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the postscript to his Letter, and the falsity of the Sermon writer's opinions very justly exposed. I am told there is a piece very lately published called " THE REMONSTRANCE," but I have not seen it, and therefore can say nothing about it. This controversy, it seems, has excited a great sensation in Bath; and there cannot be a doubt but the first beginner of the strife, the preacher and publisher of the Fast-Sermon, will have his opihions fully and deservedly controverted by his able adversarý.. ii. • It is beyond a doubt highly indecorous at any time for à clergyman of the establishment to maintain any opi. nion, either from the pulpit or the press, in any wise repugnant 'to the doctrine of the Church of which he is a Minister; but if one time can be selected as more particularly iinproper than another, it is certainly the present moment, when this nation is threatened with invasion by á most inveterate and impious foe, who has declared that he will totally eradicate our name from the register of nations; and there is no doubt, if his power was commensurate to his will, he would effectually perform his threats. Thanks be to a good and gracious God, we have hitherto been defended by his Almighty favour and protection, and we trust that we shall yet be defended by the same Providence from all our enenjies. At this moment, however, to preach the doctrine of non-resistance to the violence of the unjust aggressor is peculiarly unwise, and singularly dangerous, and therefore merits, as it has deservedly obtained, the severest chastisement. The doctrine of our xxxviith, article is diametrically op. posite to that of the sermon writer; and he has, or ought to have, more than once (at the taking of DEACON's and Priest's orders at least) subscribed these articles " in their plain, literal, and grammatical sense." How, therefore, his present conduct can be reconciled to the sug. gestions of conscience, or how he can read with comfort or sincerity, the prayer appointed to be read during the continuance of the war, is more than I am able to conceive': but of this I am most positively certain, that it is a kind of prevarication and sophistry which ill suit the complexion of a candid and honest mind. ..

The sermon-writer informs us that he expected his doctrine would meet with opposition--and well he might expect it-and that it should excite discussion, is what

might naturally be looked for;" but he did not expect this opposition to arise “ from one of his own order.Extraordinary indeed! Pray whose duty is it to defend the doctrine of the established Church against all or any of its adversaries, but those who are Ministers of that Church? And what an eternal stigma would it be on the whole body of the established clergy, if they were all silently to suffer such dangerous and erroneous opinions to go for any length of time unanswered? My humble opi. nion is, that we all owe a debt of gratitude to the individual who has stepped forward to answer this unsound doctrine, of an unsound member of our body; and I for one must beg to return him my warmest thanks. Í

No doubt the sentiments of the sermón-writer are peculiarly calculated “ to weaken our energy in the common cause of the country at this awful moment," as your excellent correspondentIOTA well observes; and before any such opinions, likely to produce so lamentable an effect, had been committed to the press, they ought to have been considered very deliberately; but it seems they have most deliberately been considered, and are gloried in by their author.

!.; The Sermon in question is dedicated " to the HONOURABLE C. J. Fox;" this is very suitable to the contents of it; let not the public be at all surprized if the next publication of this author should be dedicated to the PATRIOTIC Sir F. Burdett, Bart. in

It is not my design to enter at present into an analysis of the Sermon, or Mr. Falconer's reply to it; you have favoured us with an account of the second volume of sermons lately published by this gentleman in your last month's magazine, p. 213, and doubtless you will review the two pamphlets which are the subject of this letter, so soon as they shall come to your hands. I therefore, for the present, take my leave; with my best wishes for the success of your Magazine; and remain, Itogii.


Your very humble Servant,


October 8, 1804.





SIR, THOUGH my first inquiry concerning the intermediate

1 state produced in some of your correspondents rather more acerbity than I could have wished, for which I was extremely concerned, yet I do not foresee the present will have that effect.

I am clearly of the same opinion as your correspondent V.0.0. Vol. V. p. 420; and the learned HAMMOND, respecting the interpretation of i Cor. ii. 10, and I think your correspondent's reason for his opinion is sound and learned. The passages which he has quoted prove strongly that "the ANGELS, though invisible to us, are not indifferent to what passes on earth!and I think further, that the following texts, Matt. xviii. 10. Heb. i. 14. Ps. xxxiv.7. and xci. 9, 10, 11, 12, cum multis aliis, prove that they are actively employed in the affairs and concernments of mankind. The doctrine of GUARDIAN ANGELS has long, indeed in every age of the Church, been countenanced by the most learned and pious men of the establishment; and is still maintained by several living authors of great celebrity. The names of these might easily be produced, but I have a particular reason for not doing this at present, as I wish to hear what are the sentiments of some of your learned and truly valuable correspondents on this subject, without at present referring to any authorities for the opinion which I entertain.* I am inclined to think that the investigation of this subject, if it be conducted with urbanity, and in the spirit of liberal and candid criticism, which I hope will be the case, will afford a large fund both of moral instruction, and rational entertainment, to your numerous readers. The subject, I own, hath lately employed a good deal of my thoughts and time, and I have reduced them into some little order in a MS, which I have composed on the question now before us: if therefore any of your numerous correspondents think proper to investigate this subject, I shall be

* I wish at present to have the real Scripture-doctrine on this question; human authorities will come afterwards in their proper place.

very happy to contribute my mite occasionally to the elucidation of it; and it is within the chapter of possibilities that the result of the whole may at some future time be Laid before the Public.

I am,

. : With particular good wishes for the

success of your undertaking,
Your obedient and humble Servant,

QUÆSTOR. October 8, 1804



MAGAZINE. • Sir, VOUR excellent and worthy Correspondent the Lon

I DON CURATE, having referred to Stavely's History of Churches, in his observations on Fonts and Baptisteries, and also mentioned its not being in Sion College Library, and of difficult access in general, I will with your leave, transcribe what is said in that author, as introductory to some other references. At p. 216, after referring to his promise of something more touching the Font, he proceeds thus," and in the first place, we must know that in the primitive times the rites of Baptism were performed in Rivers and Fountains as some will have it, and that either in imitation of St. John's baptizing Christ in the river Jordan, or rather for the reason given by the venerable Beds, relating how some numbers were baptized here in this island in the river Swale, supposed to be that which runs through a part of Yorkshire, in the North . ' Riding, because they were unprovided as well of Fonts, as of Churches in those times*. So that now in this rite we still retain the name: for hence it is, we call our Baptisteries Fonts, which, when religion found peace and tranquillity, were built and consecrated for the more reverence and respect to the Sacrament. And when the first use of Fonts began,they were set up in private houses, and then in times of persecution, the Christians were driven into woods and solitary places to administer that Sacra-.

* Bedæ Eccles. Hist. C. 2. Chap. 14.


ment. In safe and peaceable terms again, they drew Bearer, and placed their Fonts a little distance from the church or oratory. Afterwards they were placed in the church porch*, and lastly in the Church itself, as they now stand, but near the entrance, because it is the Sacrament of initiation, or admittance into the church. And have ever since retained the name of font or fountaint, from the primitive use of baptizing in rivers and fountains. And anciently there was but one font in a city, and that in or near the, principal church there, which use is still continued at Pisa, Florence, and Bononia, Parna, and other cities in Italy, as Step. Durantus tells us; and as a Jate traveller relatest, that at Florence he saw the public Baptistery at the ronnd church of St. John there, where all the children of the town are baptized. These fonts were also anciently adorned with pictures, or images of Saints and holy men, to the end, that such as were baptized, might afterwards, have before their eyes, the representation of those persons eminent for virtue and holiness, whose actions they were to imitate: as our learned Camden from the epistle of Pontius Paulinus to Severus, hath observed; and such a font, or Sacrarium regenera, tionis, of a greenish stone, artificially engraven with little images, he tells us he saw at Bridkirk in Cumberland, as the like I suppose may be seen at this day in the church of Newark upon Trent, and in divers other churches.ll" After mentioning the persons to be baptized, and the time of doing it (in 9 lines), he adds, “ and these Fonts were generally made of stone, alabaster, or marble, and sometimes of brass; and for the making the font of stone, the Roman ritualists, and particularly Durandus gives the reason and mystery, Debet ergo fons esse Lapideus, &c. because as water issued out of the rock, as a type of baptism; so Christ who is the fountain of living water, is also a rock, and the chief corner stone." He then mentions a font of solid brass in the church of St. Alban's, wherein the kings children of Scotland were baptized, and which Sir Richard Lea, Knight, Master of the Pioneers, brought as a spoil out of the Scottish wars, and gave to the said church, with this lafty inscription on the same.

* Greg. Toronens. lib. 6, cap. 2.' + Onuph de voc. Eccl. fol. 70. f Ibid Lassels Voyag. Ital. fol. 194. $ Camh. Brit.fol. 763. Paulin. Epist. 12. Il Stavely Hist. Churches in England, p. 216.218, art. Fonts,


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