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contrition,-a sign of inward sorrow; in extreme unction, there is the outward sign of anointing the body with oil, emblematical of that operation of the anointing spirit, whose
« Blessed unction from above,
Is comfort, life, and fire of love." In matrimony, by which a man and a woman become one niystic flesh, there is the outward and visible sign of joining of hands; and in ordination, the jus divinum to preach the word, and to administer the Sacraments, is represented by the outward sign of delivering a Bible, &c. to the person ordained. In all this, one, at least, of the requisites of a sacrament occurs, viz: an outward and visible sign; and therefore I thought Mr. Turner's assertion, that they have not any one of the sacramental requisites, was too bold, and required softening. Mr. Turner says, that the use of oil, and the joining of hands, were not ordained by Christ himself." This I admit; but this is not the question ;--for the question is, whether these five Romish Ordinances have any of the requisites of a Sacrament ? Mr. T. says they have none ; I flatter
myself he will admit that they have one at least-the outward and visible sign. This sign is not equally significant in all of them ; but it nevertheless adumbrates to a certain degree, something inward and spiritual in each. I hope the good Rector of Denton, to whom I am the more par. tial, because he was once a Fellow of Emmanuel-Coll. Cambridge, will excuse the pertinacity with which I adhere to my first opinion. I, too, with him, could wish to see the line of demarcation between a Holy Rite and a Sacrament, definitively laid down by some masterly hand. Nothing I have ever read has as yet made me perfectly easy, respecting the “ washing of feet;" which, in my poor opinion at least, has more of a Sacrament in it, than any of the five ordinances above-mentioned. After the LORD Jesus had washed his disciples' feet, (John 13.) “ he said unto them, know ye what I have done unto you? Ye call me Master and Lord, and ye say, well; for so I am. If I then your Lord and Master have washed your feet, ye ought also to wash one another's feet: for I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.
Here is an outward and visible sign of humility, in the act of washing feet; and here is a command of Christ himself: “ Ye are bound to wash one another's feet"-"imas QuAS TI" " it is a debt you owe;" this is the obligation laid upon the disciples by the enactor of this rite ;--" as I have done to you, even so ye should do” -“ καθως εγω εποιησα υμιν, κύ μεις ποιητε.
Respecting Mr. Turner's vindication of his interpretation of 1 Cor. x. 2; “ baptized in the cloud and in the sea,”-that the Israelites “ were sprinkled by the dew of the cloud, and the spray from the dashing waves of the sea;” I am sorry I do not yet'think with him.
I aceede most willingly to the opinion of the clergyman he mentions, p. 45, that, “ if Scripture expressions were but taken in their most plain and obvious sense, they would be pretty sure to explain themselves. Bearing this in mind, let us look at the way in which the passage of the Israelites under the cloud, and through the sea, is described in the Old Testament; and then let us examine how far we can admit of this supposed sprinkling, either over-head, or under-foot, in explaining the apostle's meaning in the New: for there the matter bottoms. If Moses leaves us no room to receive this sprinkling as a fact, it were unsafe to argue ourselves into it by any mode of interpreting the language of St. Paul.
Exod. xiv. 16. “Lift up thy rod, (said the LORD to Moses,) and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it; and the Children of Israel shall go ON. DRY GROUND through the midst of the sea.” v. 19, 20. “ The pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them ;” (probably passing over the whole host ;) " and it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel, and it was a cloud and darkness to them ; but it GAVE LIGHT BY NIGHT to these.” v. 21. es The LRD caused the sea to go back by a strong East find all that night, and made the sea DRY LAND; and the waters were divided. v. 22, and the Children of Israel went into the midst of the sea UPON DRY GROUND; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand and on the left.” Now if we take these words or in their most plain and obvious sense,” here is nothing which can authorize us to allow of this supposed sprinkling. 1st, from the cloud. This cloud, called sometimes the pillar of the cloud, is called also, the pillar of pire. (See ix, Nehemiah 19.) “ And the Lord went before thein by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them in the way; and by night in a pillar of fire. xiii. Exod. 21. This cloud was sometimes spread over the Israelites, as a canopy;--thus
105. psalm 39. “ he spread a cloud for a covering, and fire to give light in the night.” This cloud, therefore, was not of a watery nature; it was vapour of fire; and although it seemed cloudy in the light of the Sun, at night it became luminous. What sprinkling could fall from such a cloud? If the passage under this cloud typified baptism, it was not baptism with water, but that other species of baptism, of which the Baptist himself spake, when he affirmed of our Divine RedeeMER, that he should baptize his people with the Holy Ghost, and with fire. To this latter sort of baptism, which regards not so much the outward visible sign, as the inward spiritual grace, Wheatly directly refers this passing under the cloud, as he does the passing through the sea, to baptism by water.
2nd. But what sprinkling does the passing through the sea afford ? The ground was DRY ;-where is then this supposed splashiness spoken of? The waters were a wall unto the people : immoveable therefore;-and then, where is this dashing which is to produce this supposed sprinkling? The cloud of the sea typified baptism; as did the deluge also in which Noah was saved in the Ark; but it is not necessary that the type should reflect the antitype in every point. A general resemblance is all that we ought to look for in such figures. The types of the Old Testament are like Homeric similies; and must be liberally, not servilely construed. To pass through the sea, and thus to be saved from their enemies, was, in the Israelites, a type of that salvation which Christians have by baptism.
Noah was saved from the deluge, in the Ark; St. Peter calls baptism" a like figure.” (1 Pet. 3. 21.) now what sprinkling had Noah in the Ark, after “God had shut him in?” If to make the type fit exactly, our venerable Catechist was led to suppose some sprinkling necessary from the fiery cloud, and some splashing under foot, whilst the children of Israel passed through the sea, and some dashing of the waves; whilst the waters were as a wall ;”—why should he not suppose some crevices in the roof of the Ark, through which the dripping water (during the forty days rain which ensued after Noah entered the mighty receptacle) might afford the necessary sprinkling. Not a drop of the deluge of water fell upon Noah in entering the Ark; for it is expressly said, that seven days elapsed before the waters of the flood came upon the Earth, after he went in.. But then St. Paul expressly says, the Israelites were Vol. VII. Churchm. Mag. Aug. 1804. P baptized
baptized in the cloud and in the sea. Here, our friend, Jonathan Drapier would say," marry how? tropically." Doubtless, they are denominated baplized in a figure,-a trope. I have shewn, I trust, that they did not receive actual baptism, by aspersion; it follows, therefore, that it could be but figurative. Treat but the Bible, as scholars treat Homer, and all is clear; but rigidly pin it down to such severity of terms as never was intended; and endless difficulties will arise :-For instance, the brazen serpent, and the paschal lamb, were types of Christ. Now is it necessary, that every thing which really happened to our Lord, should have been expressed in those types ? The serpent was lifted up;
and our LORD was lifted up. They who looked on the serpent were healed, and they who look unto Jesus with the eye of faith, receive health unto their souls. Is it necessary that the serpent should have been fastened to a cross, as the painters commonly represent it? That it should have had as many nails driven through it; as penetrated the hands and feet of our Lord ? Is it necessary that some one should have pierced it, whilst yet suspended, &c. in order to make out a common resemblance: nay, such a graphic resemblance was not intended, and may not be looked for. I forbear asking similar questions, relative to the paschal lamb.
I hope I have supported my opinions with a sufficient body of reasoning; and I hope my good Mr. Turner will think with me. We have one object in view-truth; and a just interpretation of Scripture; whether I can convince him or no, I must be allowed to feel a great regard and respect for him; and I shall be very sorry, if any thing I have urged shall offend him.
I am, Gentlemen,
Aug. 16, 1804.
A LONDON CURATE.
ON ON THE ELECTION IN CLERKENWELL.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN'S
S the election for a Minister to St. James's Church,
Clerkenwell, is a matter of public interest, it may not be unacceptable to you and to your readers, to be made acquainted with the merit of a contest, which has so unhappily divided a very populous parish, and which 80 essentially concerns the interests of the Established Church.
On the decease of the late Incumbent, which took place about a month ago, Mr. Lendon, a gentleman of acknowledged ability, as a preacher, of sound doctrine, and excellent moral character, who had most faithfully discharged the duties of curate for fourteen years, imme. diately offered himself as a candidate"; and his pretensions were most warmly and actively maintained by the Church Interest of the parish, and by the most respectable and independent part of the parishioners. The Methodist Sectaries, (who are remarkably numerous in Clerkenwell; and who never fail to take a leading concern in all matters relating to the parish) lost no time, in recommending a candidate of their own sort, to the parishioners; and forth with commenced a personal canvas in his favour. Of this Divine, whose name is Foster; and who comes under the description of those called Evangelical Preachers, it may be necessary to explain some particulars; not only as affecting his pretensions, in comparison with Mr. Lendon's; but, in order to shew the circumstances under which he was brought forward in the character of a candidate ; which particulars will be found to deserve the notice of all, who like yon, are alive to whatever regards the concerns of our Church Establishment. At a former election for Minister in St. James's, Clerkenwell, in the year 1790, Mr. Foster offered himself for the vacant living; he was opposed, as in the present instance, by the curate, Mr. Davis, the late incumbent; and after a yery sharp and severe contest, though by no means so Po