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CHAPTER VI.

Description of the Country South and East of Jerusalem.

Garden of Gethsemane-Tomb of Virgin Mary-Grottos on Mount

of Olives_View of the City-Extent and Boundaries—View of Bethany and Dead Sea-Bethlehem-Convent—Church of the Nativity Described—Paintings_Music-Population of Bethlehem-Pools of Solomon-Dwelling of Simon the Leper_Of Mary Magdalene_Tower of Simeon_Tomb of Rachel–Convent of John-Fine Church_Tekoa—Bethulia—Hebron_Sepulchre of Patriarchs-Al-baid-Kerek-Extremity of Dead Sea-Discoveries of Banks, Legh, Irby, and Mangles—Convent of St Saba _Valley of Jordan Mountains -Description of Lake Asphaltites_Remains of Ancient Cities in its Basin—Quality of its Waters Apples of Sodom-Tacitus, Seetzen, Hasselquist, Chateaubriand—Width of River Jordan-Jericho_Village of Rihhah -Balsam-Fountain of Elisha—Mount of Temptation-Place of Blood—Anecdote of Sir F. Henniker-Fountain of the Apostles - Return to Jerusalem—Markets Costume Science-ArtsLanguage Jews Present Condition of that people.

In proceeding from Jerusalem towards Bethany, the traveller skirts the Mount of Olives; or if he wishes to enjoy the magnificent view which it presents, both of the city and of the extensive tract watered by the Jordan, he ascends its heights, and at the same time inspects the remains of sacred architecture still to be seen on its summit. As he passes from the eastern gate, the Garden of Gethsemane meets his eyes, as well as the tomb which bears the name of the Blessed Virgin. This has a building over it with a pretty front, although the Grecian ornaments sculptured in marble are not in harmony with the pointed arch at the entrance. It is approached by a paved court, now a raised way, leading from the Mount of Olives over the Brook Kedron. The descent into it is formed by a handsome flight of steps composed of marble, being about fifty in number, and of a noble breadth. About midway down are two arched recesses in the sides, said to contain the ashes of St Anne the mother of Mary, and of Joseph her husband. Reaching the bottom of the stairs, the visiter is shown the Tomb of the Holy Virgin herself, which is in the form of a simple bench coated with marble. Here the Greeks and Armenians say mass by turns, and near it there is an humble altar for the Syrian Christians; whilst opposite to it is one for the Copts, consisting of earth, and entirely destitute of lamps, pictures, covering, and every other species of ornament. Chateaubriand tells us that the Turks had a portion of this grotto : Buckingham asserts that they have no right to enter it, nor could he “ learn from the keepers of the place that they ever had ;" whereas the author of the Anonymous Journal, from which we have already quoted, states distinctly that “there is a place reserved for the Mussulmans to pray, which at the Virgin's Tomb one would not expect to be much in request.” So much for the clashing of authorities on the part of writers who could have no wish to deceive!

There are various other grottos on the acclivity of the hill, meant to keep alive the remembrance of certain occurrences which are either mentioned in the gospel, or have been transmitted to the present

age by oral tradition. Among these is one, which is supposed to be the scene of the Agony and the Bloody Sweat; a second, that marks the place where St Peter and the two sons of Zebedee fell asleep when their Master retired to pray; and a third, indicating the spot whereon Judas betrayed the Son of Man with a kiss. Here also is pointed out the rock from which our Saviour predicted the sack of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple, that dreadful visitation of which the traces are still most visible both within and around the walls. The curious pilgrim is farther edified by the sight of a cavern where the Apostles were taught the Lord's Prayer ; and of another where the same in. dividuals at a later period met together to compose their creed. On the principal top of the Mount of Olives, for the elevated ground presents three separate summits,--are a mosque and the remains of a church. The former is distinguished by a lofty minaret which commands an extensive prospect; but the latter is esteemed more remarkable, as containing the piece of rock imprinted with the mark of our Saviour's foot while in the act of ascension.

But the view of the venerable metropolis itself, which stretches out its lanes and sacred enclosures under the eye of the traveller, is still more interesting than the recapitulation of ambiguous relics. It occupies an irregular square of about two miles and a half in circumference. Eusebius gave a measurement of twenty-seven stadia, amounting to nearly a mile more than its present dimensions; a difference which can easily be explained, by adverting to the alterations made on the line of fortifications by the Saracens and Turks, especially on the north

west and western extremities of the town. Its shortest apparent side is that which faces the east, and in this is the supposed gate of the ancient Temple, shut up by the Mussulmans from a superstitious motive, and the small projecting stone on which their Prophet is to sit when he shall judge the world assembled in the vale below. The southern side is exceedingly irregular, taking quite a zig-zag direction; the south-western entrance being terminated by a mosque built over the supposed sepulchre of David, on the elevation of Mount Zion. The form and exact direction of the western and northern walls are not distinctly seen from the position now assumed; but every part of them appears to be a modern work, and executed at the same time.

They are flanked at certain distances by square towers, and have battlements all along their summits, with loop-holes for arrows or musketry close to the top. Their height is about fifty feet, but they are not surrounded by a ditch. The northern wall runs over ground which declines slightly outward ; the eastern wall passes straight along the brow of Mount Moriah, with the deep Valley of Je. hoshaphat below; the southern wall crosses Mount Zion, with the Vale of Hinnom at its feet; and the western wall is carried over a more uniform level, near the summit of the bare hills which terminate at the Jaffa gate.*

* Buckingham, vol. i. p. 316.-The following words, put into the mouth of Titus by the eloquent author of the Fall of Jerusalem,” will be read with interest in connexion with the view just given. The son of Vespasian stands on the Mount of Olives :

" It must be
And yet it moves me, Romans ! it confounds
The counsels of my firm philosophy,

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