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' the entrails, and waves them all by the hands of the * Nazarite. For the priest, as we have already said, waves them all by putting his hands under the hands of the offerers.'

X. The burnt offerings taken from quadrupeds were to be cut up so as for the head, legs, shoulders, and all the other large members, of which we shall soon speak more particularly, to be severed from each other. The legs and entrails were to be washed in water.* Of this rite Maimonides says:t ' And 'they wash in water, because it is said ; “ His in'wards and his legs shall he wash in water:” in water, ' not in wine pure or mixed, nor in other liquors; 'but every kind of water is allowed. But how much 'do they wash these parts? In the room allotted for 'that purpose, they wash the fat of the breast as ' much as is necessary; but the entrails, three times at the least. And these they wash on marble tables placed between the pillars.' To preserve the court, however, from being polluted with filth; they were always first washed in the room. "The entrails,

because they so abound in filth, are first washed privately in the washing room.' This operation was repeated on the marble tables, from a belief that the cold of the marble would prevent the putrefaction of the entrails.Ş Philo, in his usual manner, supposes the prescribed washing of the feet and entrails of victims to have conveyed important instructions :| •Nor is it without mystery, that we are com* manded to wash the feet and entrails. The washing of the entrails symbolically inculcates the necessity of being freed from unruly appetites, and purified

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of In Maase Korban. c. 6. Tosaphoth ad Middoth, c. 3. $ Bartinorą ad Middoth, c. 3. || De Animal. ad Sacrif,

# Levit. i. 9.


' from the stains contracted by drunkenness and glut

tony, vices exceedingly pernicious to human life. 'The washing of the feet signifies that henceforth we * ought to walk, not on the ground, but through the skies.'

XI. As soon as any victim was cut up, whatever was to be burnt on the altar used to be brought to its sloping ascent, and there to be sprinkled with salt. This was not the case with any part of the birds that were sacrificed as sin offerings; but of those birds which were designed for burnt offerings, the whole, as we have already stated, except the crop and entrails, was to be consumed upon the altar ; and so, it is evident, was the whole of all other victims that were immolated as burnt offerings. For the custom, said to be practised by the Jews, of taking out and casting away among the ashes, a certain muscle corresponding to that which shrank in Jacob's thigh when he wrestled with the angel, was not authorized by any precept of the law. In all other sacrifices, the paschal victims, firstlings, and tithes, the sin offerings, trespass offerings, and peace offerings, nothing was to be burnt upon the altar beside the select parts; which consisted, as we have already said, of the fat, the two kidneys, and the caul of the liver, with a small piece of the liver itself. Grotius, adopting the opinion of the rabbies, represents the mystical sense of this ceremony to be, that the honour of . God requires the mortification of the sensual appe'tites, the instruments of which are the fat, kidneys,

and liver.'* It must also be observed, that the kind of fat which was to be burned on the altar, or what is commonly called the tallow, was among the un

* Abarb. ad Levit. iii. 5. Baal Hatturim, ibid. Grotius ibid.


clean parts which the Jews were forbidden to eat, but they were allowed to eat all the rest of the fat. The two kinds of fat are distinguished by Rabbi Bechai,* one as being 'separate from the flesh, ' and not covered by it as by a rind;' the other as

not separate from the flesh, but intermingled with ' it.'t. A little after he says : 'The separate fat is

cold and moist, and has something thick and gross, ' which is ill digested in the stomach: but the fat

which is united with the flesh, is warm and moist.' The latter every one was at liberty to eat; but any person

who should eat the former was to be cut off

the people. I XII. The burnt offerings of the whole congregation, when they were properly cut up, and the accompanying drink offerings and meat offerings, used to be carried to the sloping ascent of the altar, by a certain number of priests :—the dissected members. of bullocks with their meat offerings and drink offerings, by twenty-four; of rams, by eleven; of lambs and kids, by eight.ŷ But the lambs for the daily sacrifice were carried to the altar, on different occasions, by nine, ten, or eleven, and sometimes by twelve priests. || When only nine were called to this duty, and that was always the number except on festivals, the first carried the head, the hinder right foot, and the fat; the second, the two fore feet; the third, the back bone, the caul of the liver, and both kidneys; the fourth, the neck and breast; the fifth, the two loins; the sixth, the entrails placed on a dish, with the legs laid upon them; the seventh, the meat

from among

+ The former kind of fat he calls abn and the latter jaw Levit, vii. 23. 25, & Misna in Joma, c. 2. Maimon. in Maase Korb, c.

M Ibid, in Joma.

* Ad Levit, iji.

offering appointed to accompany the burnt offering; the eighth, the high priest's meat offering; and the ninth, the wine for the appointed drink offering. * These duties, as well as others in other cases, were always assigned to the priests by lot.†. But these things are to be understood only of the burnt offerings of the whole congregation. The burnt offerings of individuals required no certain number of priests, nor were the services relating to them assigned by lot. For it was not thought necessary to observe the same order in private sacrifices as in public ones.

XIII. The dissected members of the holocausts, being sprinkled with salt on the sloping ascent of the altar, or, as was customary at the feast of new moon, upon the altar itself, were then laid upon what the Jews call the great pile, without being placed in any particular order ; but they were afterwards disposed in such a manner that, as far as possible, each part appeared on the altar, in the same situation relative to the rest as it occupied in the animal when alive.ll That this was to be done, is concluded by the Jews from the following command: “And the priests, Aaron's sons, shall lay the "parts, the head, and the fat, in order upon the « wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar.” The term great pile implies that other piles, or rows, or layers of wood, were also placed upon the altar : but respecting the number of them, what is said in the Mishna** concerning the day of atonement shows that the ancient rabbies were not agreed : 'Rabbi 'Meir says; on every other day there were four says; On

* Misna in Tamid, c. 4. + Misna in Joma, c. 2. I Maimon. in Maase Korban. c. 6. Maimon. in Temidin Umosaph. c. 6. || Idem in Maase Korban. c. 6. Levit. i. 8.

** In Joma, c. 4.

every other

layers of wood, and on this day five. Rabbi Jose says ; On every other day there were three, and on this day four. Rabbi Jehuda

day there were two, and on this day three.' Maimonides* follows Rabbi Jose: 'Every day they make on 'the altar three piles of fire. The first is the great 'pile, upon which they lay the daily sacrifice, and also the other sacrifices. The second, which is 'made near the first, is the little pile; from which 'they take, in a pan, the fire for burning the daily ' incense. The third is only designed to fulfil the

command for the preservation of the fire: for it is said; The fire shall ever be burning.” Levit. vi. '13. To these three piles he states, that on the day of atonement, for the ornament and honour of the 'altar,' they added a fourth.† But he rejects the fifth with which Rabbi Meir supposed the remains of the evening sacrifice used to be consumed on the following morning; and is of opinion, that those remains were laid early in the morning on the first pile.I Maimonidesg also states it to have been the custom, that to the fire which had first descended from heaven, and thenceforward been preserved upon the altar, other fire was daily added : ‘Although fire descended from heaven, yet it was commanded to add some fire of our own; for it is said, “ And 'the sons of Aaron the priest, shall

upon the altar.” Levit. i. 7, But I am rather inclined to think the true meaning of this precept to be, that it was unlawful for any one but a priest to lay fire afresh upon the altar, whenever it had been removed from it, as the scripture shows was the case

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• In Temidin Umosaph. c. 2. + In Joma Hachip. C. 2.

* In Temidin Umosaph. c. 2.

put fire

§ Ibid.

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