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be accompanied with unleavened bread, such as was required to be added to eucharistic sacrifices.*_ The peace offerings also, which it was customary to offer at the solemn festivals, as well as the festivals themselves, were designed to commemorate the praises of God. The Jews tell us, that bread was not to be added to the peace offerings at those festivals; as it was on all other occasions,

Among the eucharistic oblations may also be placed the sacrifices of the firstlings and the tithes, After the preservation of the first born in Israel, both man and beast, from the destruction which had fallen upon the Egyptians, God declared, that in memory of so great a benefit, every first born male should thenceforward be devoted to him. All male firstlings of beasts fit for the altar, he commanded to be sacrificed :9 and all male children, the first born of their mothers, were to be redeemed by five shekels of money paid to the priests.|| This law is considered by the Jews as having no reference to the tribe of Levi, because all the males of that tribe were constantly devoted to the service of the sanctuary. The firstling of an ass was to be redeemed by the substitution of a lamb, or, that no one might derive any benefit from the sacrilege, his neck was to be broken. This law is said not to have extended to aninials of other species, as horses or camels ; of which the Israelites are supposed not to have had any during their servitude in Egypt. This, at least, was the opinion of Abarbinel :** ' Israel while in bondage in

Egypt had no unclean animals, except asses: and therefore this was the only species, the firstlings of ' which were required to be redeemed.' Aben Ezra was of the same opinion: that no firstlings were required by the law to be redeemed, except of those species which God had consecrated to himself by preserving them from the pestilence of Egypt; that none were preserved from that pestilence, but those which belonged to the Hebrews; and that they then possessed no unclean animals of any other species than asses : wherefore to asses alone the command to “ redeemn the firstling of unclean beasts,”* is thought by the Jews to be exclusively applicable.

* Levit. vii, 12. + Deut. xvi, 2. 10, 11, 12, & Exod. xiii. 15. Num, xviii, 17.

Exod. xiji. 13.

Num. iii, 13. || Num. iii. 47. ** In loc.

The flesh of every firstling brought to the altar was wholly allotted to the priests; to whom God says: “The firstling of a cow, or the firstling of a

sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not re" deem; they are haly: thou shalt sprinkle their “ blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat for

an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto

the Lord. And the flesh of them shall be thine, !' as the wave breast, and as the right shoulder are

thine.f.” Hence it appears, that the command given in another place respecting the firstlings of the herd and the flock, “ Thou shalt eat them before the “ Lord thy God,"I is addressed, not to the proprietar of a herd or flock, but to the priest. But if any firstling happened to have a blemish, it was not to be brought to the altar as a sacrifice, but to be given to the priests ; and it was allowed to be eaten any where, not only by the priests themselves, but also by any other persons.Ş

VII. To the same order of sacrifices must also be

Num. xviii, 15.

Num. xviii. 17, 18. § Deut. xv. 21, 22,

* Deut. xv, 20


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referred those victims which were selected as the tithe of lambs, kids, and calves.* The tenth of the herd and of the flock was every year to be devoted to the Lord, as a kind of thank offering for all the advantages received from cattle. The mode of tithing practised among the Hebrews is thus described by Maimonides :t 'If any one has simply taken one out of ten, or ten out of a hundred lambs, this is by no means rendering the tithe. How then does he proceed ? He shuts all his lambs, kids, or 'calves into one fold, with a gate so narrow that two cannot pass through it at once. Then he places the dams before the gate, that on hearing their bleating or lowing the young ones may come out to them. This is referred to in the clause, “ Whatsoever passeth under the rod ;” which intends that the young ones should go forth of their own accord, and not be drawn out by force. As they pass out, he counts them successively with a rod, thus : one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, and 'the tenth that passes, whether perfect or blemished,

whether male or female, he marks with a red mark, ' and says, Let this be consecrated for the tithe.' The tenth that went forth, therefore, if it was fit for sacrifice, was to be solemnly offered to the Lord; if it happened to have any blemish, it might lawfully be eaten any where, but was not to be redeemed with money, nor to be exchanged for any other animal. But whatever was its condition, the whole of the flesh belonged to the proprietor of the flock or herd, and no part of it to the priests. Such, at least, is the opinion given by Maimonides :f “The priests have 'no share in it; it belongs wholly to the offerers,


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+ In Bechoroth, c. 7. $ In Bechoroth, c. 6.

* Levit. xxvii. 32.

' like the paschal lamb. But if it has any blemish, whether that blemish happened before or after its consecration as the tithe, it may lawfully be eaten any where.' Bartenora says:t 'It does not appear from the whole law, that any part of an « animal consecrated as the tithe was given to the

priests.' But these things belong to another place. We must now proceed to those sacrifices, which, because they were offered to expiate sins and obtain pardon, are commonly called expiatory or piar cular.

* Ad Zebach. c. 5.


CHAPTER XII. The Piacular Sacrifices called Sin Offerings. THE Jews had two kinds of piacular sacrifices, prescribed in the law, and distinguished by appellations which we render sin offering* and trespass offering :t-terms which, though not adequately expressing the force of the original words, we are obliged to retain for want of better. Of sin offerings, the Jews say there were two kinds, of which one was fixed the same for the rich and the poor, and the other was greater or less according to the various circumstances of the offerers. The former they call the definite sin offering; and the latter, the ascending and descending sin offering.

II. The definite sin offering is described by them as designed to expiate such sins committed through ignorance or imprudence against negative precepts, as when committed with knowledge were to be pu. nished with death by the hand of God :-so that every sin which this kind of sacrifice is considered as appointed to expiate must have had these four characters. First, that it was against a negative precept; secondly, that it was committed without knowledge ; thirdly, that it consisted in actions, and not merely in words, or thoughts ; lastly, that it was such as if done with knowledge was to be punished with death. And that the first three of these characters were united in sins for which victims of this kind were to atone, they conclude from the express words of the law: “If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any

of the commandments of the Lord, concerning

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