his correspondence, thus puts the case. Do not let it be supposed that I am now making a stand for one prayer-meeting only; but I beseech you to mark, and to remember, that I am contending for the principle of such meetings; which principle is directly, closely, and inseparably connected with that which is the present object of attack. This we believe to be the true state of matters, and hence the importance of the stand which Mr D. is now so nobly making. The persecution to which he is now subjected by the prelates and clergy of Edinburgh, is not merely an attempt to crush' Mr D., but to crush prayer-meetings entirely,— to crush evangelism,-to crush living religion,-to crush every thing that would oppose itself to the beggarly elements of forms and rituals. Alas for the Church of England, when her prelates,-' successors of the apostles,'-are the foremost to rush on to the extinction of the rising light of truth and liberty of the gospel. No clergyman is to be interfered with for attendance on the ball-room, or the theatre, or the

ART. VI.-Contributions towards the Exposition of the Book of Genesis. By ROBERT S. CANDLISH, D.D., Minister of St George's, Edinburgh. Edinburgh: John Johnstone. 1843.

We have seen the attempt made, with considerable success, to gather up the leading idea of each book of Scripture. Thus, it is evident that the book of Joshua, which details Israel's full entrance into the land, and their establishment in their allotted seats, presents to us the moral principles on which God conducted his scheme of bringing a chosen people into possession of peculiar blessing. On the other hand, the book of Judges displays the inveterate evil and deceitful heart, even of the peculiar people, and God's method of dealing therewith. In 1st Chronicles the thread of redemption is traced up to the time of the establishment of the kingly office; and Esther (which may be interpreted secret,') exhibits God's providence, silently witnessing for, and working for Israel, when they were Lo-Ammi. Jeremiah at Jerusalem has his eye upon the moral evil before him, and is a man of sorrows for the daughter of his people. Ezekiel at Chebar, in exile, has his eye upon the land itself, in its connection with past and future scenes of divine interposition. Malachi casts a last lingering look to the Mosaic economy. In the New Testament Luke writes the memoir of the Son of Man; John gives the living portrait of the Son of God. The epistle to the Romans is a digest of the doctrines of the dispensation; the epistle of James is the outward order of life in the church, proceeding from secret communion with God.

Now, in his attempt to generalize the manifold variety of each book, we were struck with the characteristic assigned to Genesis. It was,"the whole of truth revealed in a state of embryo and type; like the pot in which a tree is planted, full of roots." In reading Dr Candlish's contributions towards the exposition of this book, the truth of that idea was more than ever impressed on us. The reader of this book is delighted at the variety of truths which the writer points out to him, every where coming forth from the strong, irregular roots. The development of every narrative, or

card-table, but if he venture on a prayer-meeting, then every effort which prelatic ingenuity can devise, or prelatic power put forth, must be brought into play to crush his pious labours, and thrust him out from his sphere of usefulness. The bishop of Ely ejects Mr Prince-the bishop of Durham Mr Rees-the prelate of Edinburgh Mr Drummond ! What could the pope or his cardinals do more to quench the light of the gospel? Thanks,-hearty thanks to Mr D., and his faithful band, for the position they have assumed, and the Christian courage they have exhibited. In the name of the Church of Scotland,-in the name of our common evangelisın,—nay, in the name of our common Protestantism, we bid them God speed.

vision, or prophecy, brings into view the same God who afterwards tabernacled among men, the same Saviour, and the same salvation. No doctrine can be evolved from Genesis that is not in entire consistency with the fuller statements of the New Testament; or we should rather say, no doctrine has a place in the plainer record of the New Testament, which has not its root in this page of revelation. Nor were any of the patriarchs or fathers led to glory by any other path than we are now. They did all eat the same spiritual meat; they all saw the same Jehovah, were justified by the same Saviour, and sanctified by the same Spirit, through the same essential truths.

Had we any means of ascertaining what was the posture of an Israelite's mind toward God, what were his modes of feeling toward him, what were the affections called forth, and what were the forms in which all this manifested itself in daily life, we should no doubt find that the main features were exactly the same as in the case of a Christian now. The Israelite's heart was the wax; the objects presented to his faith in the tabernacle were the different strokes of the engraving on the seal-the impress left on the believing worshippers was the image of the beloved Son. Now, in examining the book of Genesis carefully, we find that patriarchal worship had all the prominent features of the Mosaic economy. There was 'a holy place, where the symbols of the divine glory, and of human redemption, appeared; stated times or seasons of devotion, and an appointed manner of worship, consisting of offerings of different kinds. From the first, it appears, an order and mode of worship was instituted (p. 120) very closely resembling that of the tabernacle. The patriarchs worshipped within sight of the flaming sword-as awful as the cloud of glory over the mercy-seat, or the red glare of the fiery pillar by night. Beside the sword stood the Cherubim, signifying the same as they did afterward in the sanctuary. In front of these, it is probable, was the spot marked by the terms before the Lord, when the blood of sacrifice was At the end of days,' (Gen. iv. 3), or at fixed periods, the worshippers came hither to offer. They seem to have had their feast days and their holy Sabbaths. The kind of offerings were such as Israel afterwards used. There was the whole burnt-offering; for such was Abel's firstlings of the flock, There was the meat-offering; for Cain's rejected offering was of this sort, and failed to be accepted, because the worshipper presented it without


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• In connection with the skins with which the Lord clothed Adam and Eve, it is interesting to notice the Levitical arrangement, the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering, which he hath offered.' (Lev. vii. 8.) Would not Moses and Israel naturally understand that the skins given to Adam were connected, in like manner, with a previous sacrifice.

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faith in the blood which must make the person acceptable. Perhaps too, when it is said that Abel brought not only of the firstlings of the flock, but "of the fat thereof" also, it may be meant that he brought peace-offerings, the token of reconciliation fully established; for it is the fat of peace-offerings that is continually referred to in the book of Leviticus. Noah knew the difference between clean and unclean; and the expressions used to declare that his sacrifice was accepted are the very terms that afterwards became tabernacle-language, the Lord smelled a sweet savour." Noah, also, offered fowls, no doubt the turtle-dove, or young pigeons of Leviticus-the only kind of fowls presented on Jehovah's altar, as the type of him who is elsewhere set forth as the Lamb. Abraham (xv. 9) used the heifer, the goat, the ram, the turtle-dove, and the young pigeon in his offering; and observed the Levitical ordinance of not dividing the birds. All this shows a fulness of sacrificial economy that leads us to the conclusion that the seal which was to stamp its impress on the hearts of the patriarchs, was little else than the very same which was used afterwards in Israel -excepting only that in these after days, the curtains and other appendages of the tabernacle formed a broad rim round the seal, as a safeguard to the engravings in its centre. From everlasting (Prov. viii. 23-30) has the Father delighted in the work of his Well Beloved; and since the world began, his heart, and his eye have rested night and day well pleased on the symbols of that redemption; and never has any voice out of the excellent glory directed a sinner but to the same view.

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We have alluded to the cherubim in the worship of the patriarchs. Dr C. has given, we think, the most consistent and distinct view of what the cherubim were. Moses and Israel knew well what the cherubim were; for they stood in the sanctuary. It is most natural, therefore, to suppose that it is to these same symbolic figures that reference is made in Gen. iii. 24, the cherubim,' as it is in the Hebrew. The sword was the symbol of a great and holy God, flaming forth upon all sin; but these other figures were to intimate, as in the Holy of Holies, that fallen man should yet get beyond that sword, and possess paradise again. The author thus speaks of these, (pp. 116-7), after showing their identity with those in Ezekiel's vision,

"They typify and shadow the complete church, gathered out of all times and nations, and from the four corners of the world, in attendance on her Lord and Saviour, in his redeeming glory. In the holy place of the tabernacle and the temple-the mercy-seat sprinkled with atoning blood-the cherubim bending over and looking upon it-the glory of the Lord, the bright Shechinah light, resting in the midst,-fitly express in symbol the redemption, the redeemed, and the Redeemer; believers, with steadfast eye fixed on the propitiation, whereby God is brought once more to dwell among them; Jehovah meeting, in infinite

complacency, with the Church which blood has bought, and blood has cleansed. So also, when faith beholds God as the God of salvation, he appears in state with the same retinue. Angels, indeed, are in waiting; but it is upon, or over, the cherubim that He rides forth. It is between the cherubim that He dwells. The Church ever contemplates Him as her own, and sees Him rejoicing over her in love. The cherubim placed in paradise after it was lost surely bore the same import. In connection with the flaming sword, they marked the place in which the Lord manifested himself, and towards which he was to be worshipped; and as that fiery emblem represented the glory of the Divine justice, so the cherubim figures betokened the grace of the Church's redemption. These together kept the way of the Tree of Life. The worshippers, as they stood, awed, yet hopeful, around the gate of paradise, felt their exclusion from the blessedness within. But they saw a human figure mysteriously fashioned there, they saw a pledge of the restitution."

This view helps to elucidate some of the notices regarding the cherubim both in the tabernacle and in the temple. They were embroidered on the tabernacle-curtains, (Exod. xxvi. 1,) and on the great vail, (ver. 31.) When, therefore, the worshippers drew near to the courts, they saw before them the same symbols of redemption that used to refresh the patriarchs at the gate of Eden; while the fact of there being cherubim on the vail that hid the holy of holies, intimated that redeemed men had deep interest in the glory within, but that the way into the holiest of all was not yet open for them. In the temple of Solomon, as if to identify them with the cherubim placed amid the pleasant trees of the garden, they are described as interspersed with palms and flowers.' When afterwards Ezekiel saw them moving amid the flowers, and trees on the banks of Chebar, he would witness the same scenery as the walls of the temple had already made familiar to him in the ministration of his priestly office. It was the redeemed church restored to Eden again, that the scene represented, conveying the twofold truth, that the bliss of Eden was recovered to man, and that earth itself should yet become Eden to the redeemed. Indeed, when Solomon graved (1 Kings vii. 36,) cherubim, lions, and palm-trees' on the ledges of the ten bases, and lions, oxen, and cherubim,' (ver. 29,) on the borders between the ledges, we feel it to be by far the most natural and satisfactory conjecture, that his eye, under the direction of the Spirit of God, was on Eden lost, and on Eden to be restored in the days of the true Solomon, the Prince of Peace. And this theory would lead us even farther. It suggests that the groundwork, so to speak, of the cherubim, is man's position in Eden, when in fellowship with God. The eagle, the lion, the ox, seem to be selected as the heads of different tribes in the animal creation, over whom man had dominion, before the creature was made subject to vanity by reason of him who subjected the same.' The full idea may imply much more, but at all events it leads us thus far,-it shows us man reconciled and renewed, in the midst of a renewed creation.

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