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broad, is still to be seen near St Stephen's Gate, where it bounded the Temple on the north. The sides are walled by means of large stones, joined together by iron cramps, and covered with flints imbedded in a substance resembling plaster. Here the lambs destined for sacrifice were washed ; and it was on the brink of this pool that Christ said to the paralytic man, “ Arise, take up thy bed and walk.” It receives a melancholy interest from the fact, that it is probably the last remnant of Jerusalem as it appeared in the days of Solomon and of his immediate successors.
It cannot be denied that the tombs in the Valley of Jehoshaphat display an alliance of Egyptian and Grecian taste ; and, in naturalizing in their capital the architecture of Memphis and of Athens, it is equally certain that the Jews mixed with it the forms of their own peculiar style. From this combination resulted a heterogeneous kind of structure, forming as it were the link between the Pyramids and the Parthenon,-monuments in which you discover a sombre yet bold and elevated genius, associated with a pleasing and cultivated imagination.
Our limits forbid us to follow the footsteps of the pilgrim in his minute survey of the “ Sepulchres of the Kings,” which, it is acknowledged, cannot be traced back to a remoter era than that of the Grecian dynasty at Antioch and Damascus. There are several other tombs and grottos to which tradition has attached venerable names, and even con, secrated them as the scene of important events, but as they are not remarkable on any other account, we shall not extend to an undue length our description of the holy places under the walls of Jerusalem.
We shall simply remark, that a difference of opinion exists among modern travellers in regard to the extent of the ancient city, the ground which it actually covered, the changes that it has since undergone in point of locality, and hence, in respect to the position of some of the more prominent objects which attract the attention of the inquisitive tourist in our own days. Dr Clarke has distinguished himself by some bold speculations on this head, the effect of which is to derange all the received notions relative to the scene of the Crucifixion and the place of the Holy Sepulchre. It will, indeed, be readily granted, that it is a matter of very small importance to the faith of a Christian, to determine whether the decease which was accomplished at Jerusalem took place on the north-western or the south-eastern extremity of that metropolis. But as the history and tradition of many ages have fixed the spot where the cross was erected, and where the new tomb in the rock had its situation, it is requisite that the arguments of a writer who himself pays so little respect to authority should be examined with attention. In this case, it is obvious, an inspection of the ground, candidly and distinctly reported, is of much more weight than the most ingenious reasoning if destitute of facts; on which account we are happy to have it in our power to refer to the journal of a learned gentleman, hitherto unpublished, who about three years ago travelled in Syria and Palestine.
“We passed by the place of St Stephen's Martyrdom down into the Valley of Jehoshaphat. This valley, independently of associations, is highly picturesque. It is deep and narrow ; the lower part is green with scattered olives. The slope up towards the city is also smooth and green, and crowned by the towers and battlements. On ascending the Mount of Olives, which we did towards the south, we had a splendid view of Jerusalem. The chief ornaments are the two domes of the Holy Sepulchre, the Mosque of Omar, and another large mosque with a smaller dome ; but the white houses make a good show, and the walls are picturesque. On looking at Jerusalem from this place, the great fea. tures seemed to me to agree entirely with the established maps, and Dr Clarke's theory appeared quite untenable. The only difficulty is, that there is no valley which runs up all the way, so as to divide entirely Mount Zion from Mount Moriah. A ravine does run far enough to cut off the Temple, but no more. The extent of this difficulty must depend on the description left us of the Tyropaeum and Millo. Was there a deep valley such as time and change might not have obliterated ? The people of the convent gave the name of the Mount of Offence to a low hill on the south of the Mount of Olives; but Clarke seems to think that the real Mount of Offence is that divided by Jehinnom from Zion, and called by our guide Monte de Mal Consiglio. We visited the Mohammedan chapel over the place of the Ascension, and saw the alleged print of Christ's foot. We next went to the place called Viri Galilaei (ye men of Galilee), and after looking in vain for Dr Clarke's pagan remains, descended towards the Cave of the Prophets. We saw the well where Nehemiah found the fire of the altar, and then went up the Valley of Hinnom ; first to the tomb called the Crypt of the Apostles, close to the
Aceldama or Field of Blood. We saw many other grottos ; one had ons dyras Elw inscribed upon it, as had another much farther up. Near this last was that which Clarke maintained to be the Holy Sepulchre. We saw one which would do very well for it; but so would many others. This one was a cave, with a place for a body cut out in the back part of it; but raised like a stone trough, not sunk in the floor. There is, of course, not a shadow of reason for thinking Clarke's cave to be the real one, and very little, that I can see, for doubting that the nominal Holy Sepulchre is so in fact ; or rather, that it is on the site of the real one, which must have been destroyed when Adrian erected his tem. ple to Venus on the spot. From these caves we went by the Pool of Bathsheba to the Bethlehem Gate, and so along the west side of the town to the Tombs of the Judges and Kings, which lie north or north-west of the city. I observed large foundations of ancient walls and heaps of rubbish west of the modern town, where Clarke seems to assume that there was anciently no part of the city. There, and on the north, I also observed wells opening into large covered reservoirs for water. We entered only one of the Tombs of the Judges, the rest being insignificant. That one was large, with a pediment which had dentiles and other Greek ornaments. Inside there were at least three chambers, surrounded by receptacles for bodies. In returning we went to the Tombs of the Kings, which, like the others, are cut out of the rock, and like them, too, have Grecian ornaments. There is one large cave; the front has a handsome entablature, the upper part ornamented with alternate circular garlands, bunches
of grapes, and an ornament of acanthus leaves; the lower with a rich band of foliage disposed with much elegance."*
Hence it appears, that the weight of evidence preponderates decidedly in favour of the common opinions in regard to the form of the ancient city and the places which are usually denominated holy. Why then should any one attempt to disturb the belief or acquiescence of the Christian world on a subject concerning which all nations have hitherto found reason to agree? The members of the primitive church had better means than we have of being fully informed respecting the scenes of the Evangelical history; and it is manifest that, amid all the changes which ensued in Jerusalem, either from conquest or superstition, nothing was more unlikely than that the faithful should forget the sacred spot where their redemption was completed, or that they should consent to transfer their veneration to any other.
* See Tour of the Holy Land, by the Rev. Robert Morehead, D. D. ; in the Appendix to which are extracts from this anonymous manuscript.
of “ Having so often mentioned Clarke, I must say that, although an animated and interesting writer, and not incorrect in his descrip tions, he is more deficient in judgment than any traveller I am acquainted with; and I do not recollect an instance, either here or in Egypt, where he has attempted to speculate without falling into some very decided error. I mention this the more, as his enthusiasm and conviction of the truth of his own theories led me formerly to place great faith in his authority."-Anonymous Journal.